SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jefferson Davis

Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who served as the president of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives before the American Civil War, he served as the United States Secretary of War from 1853 to 1857 under President Franklin Pierce. Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children, he grew up in Wilkinson County and lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis's appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army, he fought as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the American Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, owned as many as 113 slaves. Although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union.

Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor, daughter of general and future President Zachary Taylor, in 1835, when he was 27 years old. They were both stricken with malaria soon thereafter, Sarah died after three months of marriage. Davis recovered and suffered from recurring bouts of the disease throughout his life. At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North, they had six children. Only two survived him, only one married and had children. Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy's weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis, his preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, resistance to public opinion all worked against him. Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln.

After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia. He was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came seeing him as a Southern patriot, he became a hero of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the post-Reconstruction South. Jefferson Finis Davis was born at the family homestead in Fairview, Kentucky, on June 3, 1808, he sometimes gave his year of birth as 1807. He dropped his middle name in life, although he sometimes used a middle initial. Davis was the youngest of ten children born to Samuel Emory Davis, he was named after then-incumbent President Thomas Jefferson. In the early 20th century, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site was established near the site of Davis's birth.

Coincidentally, Abraham Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, only eight months less than 100 miles to the northeast of Fairview. Davis's paternal grandparents were born in the region of Snowdonia in North Wales, immigrated separately to North America in the early 18th century, his maternal ancestors were English. After arriving in Philadelphia, Davis's paternal grandfather Evan settled in the colony of Georgia, developed chiefly along the coast, he married the widow Lydia Emory Williams, who had two sons from a previous marriage, their son Samuel Emory Davis was born in 1756. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, along with his two older half-brothers. In 1783, after the war, he married Jane Cook, she was born in 1759 to William Cook and his wife Sarah Simpson in what is now Christian County, Kentucky. In 1793, the Davis family relocated to Kentucky, establishing a community named "Davisburg" on the border of Christian and Todd counties. During Davis's childhood, his family moved twice: in 1811 to St. Mary Parish and less than a year to Wilkinson County, Mississippi.

Three of his older brothers served in the War of 1812. In 1813, Davis began his education at the Wilkinson Academy in the small town of Woodville, near the family cotton plantation, his brother Joseph encouraged Jefferson in his education. Two years Davis entered the Catholic school of Saint Thomas at St. Rose Priory, a school operated by the Dominican Order in Washington County, Kentucky. At the time, he was the only Protestant student at the school. Davis returned to Mississippi in 1818, he returned to Kentucky in 1821. His father Samuel died on July 1824, when Jefferson was 16 years old. Joseph arranged for Davis to get an appointment and attend the United States Military Academy starting in late 1824. While there, he was placed under house arrest for his role in the Eggnog Riot during Christmas 1826. Cadets smuggled whiskey into the academy to make eggnog, more than one-third of the cadets were involved in the incident. In June 1828, Davis graduated

1967 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1967 Atlantic hurricane season was a inactive season, however, it featured an exceptionally high number of depressions, a near record. It was the first Atlantic hurricane season to be included in the satellite era; the first depression originated on June 10, the final storm – Heidi – lost tropical characteristics on October 31. Hurricane Beulah – the strongest storm of the season – was the most damaging, causing 59 deaths and $235 million in damage along its 16-day path. Beulah soon after crossed southern Martinique into the Caribbean Sea. On the island, it dropped 18.7 in of rainfall in Les Anses-d'Arlet. Widespread evacuations occurred along the southern coast of the Dominican Republic due to fears of a repeat of Hurricane Inez from the previous year. After brushing the south coast of Hispaniola, the hurricane weakened and re-intensified, striking the Yucatán Peninsula and near the United States/Mexico border. There, it caused severe river flooding. Hurricanes Arlene and Chloe, as well as several tropical depressions, originated from tropical waves that left the coast of Africa.

Chloe lasted for 15 days dissipating over France after wrecking a ship offshore northern Spain, killing 14 people. Hurricane Doria co-existed with Beulah and Chloe, taking an unusual trajectory over the eastern United States. In late September, Tropical Storm Edith was a minimal storm that moved through the Lesser Antilles without serious impact. Hurricane Fern killed three people. Tropical Storm Ginger existed in the far eastern Atlantic in early October, Hurricane Heidi stalled over the northern Atlantic Ocean at the end of the month; the season began on June 1, the date when the National Hurricane Center activated radar stations across the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. The season ended on November 30, which ended the conventional delimitation of the time period when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. At the end of the season, NHC director Gordon Dunn was replaced by Robert Simpson. For the first time in 1967, the NHC tracked weaker, developing tropical disturbances, observing that 90% of systems do not develop.

Tropical cyclogenesis – the process in which a tropical cyclone develops – resulted from tropical waves, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, decaying frontal systems. There were 30 tropical waves that exited the west coast of Africa at Dakar, Senegal, of which 14 became tropical depressions. Another 20 tropical disturbances originated offshore the Mid-Atlantic states, 7 disturbances derived from cold-core lows; the first named storm – Arlene – did not form until August 28 and became a hurricane on September 2. At the time, only seven known seasons began although 1967 would the most active among these late starting seasons; the latency was caused by a stronger than normal ridge across the Atlantic Ocean, which suppressed convective activity across the basin and prevented the formation of strong low pressure areas. From June to October, the NHC tracked 29 tropical depressions, an area of disturbed weather that has a closed circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 39 mph, it was the first year.

Operationally, the agency followed and numbered 23 depressions, discovered in a post-season analysis that another six systems became depressions. Eight depressions attained gale-force winds and were named from a sequential list, six storms intensified to hurricane-strength – 74 mph. Following a series of weak tropical depressions emerging from the west coast of Africa, the ITCZ became more active at the end of August. A tropical wave exited the coast of Africa on August 24, by the next day, a Pan American flight observed a circulation with falling pressures. Based on the system's organization on satellite imagery, the NHC assessed that Tropical Depression Five developed late on August 28 about 740 mi west of Cabo Verde. Steered by a strong ridge to the northeast, the nascent system tracked northwestward. After two ships reported gale-force winds, the NHC began issuing advisories on Tropical Storm Arlene at 08:00 UTC on August 30; that day, the Hurricane Hunters observed winds of 70 mph, although the storm was well below hurricane intensity at that time.

Arlene failed to intensify much for several days while passing through the Mid-Atlantic upper-level trough, although the wind speeds increased. On September 2, Arlene turned to the north due to an approaching trough moving eastward from the Northeastern United States. Around that time, it passed about 500 mi east of Bermuda; the storm's convection wrapped around the center and organized further as Arlene progressed northward. Turning to the northeast, the storm attained hurricane status early on September 3; that day, the Hurricane Hunters recorded maximum sustained winds of 85 mph and a minimum barometric pressure of 982 mbar, which would be Arlene's peak intensity. On the next day, the cyclone weakened to a tropical storm due to stronger wind shear, Arlene slowed its forward motion due to a ridge to the north. Soon after, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, was absorbed by the trough late on September 4 to the southeast of Newfoundland. On September 4, a tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa, by 00:00 UTC the following day, the system organized into Tropical Depression Eight between Cabo Verde and Senegal.

Soon after, the depression moved through Cabo Verde, it continu

Henricosborniidae

Henricosborniidae is a family of extinct notoungulate mammals known from the Late Paleocene to Early Miocene of Argentina and Brazil. The name honors U. S. paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn. Henricosborniidae is a group of primitive notoungulates assigned to the suborder Notioprogonia together with Notostylopidae, not because these two families share any derived features, but because they do not belong to any other clade; the henricosborniids are only known from the late Paleocene and early Eocene, making them older and more primitive than the notostylopids. The henricosborniid dentition is the most generalized and primitive of all notoungulates, they are believed to be near the source of all notoungulates, they have low teeth crowns and the dental formula 3.1.4.33.1.4.3. George Gaylord Simpson noted that many of the mammals that Ameghino had, Simpson himself did, describe from the Río Chico Formation, on the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, are difficult to distinguish from each other, both on genus and family levels.

These mammalian groups, including the henricosborniids, are only known from one or a few isolated teeth found only at a single location. Each one of these teeth most represents a separate species but these species can not be properly described unless some comparable material is found. McKenna & Bell 1997 synonymized many of the species named by others. Among other things, McKenna & Bell included Postpithecus in Othneilmarshia. Simpsonotus, with two species found in the Mealla Formation in the Jujuy Province in northwestern Argentina, are the most complete henricosborniids found. Based on features in their auditory region, they might be the most primitive notoungulates discovered. On the other hand, if these primitive features are shared by the other members of the family, Vucetich & Fernández 1978 argued that the family should be recognized as a distinct suborder