A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Montague County, Texas
Montague County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas, established in 1857. As of the 2010 census, its population was 19,719; the county seat is Montague. The county was created in 1857 and organized the next year, it is named for a surveyor and soldier in the Mexican -- American War. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has since January 2013 represented Montague County in the Texas House of Representatives. He carried the county in the 2012 Republican runoff election. On July 9, 2001, Texas Governor Rick Perry issued a state of disaster for Montague County relating to substantial fires which had ravaged large portions of the county. In interviews, Perry called the fire "the most vicious" he'd seen. On September 26, 2009, an historical marker on the Chisholm Trail was unveiled at the site of the former community of Red River Station in Montague County; the 5.5-foot concrete marker is the last of twelve erected in Montague County as part of a joint project of the Texas Lakes Trail and the Montague County Historical Commission to outline the Chisholm Trail.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 938 square miles, of which 931 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. Jefferson County, Oklahoma Love County, Oklahoma Cooke County Wise County Jack County Clay County Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland As of the census of 2000, there were 19,117 people, 7,770 households, 5,485 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,862 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.95% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 0.74% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.64% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 5.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,770 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families.
27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 92.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,048, the median income for a family was $38,226. Males had a median income of $31,585 versus $19,589 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,115. About 10.00% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Montague County: Alvord ISD Bowie ISD Forestburg ISD Gold-Burg ISD Montague ISD Nocona ISD Prairie Valley ISD Saint Jo ISD Slidell ISD In addition, a branch of North Central Texas College operates in Bowie.
U. S. Highway 81 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 59 State Highway 101 State Highway 175 Bowie Nocona St. Jo Montague Nocona Hills Sunset Red River Station Prior to 1996, Montague County was Democratic in presidential elections; the only Republican Party candidates who managed to win the county from 1912 to 1992 were Herbert Hoover thanks to anti-Catholic sentiment towards Al Smith as well as Richard Nixon & Ronald Reagan in their 49-state landslides of 1972 & 1984, respectively. Since 1996, the county has swung hard to the supporting Republican Party similar to all white-majority rural counties in the Solid South, with its presidential candidates winning by increasing margins in each passing election; as a testament to how Republican the county has swung, Donald Trump defeated Hillary Clinton by a margin of over 75 percent in 2016, compared to an only 4.7 percent margin Bob Dole won the county by 20 years prior at the start of its Republican trend. National Register of Historic Places listings in Montague County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Montague County Buford T. Justice Montague County government's website Montague County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Montague County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Montague County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
The city of Lawton is the county seat of Comanche County, in the State of Oklahoma. Located in southwestern Oklahoma, about 87 mi southwest of Oklahoma City, it is the principal city of the Lawton, Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 census, Lawton's population was 96,867, making it the fifth-largest city in the state. Built on former reservation lands of Kiowa and Apache Indians, Lawton was founded on 6 August 1901, was named after Major General Henry Ware Lawton, a Civil War Medal of Honor recipient killed in action in the Philippine–American War. Lawton's landscape is typical of the Great Plains, with flat topography and rolling hills, while the area north of the city is marked by the Wichita Mountains; the city's proximity to Fort Sill Military Reservation gave Lawton economic and population stability throughout the 20th century. Although Lawton's economy is still dependent on Fort Sill, it has grown to encompass manufacturing, higher education, health care, retail.
The city's government is run by a council-manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. Interstate 44 and three major United States highways serve the city, while Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport connects Lawton by air. Recreation can be found at the city's many parks, lakes and festivals. Notable residents of the city include many musical and literary artists, as well as several professional athletes; the land, present-day Oklahoma was first settled by prehistoric American Indians including the Clovis 11500 BCE, Folsom 10600 BCE and Plainview 10000 BCE cultures. Historic indigenous peoples who inhabited the region included the Caddo peoples. In the 16th century, Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado visited in 1541, beginning European contact. Around the 1700s, two tribes from the north, the Comanches and Kiowas, migrated to the Oklahoma and Texas region. For most of the 18th century, the Oklahoma region was under nominal French control as Louisiana.
