The Tuscan order is in effect a simplified Doric order, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. While simple columns with round capitals had been part of the vernacular architecture of Italy and much of Europe since at least Etruscan architecture, the Romans did not consider this style to be a distinct architectural order. Instead the Tuscan order, presented as a standardized formal order, is an invention of Italian Renaissance writers motivated by nationalism. Sebastiano Serlio described five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generali di architettura sopra le cinque maniere de gli edifici. Though Fra Giocondo had attempted a first illustration of a Tuscan capital in his printed edition of Vitruvius, he showed the capital with an egg and dart enrichment that belonged to the Ionic; the "most rustic" Tuscan order of Serlio was carefully delineated by Andrea Palladio. In its simplicity, The Tuscan order is seen as similar to the Doric order, yet in its overall proportions, intercolumniation and simpler entablature, it follows the ratios of the Ionic.
This strong order was considered most appropriate in military architecture and in docks and warehouses when they were dignified by architectural treatment. Serlio found it "suitable to fortified places, such as city gates, castles, treasuries, or where artillery and ammunition are kept, prisons and other similar structures used in war." Not all modern writers accept the Tuscan order, it is sometimes called "Doric" by those aware of the distinction. From the perspective of these writers, the Tuscan order was an older primitive Italic architectural form, predating the Greek Doric and Ionic, associated by Serlio with the practice of rustication and the architectural practice of Tuscany. Giorgio Vasari made a valid argument for this claim by reference to il Cronaca's graduated rustication on the facade of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. Like all architectural theory of the Renaissance, precedents for a Tuscan order were sought for in Vitruvius, who does not include it among the three canonic orders, but peripherally, in his discussion of the Etruscan temple.
Roman practice ignored the Tuscan order, so did Leon Battista Alberti in De re aedificatoria. Following Serlio's interpretation of Vitruvius, in the Tuscan order the column had a simpler base—circular rather than squared as in the other orders, where Vitruvius was being followed—and with a simple torus and collar, the column was unfluted, while both capital and entablature were without adornments; the modular proportion of the column was 1:7 in Vitruvius, in Palladio's illustration for Daniele Barbaro's commentary on Vitruvius), in Vignola's Cinque ordini d'architettura, in Palladio's Quattro libri. Serlio alone gives a stockier proportion of 1:6. A plain astragal or taenia ringed the column beneath its plain cap. Palladio agreed in essence with Serlio: "The Tuscan, being rough, is used above ground except in one-storey buildings like villa barns or in huge structures like Amphitheatres and the like which, having many orders, can take this one in place of the Doric, under the Ionic." Unlike the other authors Palladio found Roman precedents, of which he named the arena of Verona and the Pula Arena, both of which, James Ackerman points out, are arcuated buildings that did not present columns and entablatures.
A striking feature is his rusticated frieze resting upon a plain entablatureExamples of the use of the order are the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome, by Baldassarre Peruzzi, 1532–1536, the pronaos portico to Santa Maria della Pace added by Pietro da Cortona. A rare church in the Tuscan order is St Paul's, Covent Garden by Inigo Jones. According to an repeated story, recorded by Horace Walpole, Lord Bedford gave Jones a low budget and asked him for a simple church "not much better than a barn", to which the architect replied "Then you shall have the handsomest barn in England". Christ Church, Spitalfields in London by Nicholas Hawksmoor, uses it outside, Corinthian within. In a typical usage, at the grand Palladian house of Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, Corinthian, the stable court of 1768 uses Tuscan. Another English house, West Wycombe Park, has a loggia facade in two storeys with Tuscan on the ground floor and Corinthian above; this recalls Palladio's Palazzo Chiericati. The Neue Wache is a Greek Revival guardhouse in Berlin, by Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
Though in most respects the Greek temple frontage is a careful exercise in revivalism, there are minimal plain bases to the thick fluted columns and, despite having metope reliefs and a large group of sculpture in the pediment, there are no triglyphs or guttae. Nonetheless, despite these "Tuscan" aspects, the overall impression is Greek and it is rightly always described as "Doric". Tuscan is used for doorways and other entrances where only a pair of columns are required, using another order might seem pretentious; because the Tuscan mode is worked up by a carpenter with a few planing tools, it became part of the vernacular Georgian style that lingered in places like New England and Ohio deep into the 19th century. In gardening, "carpenter's Doric", Tuscan, provides simple elegance to gate posts and fences in many traditional garden contexts. Composite order "Buffalo as an Architectural Museum": Tuscan
Tsinghua University is a major research university in Beijing, a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. Since its establishment in 1911, it has graduated numerous Chinese leaders in politics, business and culture. Reflecting its motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University is dedicated to academic excellence, advancing the well-being of Chinese society, global development. Tsinghua is perennially ranked as one of the top academic institutions in China and worldwide, was recognized as the 14th best university in the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings. Since 2015, Tsinghua has been ranked as the best engineering and computer science school in the world based on factors including total research output and performance. Tsinghua is a Class A institution in the Double First Class University Plan. Tsinghua University was established in Beijing, during a tumultuous period of national upheaval and conflicts with foreign powers which culminated in the Boxer Rebellion, an anti-imperialist uprising against foreign influence in China.
