Epipactis, or Helleborine, is a genus of terrestrial orchids consisting of 70 species. This genus is abbreviated as Epcts in horticultural trade; the species occur in temperate and subtropical climates of America and Europe. These orchids grow in open spaces in forests, in undergrowth, on calcareous soils and are found in wet dune-slacks near the sea; the only original American species is Giant Helleborine. One species from Europe, Broad-leaved Helleborine, is invasive in North America. Most species are protected. Most of these hardy orchids grow in a wet environment; the Marsh helleborine is the only European orchid able to survive in a flooded habitat. Epipactis gigantea is a species found in the American west, into southern Canada, in wet areas and streams, it can grow to a height of 1 m. However, Epipactis helleborine grows in more diverse habitats, from sheltered sandy beaches to open spaces in deciduous or coniferous forests, on roadsides, in meadows, on moist soils, it is sometimes called the Weed Orchid.
As characteristic of all orchids, Epipactis spp. are dependent on a mycorrhizal symbiosis. This allows some species to have reduced need little chlorophyll. Violet Helleborine can do without chlorophyll; these forms can be recognized by their purple instead of violet flowers. Their creeping, fleshy rhizomes grow offshoots, from which emerge the 20–70 cm long stems during the next spring. There are four to eight lanceolate leaves, that grow progressively shorter near the top; the margins are entire, the top is acute. Species with less chlorophyll have blue-purple leaves, their bilaterally symmetrical colorful flowers grow from a terminal raceme. The three sepals and the two lateral petals are acuminate, their color can vary from greenish-white to purple. The lip is divided in a bowl-shaped hypochile, with the outer surface greenish-white and threaded with dark veins; the wavy, snow-white epichile is fan-shaped. The ovary is inferior, it produces a dry capsule with countless minute seeds. Epipactis africana Epipactis albensis Epipactis albensis var. albensis.
Rhizome geophyte Epipactis albensis var. fibri. Hemicryptophye or rhizome geophyte Epipactis aspromontana - now synonym of Epipactis leptochila subsp. Aspromontana Kreutz Epipactis atromarginata Epipactis atrorubens Besser: Dark Red Helleborine, Royal Helleborine Epipactis atrorubens var. atrorubens Epipactis atrorubens var. atrata A. Waldner & Webernd Epipactis atrorubens subsp. Danubialis Ciocârlan & R. Rösler Epipactis atrorubens subsp. Spiridonovii Kreutz Epipactis atrorubens subsp. Subclausa Kreutz Epipactis atrorubens var. triploidea Kreutz Epipactis autumnalis D. Doro Epipactis baumanniorum Ströhle Epipactis bithynica - now synonym of Epipactis helleborine subsp. Bithynica Kreutz Epipactis bugacensis Epipactis campeadorii Epipactis cardina Epipactis condensata Epipactis cretica Epipactis danubialis - now synonym of Epipactis atrorubens subsp. Danubialis Ciocârlan & R. Rösler Epipactis degenii - now synonym of Epipactis halacsyi subsp. Degenii Kreutz Epipactis distans Arvet-Touvet Epipactis dunensis Epipactis duriensis Bernardos, et al. - now synonym of Epipactis tremolsii var. duriensis P.
Delforge Epipactis exilis P. Delforge - now a synonym of Epipactis persica subsp. Exilis Kreutz Epipactis flaminia - now synonym of Epipactis greuteri var. flaminia Kreutz Epipactis flava. Epipactis futakii - now synonym of Epipactis leptochila var. futakii P. Delforge Epipactis gigantea: Stream Orchid, Giant Helleborine. Epipactis greuteri H. Baumann & Künkele. Epipactis greuteri var. flaminia Kreutz Epipactis greuteri var. preinensis P. Delforge Epipactis greuteri subsp. Preinensis Epipactis guegelii Epipactis halacsyi Robatsch - now basionym of Epipactis viridiflora subsp. Halacsyi Epipactis halacsyi subsp. Degenii Kreutz Epipactis helleborine Crantz: Broad-leaved Helleborine. Epipactis helleborine subsp. Bithynica Kreutz Epipactis helleborine subsp. Helleborine. Epipactis helleborine subsp. Latina. Epipactis helleborine subsp. Leutei Kreutz Epipactis helleborine var. minor R. Engel Epipactis helleborine subsp. Molochina Kreutz Epipactis helleborine subsp. Neerlandica. Epipactis helleborine subsp. Orbicularis synonym of Epipactis distans Arvet-Touvet Epipactis helleborine subsp.
Schubertiorum Kreutz Epipactis helleborine subsp. Transcaucasica. Hemicryptophye or rhizome geophyte Epipactis helleborine subsp. Tremolsii Hemicryptophye or rhizome geophyte Epipactis helleborine var. youngiana Kreutz Epipactis ioessa Bongiorni, De Vivo, Fori & Romolini Epipactis kleinii Epipactis komoricensis - now synonym of Epipactis leptochila subsp. Komoricensis Kreutz Epipactis lapidocampi E
Stroud is a small country town one hour north of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. It is part of the Mid-Coast Council local government area; the major road through Stroud is the Bucketts Way. At the 2006 census, Stroud had a population of 669; the township of Stroud can trace its beginning back to the late 1820s when it became the headquarters for a public funded company known as the Australian Agricultural Company. In 1824, this company received a grant of one million acres of land between Port Stephens and the Manning River; this land was to be used for agriculture. Stroud was a self-contained village by 1832 and, as early as 1836, the Company's storehouses and much of the convict labour force were located there. By 1850, it had become the Company's headquarters. Land was subdivided for private settlement in 1849, with settlers arriving from England the following year to take up land grants there. Many fine buildings were constructed at Stroud; some of these are still in use today: Stroud House.
Company for the storage of grain. In 2007 the Stroud Raiders a men's football team reformed. With strong performances through the year the Raiders were the Minor and Major Premiers for 2007. There is a women's football team called the Supercats. Stroud has a cricket team; these teams share the Stroud Showground. Stroud used to have four tennis courts which were home to the Stroud Tennis Club, a twenty five metre pool, open from October to April. Golf and bowls are played at the District Country Club; some of the sports facilities, along with houses and camping grounds, where damaged in April 2015 in a large storm that caused flash flooding. The Stroud Show is the first weekend after Easter; the Stroud International Brick and Pin Throwing Contest is held on a Saturday in July. This coincides with the same event in three other Strouds: Oklahoma and Ontario; the Stroud Rodeo is the third weekend in September. Retreats and conferences are held at the Franciscan Monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Stroud has a primary school, established in 1884.
It was not possible for the North Coast railway line to serve Stroud. A railway station was established at Stroud Road but this is now closed and the nearest station is at Dungog. Stroud has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cowper Street: St John the Evangelist Church 42 Cowper Street: Stroud House Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK "Karuah River and Great Lakes catchments". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales