Madison is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, United States, along the Ohio River. As of the 2017 United States Census estimate its population was 11,977. Over 55,000 people live within 15 miles of downtown Madison. Madison is the largest city along the Ohio River between Cincinnati. Madison is one of the core cities of the Louisville-Elizabethtown-Madison metroplex, an area with a population of 1.5 million. In 2006, the majority of Madison's downtown area was designated the largest contiguous National Historic Landmark in the United States—133 blocks of the downtown area is known as the Madison Historic Landmark District. Madison is located at 38°45′N 85°24′W, on the north side of the Ohio River, it is bordered across the river, by the city of Milton, Kentucky. U. S. Route 421 passes through the center of town, crossing the Ohio into Kentucky on the Milton–Madison Bridge. US-421 leads north 26 miles to Versailles and south 23 miles to Campbellsburg, Kentucky. Indiana State Road 7 leads northwest 23 miles to Vernon.
Indiana State Road 56, the Ohio River Scenic Byway, is Madison's Main Street, leading east 20 miles to Vevay and west 23 miles to Scottsburg. Louisville is 48 miles southwest of Madison by highway, Cincinnati is 68 miles to the northeast. Madison is bordered to the west by Clifty Falls State Park, encompassing the canyon of Big Clifty Creek and its tributaries, with several waterfalls, as well as high ground rising 400 feet above the Ohio River valley. According to the 2010 census, Madison has a total area of 8.842 square miles, of which 8.57 square miles is land and 0.272 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Madison has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $35,092, the median income for a family was $46,241. Males had a median income of $32,800 versus $22,039 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,923.
About 10.2% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,967 people, 5,048 households, 2,951 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,396.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,787 housing units at an average density of 675.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 2.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 5,048 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.4% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.79.
The median age in the city was 42.2 years. 21% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.8% male and 55.2% female. Madison was laid out and platted in 1810, the first lots were sold in 1811 by John Paul, it had busy early years due to heavy river traffic and its position as an entry point into the Indiana Territory along the historic Old Michigan Road. Madison's location across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state, made it an important location on the Underground Railroad, which worked to free fugitive slaves. George DeBaptiste's barbershop in town became a nerve center of the local group. Indiana's first railroad, the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad, was built there from 1836 to 1847. Chartered in 1832 by the Indiana State Legislature as the Madison Indianapolis & Lafayette Railroad, construction begun September 16, 1836, the railroad was transferred to private ownership on January 31, 1843, as the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad. Successful for more than a decade, the railroad went into decline and was sold at foreclosure in 1862, renamed the Indianapolis & Madison Railroad, after a series of corporate transfers, became part of the massive Pennsylvania Railroad system in 1921.
In March 1924, the Madison Area Chamber of Commerce was founded to aid area business growth and development. Madison's days as a leading Indiana city were numbered, when river traffic declined and new railroads built between Louisville and Cincinnati tapped into Madison's trade network; as a result, Madison's growth did not continue at the same pace it had experienced before the Civil War. During the late nineteenth century, many new buildings were still being built, but in many cases older structures were modernized by adding cast-iron storefronts and ornamental sheet metal cornices; some earlier buildings survived without major alterations, the Madison National Landmark Historic District today contains examples of all the major architectural styles of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from Federal to Art Moderne. On January 11, 1992, Shanda Sharer was murdered in the city by four teenage girls. Downtown Madison was granted National Historic Landmark District status in early 2006.
On August 25, 2006, just months after the designation, a blaze damaged two
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Scott County, Indiana
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 24,181; the county seat is Scottsburg. Scott County was formed in 1820 from portions of Clark, Jefferson and Washington counties, it was named for Gen. Charles Scott, Governor of Kentucky from 1808 to 1812. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 192.75 square miles, of which 190.40 square miles is land and 2.35 square miles is water. Austin Scottsburg Lexington Blocher Nabb Vienna Leota Finley Jennings Johnson Lexington Vienna Jennings County Jefferson County Clark County Washington County Jackson County Interstate 65 U. S. Route 31 State Road 3 State Road 56 State Road 160 State Road 203 State Road 256 State Road 356 State Road 362 In recent years, average temperatures in Scottsburg have ranged from a low of 20 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −32 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 109 °F was recorded in July 1930. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 4.75 inches in May.