The limited interaction between the peoples was based on fur trading. In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase by Thomas Jefferson brought the area under United States control. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which removed American Indian tribes from the Southeast and relocated them to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River; the southern part of this territory was assigned to the Choctaw and Chickasaw. In 1867, the United States used the Medicine Lodge Treaty to allot the southwest portion of the Choctaw and Chickasaw’s lands to the Comanche and Apache tribes. Fort Sill was established in 1869 after the American Civil War by Major General Philip Sheridan, leading a campaign in the Indian Territory to stop raids into Texas by American Indian tribes. In 1874, the Red River War broke out in the region when the Comanche and Southern Cheyenne left their Indian Territory reservation. Attrition and skirmishes by the US Army forced the return of the tribes back to Indian Territory in June 1875.
In 1891, the United States Congress appointed a commission to meet with the tribal leaders and come to an agreement allowing white settlement. Years of controversy and legal maneuvering ensued before President William McKinley issued a proclamation on 4 July 1901, that gave the federal government control over 2,000,000 acres of surplus Indian land. Under other legislation, the United States through the Dawes Commission allotted communal lands as plots to individual households of tribal members, selling off what remained as "surplus"; these actions extinguished the tribal claims to communal lands, a condition needed for the admission of Oklahoma as a state in 1907. After these changes, the legislature of the new state began to organize counties. Three 320-acre sites in Kiowa and Comanche counties were selected for county seats, with Lawton designated as the Comanche County seat; the town was named for Major General Henry W. Lawton, a quartermaster at Fort Sill, who had taken part in the pursuit and capture of Geronimo.
The city was opened to settlement through an auction of town lots beginning on 6 August 1901, completed 60 days later. By 25 September 1901, the Rock Island Railroad expanded to Lawton and was soon joined by the Frisco Line; the first city elections were held 24 October 1901. The United States' entry into World War I accelerated growth at Fort Lawton; the availability of 5 million US gallons of water from Lake Lawtonka, just north of Fort Sill, was a catalyst for the War Department to establish a major cantonment named Camp Doniphan, active until 1922. Following World War II, Lawton enjoyed steady population growth, with the population increasing from 18,055 to 34,757 from 1940 to 1950. By the 1960s, it had reached 61,697. In the postwar period, Lawton underwent tremendous growth during the late 1940s and 1950s, leading city officials to seek additional water sources to supplement existing water from Lake Lawtonka. In the late 1950s, the city purchased large parcels of land along East Cache Creek in northern Comanche County for the construction of a man-made lake with a dam built in 1959 on the creek just north of U.
S. 277 west of Elgin. Lake Ellsworth, named for a former Lawton mayor, soft-drink bottler C. R. Ellsworth, was dedicated in the early 1960s, it offered additional water resources, but recreational opportunities and flood control along Cache Creek. In 1966, the Lawton City Council annexed several miles of land on the city's east, northeast and northwest borders, expanding east beyond the East Cache Creek area and west to 82nd Street. On 1 March 1964, the north section of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike was completed, connecting Lawton directly to Oklahoma City, the capital; the south section of the tur
National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Oklahoma
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Oklahoma. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Jefferson County, United States; the locations of National Register properties for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 7 properties listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Oklahoma National Register of Historic Places listings in Oklahoma
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was known as the Rock Island Line, or, in its final years, The Rock. At the end of 1970, it operated 7,183 miles of road on 10,669 miles of track; the song "Rock Island Line", a spiritual from the late 1920s first recorded in 1934, was inspired by the railway. Its predecessor, the Rock Island and La Salle Railroad Company, was incorporated in Illinois on February 27, 1847, an amended charter was approved on February 7, 1851, as the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad. Construction began October 1, 1851, in Chicago, the first train was operated on October 10, 1852, between Chicago and Joliet. Construction continued on through La Salle, Rock Island was reached on February 22, 1854, becoming the first railroad to connect Chicago with the Mississippi River. In Iowa, the C&RI's incorporators created the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company, to run from Davenport to Council Bluffs, on November 20, 1855, the first train to operate in Iowa steamed from Davenport to Muscatine.