After the suppression of the revolt by a foreign alliance including the United States, the ruling Qing dynasty was required to pay indemnities to alliance members. US Secretary of State John Hay suggested that the US$30 million Boxer indemnity allotted the United States was excessive. After much negotiation with Qing ambassador Liang Cheng, US President Theodore Roosevelt obtained approval from the United States Congress in 1909 to reduce the indemnity payment by US$10.8 million, on the condition that the funds would be used as scholarships for Chinese students to study in the United States. Using this fund, the Tsinghua College was established in Beijing, on 29 April 1911 on the site of a former royal garden to serve as a preparatory school for students the government planned to send to the United States. Faculty members for sciences were recruited by the YMCA from the United States, its graduates transferred directly to American schools as juniors upon graduation; the motto of Tsinghua, Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, was derived from a 1914 speech by prominent scholar and faculty member Liang Qichao, in which he quoted the I Ching to describe a notion of the ideal gentleman.
In 1925, the school established its own four-year undergraduate program and started a research institute on Chinese studies. In 1928, Tsinghua changed its name to National Tsing Hua University. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, many Chinese universities were forced to evacuate their campuses to avoid the Japanese invasion. In 1937, Tsinghua University, along with neighboring Peking University and Nankai University, merged to form the Changsha Temporary University in Changsha, which became the National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming, Yunnan province. With the surrender of occupying Japanese forces at the end of World War II, Tsinghua University resumed operations in Beijing. After the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, China experienced a communist revolution leading to the creation of the People's Republic of China. Tsinghua University President Mei Yiqi, along with many professors, fled to Taiwan with the retreating Nationalist government, they established the National Tsing Hua Institute of Nuclear Technology in 1955, which became the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, an institution independent and distinct from Tsinghua University.
In 1952, the Communist Party of China regrouped the country's higher education institutions in an attempt to build a Soviet style system where each institution specialized in a certain field of study, such as social sciences or natural sciences. Tsinghua University was streamlined into a polytechnic institute with a focus on engineering and the natural sciences. From 1966 to 1976, China experienced immense sociopolitical upheaval and instability during the Cultural Revolution. Many university students walked out of classrooms at Tsinghua and other institutions, some went on to join the Red Guards, resulting in the complete shutdown of the university as faculty were persecuted or otherwise unable to teach, it was not until 1978, after the Cultural Revolution ended, that the university began to take in students and re-emerge as a force in Chinese politics and society. In the 1980s, Tsinghua evolved beyond the polytechnic model and incorporated a multidisciplinary system emphasizing collaboration between distinct schools within the broader university environment.
Under this system, several schools have been re-incorporated, including Tsinghua Law School, the School of Economics and Management, the School of Sciences, the School of Life Sciences, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the School of Public Policy and Management, the Academy of Arts and Design. In 1996, the School of Economics and Management established a partnership with the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One year Tsinghua and MIT began the MBA program known as the Tsinghua-MIT Global MBA. In 1997, Tsinghua became the first Chinese university to offer a Master of Laws program in American law, through a cooperative venture with the Temple University Beasley School of Law. Since resuming operations in 1978, Tsinghua University has re-established itself among the most elite Chinese universities, it is affiliated with the C9 League and it has been selected to participate in the Double First Class University Plan. Most national and international university rankings place Tsinghua among the best universities in Greater China and worldwide.
Tsinghua alumni include the current General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Paramount Leader of China, Xi Jinping'79, who graduated with a degree in c
Andrea Palladio was an Italian architect active in the Venetian Republic. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture by Vitruvius, is considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition; the city of Vicenza, with its 23 buildings designed by Palladio, 24 Palladian Villas of the Veneto are listed by UNESCO as part of a World Heritage Site named City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto. Palladio was born on 30 November 1508 in Padua and was given the name, Andrea Di Pietro della Gondola, his father, called "Della Gondola", was a miller. From early on, Andrea Palladio was introduced into the work of building. In Padua he gained his first experiences as a stonecutter in the sculpture workshop of Bartolomeo Cavazza da Sossano, the sculptor responsible for the altar in the Church of Santa Maria dei Carmini in Padua.
Cavazza da Sossano is said to have imposed hard working conditions. At the age of sixteen he moved to Vicenza. Here he became an assistant in a leading workshop of stonecutters and masons, he joined a guild of bricklayers. He was employed as a stonemason to make decorative sculptures; these sculptures reflected the Mannerist style of the architect Michele Sanmicheli. The key moment that sparked Palladio's career was being employed by the Humanist poet and scholar, Gian Giorgio Trissino, from 1538 to 1539. While Trissino was reconstructing the Villa Cricoli, he took interest in Palladio's work. Trissino was influenced by the studies of Vitruvius, which had become available in print in 1486; these influenced Palladio's own ideals and attitudes toward classical architecture. As the leading intellectual in Vicenza, Trissino stimulated the young man to appreciate the arts and Classical literature and he granted him the opportunity to study Ancient architecture in Rome, it was Trissino who gave him the name by which he became known, Palladio, an allusion to the Greek goddess of wisdom Pallas Athene and to a character of a play by Trissino.
Indeed, the word Palladio means Wise one. After Trissino's death in 1550, Palladio benefited from the patronage of the Barbaro brothers, Cardinal Daniele Barbaro, who encouraged his studies of classical architecture and brought him to Rome in 1554, his younger brother Marcantonio Barbaro; the powerful Barbaros introduced Palladio to Venice, where he became "Proto della Serenissima" after Jacopo Sansovino. In addition to the Barbaros, the Corner and Pisani families supported Palladio's career. Andrea Palladio began to develop his own architectural style around 1541; the Palladian style, named after him, adhered to classical Roman principles he rediscovered and applied in his works. His first major public project began when his designs for building the loggias for the town hall, known as the Basilica Palladiana, were approved in 1548, he proposed an addition of two-storey stone buttresses reflecting the Gothic style of the existing hall while using classical proportions. The construction was completed posthumously in 1617.
Aside from Palladio's designs, his publications contributed to Palladianism. During the second half of his life, Palladio published many books on architecture, most famously, I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura. Palladio is most known for his designs of palaces as well as his books; the precise circumstances of Palladio's death are unknown. He died in 1580, retold in tradition in Maser and was buried in the church of Santa Corona in Vicenza. Since the 19th century his tomb has been located in the Cimitero Maggiore of Vicenza. Palladio's architecture was not dependent on expensive materials, which must have been an advantage to his more financially pressed clients. Many of his buildings are of brick covered with stucco. Stuccoed brickwork was always used in his villa designs in order to portray his interpretations of the Roman villa typology. In the part of his career, Palladio was chosen by powerful members of Venetian society for numerous important commissions, his success as an architect is based not only on the beauty of his work, but for its harmony with the culture of his time.
His success and influence came from the integration of extraordinary aesthetic quality with expressive characteristics that resonated with his client's social aspirations. His buildings served to communicate, their place in the social order of their culture; this powerful integration of beauty and the physical representation of social meanings is apparent in three major building types: the urban palazzo, the agricultural villa, the church. Relative to his trips to Rome, Palladio developed three main palace types by 1556. In 1550, the Palazzo Chiericati was completed; the proportions for the building were based on musical ratios for adjacent rooms. The building was centralized by a tripartite division of a series of colonnades. In 1552, the Palazzo Iseppo Porto located in Vicenza was rebuilt incorporating the Roman Renaissance element for façades. A colonnade of Corinthian columns surrounded a main court; the Palazzo Antonini in Udine, constructed in 1556, had a centralized hall with four columns and service spaces placed toward one side.