The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Scott County is part of Indiana's 9th congressional district and is represented in Congress by Republican Trey Hollingsworth; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 24,181 people, 9,397 households, 6,648 families residing in the county. The population density was 127.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 10,440 housing units at an average density of 54.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.1% were American, 15.6% were German, 11.9% were Irish, 10.0% were English. Of the 9,397 households, 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families, 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $46,775. Males had a median income of $37,505 versus $30,107 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,414.
About 12.2% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Louisville-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County, Indiana
The Northwest Ordinance enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States. It created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North America and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south; the upper Mississippi River formed the territory's western boundary. In the Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain yielded this region to the United States. However, the Confederation Congress faced numerous problems gaining control of the land. S. treasury. The ordinance superseded the Land Ordinance of 1784 and the Land Ordinance of 1785. Designed to serve as a blueprint for the development and settlement of the region, what the 1787 ordinance lacked was a strong central government to implement it; this need was addressed shortly thereafter, when the new federal government came into existence in 1789.
The 1st United States Congress reaffirmed the 1787 ordinance, with slight modifications, renewed it through the Northwest Ordinance of 1789. Considered one of the most important legislative acts of the Confederation Congress, it established the precedent by which the Federal government would be sovereign and expand westward with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation, it set legislative precedent with regard to American public domain lands. The U. S. Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 within the applicable Northwest Territory as constitutional in Strader v. Graham, but did not extend the Ordinance to cover the respective states once they were admitted to the Union; the prohibition of slavery in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the geographic divide between slave states and free states from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River.
It helped set the stage for political conflicts over slavery at the federal level in the 19th century until the Civil War. The territory was acquired by Great Britain from France following victory in the Seven Years' War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris. Great Britain took over the Ohio Country, as its eastern portion was known, but a few months closed it to new European settlement by the Royal Proclamation of 1763; the Crown tried to restrict settlement of the thirteen colonies between the Appalachians and the Atlantic, which raised colonial tensions among those who wanted to move west. With the colonials' victory in the American Revolutionary War and signing of the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the United States claimed the territory, as well as the areas south of the Ohio; the territories were subject to overlapping and conflicting claims of the states of Massachusetts, New York, Virginia dating from their colonial past. The British were active in some of the border area until after the Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812.
The region had long been desired for expansion by colonists. The states were encouraged to settle their claims by the US government's de facto opening of the area to settlement following the defeat of Great Britain. In 1784, Thomas Jefferson, a delegate from Virginia, proposed that the states should relinquish their particular claims to all the territory west of the Appalachians, the area should be divided into new states of the Union. Jefferson's proposal to create a federal domain through state cessions of western lands was derived from earlier proposals dating back to 1776 and debates about the Articles of Confederation. Jefferson proposed creating ten rectangular states from the territory, suggested names for the new states: Cherronesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Pelisipia, Washington and Saratoga; the Congress of the Confederation modified the proposal, passing it as the Land Ordinance of 1784. This ordinance established the example that would become the basis for the Northwest Ordinance three years later.
The 1784 ordinance was criticized by George Washington in 1785 and James Monroe in 1786. Monroe convinced Congress to reconsider the proposed state boundaries. Other politicians questioned the 1784 ordinance's plan for organizing governments in new states, worried that the new states' small sizes would undermine the original states' power in Congress. Other events such as the reluctance of states south of the Ohio River to cede their western claims resulted in a narrowed geographic focus; when passed in New York in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance showed the influence of Jefferson. It called for dividing the territory into gridded townships, so that once the lands were surveyed, they could be sold to individuals and speculative land companies; this would provide both a new source of federal government revenue and an orderly pattern for future settlement. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established the concept of fee simple ownership, by which ownership was in perpetuity with unlimited power to sell or give it away.