The Mississippi river bridge between Rock Island and Davenport was completed on April 22, 1856. In 1857, Abraham Lincoln represented the Rock Island in an important lawsuit regarding bridges over navigable rivers; the suit had been brought by the owner of a steamboat, destroyed by fire after running into the Mississippi river bridge. Lincoln argued that not only was the steamboat at fault in striking the bridge but that bridges across navigable rivers were to the advantage of the country; the M&M was acquired by the C&RI on July 9, 1866, to form the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company. The railroad expanded through construction and acquisitions in the following decades; the Rock Island stretched across Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, South Dakota and Texas. The easternmost reach of the system was Chicago, the system reached Memphis, West, it reached Denver and Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Southernmost reaches were to Galveston and Eunice, while in a northerly direction the Rock Island got as far as Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Major lines included Minneapolis to Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa. The heaviest traffic was on the Chicago-to-Rock Rock Island-to-Muscatine lines. In common with most American railroad companies, the Rock Island once operated an extensive passenger service; the primary routes served were: Chicago-Los Angeles, Chicago-Denver, Memphis-Little Rock-Oklahoma City-Tucumcari, Minneapolis-Dallas. The Rock Island ran both limited and local service on those routes as well as locals on many other lines on its system. In 1937, the Rock Island introduced Diesel power to its passenger service, with the purchase of six lightweight Rocket streamliners. In competition with the Santa Fe Chiefs, the Rock Island jointly operated the Golden State Limited with the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1902–1968. On this route, the Rock Island's train was marketed as a "low altitude" crossing of the Continental Divide; the Rock Island did not concede to the Santa Fe's dominance in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market and re-equipped the train with new streamlined equipment in 1948.
At the same time, the "Limited" was dropped from the train's name and the train was thereafter known as the Golden State. The local run on this line was known as the Imperial; the 1948 modernization of the Golden State occurred with some controversy. In 1947, both the Rock Island and Southern Pacific jointly advertised the coming of a new entry in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market; the Golden Rocket was scheduled to match the Santa Fe's transit time end-to-end and was to have its own dedicated trainsets, one purchased by the Rock Island, the other by Southern Pacific. As the Rock Island's set of streamlined passenger cars was being finished, the Southern Pacific abruptly withdrew its purchase; the Rock Island's cars were delivered and would find their way into the Golden State's fleet soon after delivery. The Golden State was the last first-class train on the Rock Island, retaining its dining cars and sleeping cars until its last run on February 21, 1968; the Rock Island competed with the Chicago and Quincy railroad in the Chicago to Denver market.
While the Q fielded its Zephyrs on the route, the Rock Island ran the Rocky Mountain Rocket. The RMR split at Limon, Colorado with half the train diverting to Colorado Springs, an operation known as "The Limon Shuffle"; the Rock Island conceded nothing to its rival installing ABS signaling on the route west of Lincoln in an effort to maintain transit speed. The train was re-equipped with streamlined equipment in 1948; as the Rocky Mountain Rocket was downgraded due to non-rail competition, the route traveled by the train was shortened from the western terminal at Denver, first to Omaha to Council Bluffs and the train was renamed The Cornhusker. In 1970, the train was cut to a Chicago to Rock Island run, a run within the confines of the state of Illinois and renamed the Quad Cities Rocket. Other trains operated by the Rock Island as part of its Rocket fleet included the Corn Belt Rocket, the Des Moines-Omaha Limit
Oklahoma's 4th congressional district
Oklahoma's Fourth Congressional District is located in south-central Oklahoma and covers a total of 15 counties. Its principal cities include Midwest City, Moore, Duncan, Lawton/Ft. Sill, Ardmore; the district includes much of southern Oklahoma City. The district is represented by Republican Tom Cole; as with the rest of the state, the district gives GOP candidates wide margins - George W. Bush received 61 percent of the vote in 2000, 67% in 2004 and John McCain received 66% of the vote in 2008; the district borders Texas along the Red River to the south. To the north, the district includes a small square-shaped portion of south-central Oklahoma County and Cleveland, McClain, Garvin, Comanche, Cotton, Jefferson and Love counties; the district is 63 percent urban, 5 percent Latino, 3.5 percent foreign-born. In 2010, no Democrat or independent candidate filed to run in the district; the results printed here are from the Republican primary. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present