He uses styles of incorporating the six columns, supported by pediments, into the walls as part of the façade. This technique had been applied in
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
The piano nobile is the principal floor of a large house built in one of the styles of Classical Renaissance architecture. This floor contains bedrooms of the house; the piano nobile is the first storey, or sometimes the second storey, located above a ground floor containing minor rooms and service rooms. The reasons for this were so the rooms would have finer views, more to avoid the dampness and odours of the street level; this is true in Venice, where the piano nobile of the many palazzi is obvious from the exterior by virtue of its larger windows and balconies, open loggias. Examples of this are Ca' Foscari, Ca' d'Oro, Ca' Vendramin Calergi, Palazzo Barbarigo. Larger windows than those on other floors are the most obvious feature of the piano nobile. In England and Italy, the piano nobile is reached by an ornate outer staircase, which negated the need for the inhabitants of this floor to enter the house by the servant's floor below. Kedleston Hall is an example of this in England. Most houses contained a secondary floor above the piano nobile, which contained more intimate withdrawing and bedrooms for private use by the family of the house, when no honoured guests were present.
Above this floor would be an attic floor containing staff bedrooms. This arrangement of floors continued throughout Europe for as long as large houses continued to be built in the classical styles; this arrangement was designed at Buckingham Palace as as the mid-19th century. Holkham Hall, Osterley Park and Chiswick House are among the innumerable 18th-century English houses which employed this design. In Italy in Venetian palazzi, the floor above the piano nobile is sometimes referred to as the "secondo piano nobile" if the loggias and balconies reflect those below on a smaller scale. In these instances, the principal piano nobile is described as the "primo piano nobile" to differentiate it. Though found, this usage is misleading: rooms in the piano nobile are always the grandest, less so those in the secondo piano nobile; the term is not used in Britain. In Germany, there is the Beletage. Both date to the 17th century. Chiarini, Marco. Pitti Palace. Livorno: Sillabe s.r.l. ISBN 88-8347-047-8. Chierici, Gino.
Il Palazzo Italiano. Milan. Copplestone, Trewin. World Architecture. Hamlyn. Dynes, Wayne. Palaces of Europe. London: Hamlyn. Dal Lago, Adalbert. Ville Antiche. Milan: Fratelli Fabbri. Girouard, Mark. Life in the English Country House. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02273-5. Halliday, E. E.. Cultural History of England. London: Thames and Hudson. Harris, John. Buckingham Palace. Hussey, Christopher. English Country Houses: Early Georgian 1715–1760 London, Country Life. Jackson-Stops, Gervase; the Country House in Perspective. Pavilion Books Ltd. Kaminski Marion and Architecture of Venice, 1999, Könemann, ISBN 3-8290-2657-9 Masson, Georgina. Italian Palaces. London: Harry N. Abrams ltd. London:Nelson. ISBN 0-17-141011-4
Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801; the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation. Jefferson was of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia, he graduated from the College of William & Mary and practiced law, with the largest number of his cases concerning land ownership claims. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, served as the 2nd Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, subsequently the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts; as president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase doubling the country's territory; as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson's second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807.
Jefferson, while a planter and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages, he corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, considered the most important American book published before 1800. After retiring from public office, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed; some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson's private life, pointing out the contradiction between his ownership of the large numbers of slaves that worked his plantations and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal." Another point of controversy stems from the evidence that after his wife Martha died in 1782, Jefferson fathered children with Martha's half-sister, Sally Hemings, his slave.
Despite this, presidential scholars and historians praise his public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank among U. S. presidents. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children, he was of English, Welsh and was born a British subject. His father Peter Jefferson was a surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children; the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757. Thomas inherited 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello, he assumed full authority over his property at age 21. Jefferson began his childhood education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe. Thomas' father, was self-taught, regretting not having a formal education, he entered Thomas into an English school early, at age five.
In 1752, at age nine, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister and began studying the natural world, for which he grew to love. At this time he began studying Latin and French, while learning to ride horses. Thomas read books from his father's modest library, he was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, where he studied history and the classics while boarding with Maury's family. During this period Jefferson came to know and befriended various American Indians, including the famous Cherokee chief, who stopped at Shadwell to visit, on their way to Williamsburg to trade. During the two years Jefferson was with the Maury family, he traveled to Williamsburg and was a guest of Colonel Dandridge, father of Martha Washington. In Williamsburg the young Jefferson met and came to admire Patrick Henry, eight ye