Jefferson County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of Alabama, located in the central portion of the state. As of the 2010 census, its population was 658,466, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. Its rapid growth as an industrial city in the 20th century, based on heavy manufacturing in steel and iron, established its dominance. Jefferson County is the central county of AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2011, Jefferson County declared bankruptcy; the financial problems were related to costs of a huge sewer project. Corruption was found among six county commissioners; this was the largest Chapter 9 bankruptcy in the United States, until it was surpassed by that of Detroit, Michigan in 2013. Jefferson County emerged from bankruptcy in December 2013, following the approval of a bankruptcy plan by the United States bankruptcy court for the Northern District of Alabama, writing off more than $1.4 billion of the debt. Jefferson County was established on December 1819 by the Alabama Legislature.
It was named in honor of former President Thomas Jefferson. The county is located in the north-central portion of the state, on the southernmost edge of the Appalachian Mountains, it is in the center of the iron and limestone mining belt of the Southern United States. Jefferson County has a land area of about 1,119 square miles. Early county seats were established first at Carrollsville Elyton. Founded around 1871, Birmingham was named for the industrial English city of the same name in Warwickshire; that city had long been a center of steel production in Great Britain. Birmingham was formed by the merger including Elyton, it has continued to grow by annexing neighboring villages, including North Birmingham. As Birmingham industrialized, its growth accelerated after 1890, it attracted numerous rural migrants, both white, for its new jobs. It attracted European immigrants. Despite the city's rapid growth, for decades it was underrepresented in the legislature. Legislators from rural counties kept control of the legislature and, to avoid losing power, for decades refused to reapportion the seats or redistrict congressional districts.
Birmingham could not get its urban needs addressed by the legislature. Nearby Bessemer, located 16 miles by car to the southwest grew based on industrialization, it attracted many workers. By the early decades of the 20th century, it had a majority-black population, but whites dominated politically and economically. Racial tensions increased in the cities and state in the late 19th century as whites worked to maintain white supremacy; the white-dominated legislature passed a new constitution in 1901 that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, excluding them from the political system. While they were nominally still eligible in the mid-20th century for jury duty, they were overwhelmingly excluded by white administrators from juries into the 1950s. Economic competition among the new workers in the city raised tensions, it was a rough environment of mill and mine workers in Birmingham and Bessemer, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the 20th century with many police being members into the 1950s and 1960s.
In a study of lynchings in the South from 1877 to 1950, Jefferson County is documented as having the highest number of lynchings of any county in Alabama. White mobs committed 29 lynchings in the county, most around the turn of the century at a time of widespread political suppression of blacks in the state. After 1950, racial violence of whites against blacks continued. In the 1950s KKK chapters bombed black-owned houses in Birmingham to discourage residents moving into new middle-class areas. In that period, the city was referred to as "Bombingham."In 1963 African Americans led a movement in the city seeking civil rights, including integration of public facilities. The Birmingham campaign was known for the violence the city police used against non-violent protesters. In the late summer and business officials agreed in 1963 to integrate public facilities and hire more African Americans; this followed the civil rights campaign, based at the 16th Street Baptist Church, an economic boycott of white stores that refused to hire blacks.
Whites struck again: on a Sunday in September 1963, KKK members bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church, killing four young black girls and injuring many persons. The African-American community rebuilt the damaged church, they entered politics in the city and state after the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. In the 1990s, the county authorized and financed a massive overhaul of the county-owned sewer system, beginning in 1996. Sewerage and water rates had increased more than 300% in the 15 years before 2011, causing severe problems for the poor in Birmingham and the county. Costs for the project increased due to problems in the financial area. In addition, county officials, encouraged by bribes by financial services companies, made a series of risky bond-swap agreements. Two controversial undertakings by county officials in the 2000s resulted in the county having debt of $4 billion; the county declared bankruptcy in 2011. It was the largest municipal bankruptcy in United States history at that time.
Both the sewer project and its financing were scrutinized by federal prosecutors. By 2011, "six of Jefferson County's former commissioners had been found guilty of corruption for accepting the bribes, along with 15 other officials."The controversial interest rate swaps, initiated in 2002 and 2003 by former Commission President Larry Langford (removed in 2011 as the mayor of Birmingham after his conviction
Víctor Manuel Caratini is a Puerto Rican professional baseball catcher for the Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball. Listed at 6 feet 1 inch and 215 pounds, he is a switch hitter. Caratini was drafted by the Atlanta Braves in the second round of the 2013 Major League Baseball draft out of Miami Dade College, he made his professional debut that season with the Danville Braves. After playing third base his first season, Caratini played as a catcher in 2014, he started the season with the Rome Braves. On July 31, he was traded to the Chicago Cubs for James Russell; the Cubs sent him to the Kane County Cougars. Caratini spent the 2015 season with the Myrtle Beach Pelicans where he batted.257, with 4 home runs and 53 RBI's. He spent the 2016 season with the Tennessee Smokies, where 47 RBI's. After the 2016 season, Caratini played for the Mesa Solar Sox of the Arizona Fall League and was added to the Cubs 40-man roster. Caratini began the 2017 season with the Iowa Cubs of the Class AAA Pacific Coast League.
The Cubs promoted Caratini to the major leagues on June 28, 2017. He appeared in 31 games with the 2017 Cubs, batting.254 with two RBIs. In 2018, Caratini played in 76 MLB games, batting.232 with 21 RBIs. He made two pitching appearances during the season, both in late July, pitching a total of two innings while allowing two runs for a 9.00 ERA. He played in the 2018 National League Wild Card Game, grounding out as a pinch hitter, as the Cubs fell to the Colorado Rockies, 2–1 in 13 innings. Caratini began the 2019 season as one of the Cubs' two catchers, along with Willson Contreras. Caratini made another pitching appearance on June 22, pitching a scoreless ninth inning in a Cubs loss to the New York Mets. List of Major League Baseball players from Puerto Rico Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Victor Caratini on Twitter Victor Caratini on Instagram
Dan Wilde is an English singer-songwriter and musician from Blackpool, now living in Cambridge. He has released two solo albums so far, the most recent being With Fire in Mind, his third solo album, "Rhythm on the City Wall" is scheduled for release in April 2016. While growing up, Wilde played in a number of bands. After taking a course in contemporary music in London, he took a degree in Jazz at the Leeds College of Music. After graduating, he wrote songs for his first solo album, where he worked with Ian Bailey and producer Gary Hall. For his second album, Wilde worked with Dave Gerard, his third album, "Rhythm on the City Wall", is released on 1 April 2016. Wilde has supported Karine Polwart, Cara Dillon, Martin Taylor, Mark Geary, Karima Francis and Ezio and has played at Cambridge Folk Festival, Beverley Folk Festival and Moonbeams Festival. Wilde performed at the Moonbeams Festival in 2011. In 2011, he spent a month on tour in the east coast of the US. In June and July 2013, he was on tour in Germany and toured again in Germany and Switzerland in 2014 and in Germany in January 2016.
Dan Wilde cites Bob Dylan, Neil Young, Tom Waits and Paul Simon among those who have influenced his music. This Is the Place With Fire in Mind Rhythm on the City Wall Official Website Dan Wilde on MusicBrainz