This was called the "first guarantee of freedom of contract in the United States". Passage of the ordinance, which ceded all unsettled lands to th
Trimble County, Kentucky
Trimble County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,809, its county seat is Bedford. The county is named for Robert Trimble. Trimble is no longer dry county. Trimble County is part of KY -- IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 156 square miles, of which 152 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Kentucky by land fourth-smallest by total area; the county's western border with Indiana is formed by the Ohio River. Jefferson County, Indiana Carroll County Henry County Oldham County Clark County, Indiana LG&E and KU's newest power plant, the Trimble County Generating Station, provides power to about 1 million Kentucky residents, and is located on 2,200 acres situated along the Ohio River, 50 miles northeast of Louisville. It has been recognized as one of the most environmentally friendly coal fired plants in the country. Controversy with the plant include.
The EPA has said the plant should consider shipping the waste to Gallatin County, Kentucky to be placed in an underground limestone mine that holds a permit to accept coal combustion waste. According to the census of 2010, there were 8,809 people and 3,512 households from 2009 to 2013; the population density was 55 per square mile. There were 3,437 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.2% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.68% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 3.5 % of the population were Latino. There were 3,137 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.60% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,192, the median income for a family was $41,925. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $21,656 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,354. About 10.00% of families and 13.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.70% of those under age 18 and 16.80% of those age 65 or over. Barebone Bedford Locust Milton Wise's Landing Wet County Louisville-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Trimble County, Kentucky Trimble County Government website Historical Images and Texts of Trimble County, Kentucky
Jennings County, Indiana
Jennings County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 28,525; the county seat is Vernon. Jennings County was formed in 1817, it was named for a nine-term congressman, Jonathan Jennings. Jennings was governor. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 378.34 square miles, of which 376.58 square miles is land and 1.76 square miles is water. It is a rural county, with majority of the county consisting of personal woodlands. There are only two incorporated towns in this county, the county seat, North Vernon. Both are quite underdeveloped by urban standards; the county is located in the center of an imaginary triangle consisting of Indianapolis, IN, Cincinnati, OH, Louisville, KY and requires only 11⁄4 hour drive time to any of these urban centers. It is home to the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center, located just outside North Vernon, at which various training exercises and scenarios are conducted for homeland security and other similar purposes.
North Vernon Vernon Butlerville Country Squire Lakes Hayden Scipio Decatur County Ripley County Jefferson County Scott County Jackson County Bartholomew County Sources: National Atlas, U. S. Census Bureau U. S. Route 50 State Road 3 State Road 7 State Road 250 Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge Muscatatuck County Park Selmier State Forest In recent years, average temperatures in Vernon have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.71 inches in February to 4.72 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts.
The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.
County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Jennings County is part of Indiana's 6th congressional district and is represented in Congress by Republican Luke Messer, it is part of Indiana Senate districts 43 and 45 and Indiana House of Representatives districts 66 and 69. Jennings County is, has been, a staunchly Republican county. Democratic presidential candidates have won Jennings County only thrice in the past 130 years; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 28,525 people, 10,680 households, 7,733 families residing in the county. The population density was 75.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,069 housing units at an average density of 32.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.8% white, 0.8% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 1.0% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.2% were German, 16.3% were Irish, 14.7% were American, 7.2% were English. Of the 10,680 households, 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.6% were non-families, 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 38.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $48,470. Males had a median income of $38,506 versus $27,633 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,636. About 8.9% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. Jennings County residents may obtain a library card from the Jennings County Public Library in North Vernon.
Jennings County is the setting of the novel The Friendly Persuasion adapted into the Oscar-nominated film Friendly Persuasion in 1956. Sarah T. Bolton, poet Ovid Butler, founder of Butler University Royce Campbell, jazz guitarist Cliff Daringer, Federal League baseball play
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh