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Jeju Island

Jeju Island is an island in the Jeju Province of South Korea. The island lies below the Korean Peninsula, south of the South Jeolla Province; the island contains Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes. Jeju has a moderate climate. Jeju is a popular holiday destination and a sizable portion of the economy relies on tourism and economic activity from its civil/naval base; the island has been called by many different names including: Doi Dongyeongju Juho Tammora Seomna Tangna Tamna Quelpart, Quelparte or Quelpaert Island Junweonhado Taekseungnido Samdado Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name Quelpart came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, from Taiwan; the name "Fungma island" appeared in the "Atlas of China" of M. Martini who arrived in China as a missionary in 1655; the earliest known polity on the island was the kingdom of Tamna.

After invading Korea in the 13th century, the Mongols established a base on Jeju Island and converted part of the island to a grazing area for the Mongol cavalry stationed there. Jeju Island has had different illnesses throughout history on the island; the first known instance was in 2002, when scarlet fever was reported to be in Korean children in the Jeju Province. Scientists have been doing research on the matter by creating an age-period-cohort analysis to back up their relevant hypotheses regarding this emerging outbreak; the Korean National Health Insurance Service analyzed this data from the nationwide insurance claims. Their calculations of the crude incidence rate and applying the intrinsic estimator for age and calendar groups revealed that a total of 2,345 cases of children had the fever, one of the top illnesses, it led to the discovery that children aged 0-2 were most common with the fever and that it was boys than girls that carried it. The CIR decreased with age between 2002 and 2016 and the age period effect decreased in all observed years.

The IE coefficients validating a cohort effect went from negative to positive in 2009. To this day, none can explain how these children of the Jeju Providence had scarlet fever, but results suggest that it might be explained through the cohort effect. Further descriptive epidemiological studies are needed to test children that are born after 2009, whether they have the fever or not. Another known case was from 2014-2018. Studies show that Jeju Province is well known as the region showing the highest incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea. Just like the scarlet fever, the goal of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTS patients in Jeju Province; the data, collected on this situation were obtained by the Integrated Diseases and Health Control System of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 55 residents of Jeju were selected to test the criteria at KCDCIS and confirm the cases of SFTS with a residence listed in Jeju Province at the time of diagnosis, between July 16, 2014 and November 30, 2018.

Results show that of the 55 confirmed cases of SFTS, the case fatality rate was 10.9%. The most common symptoms of the SFTS were severe fever and diarrhea. There have been fatality rates of 83.6%, 45.5%, 40.0%. This particular study from 2014-2018, has been proven to have a lower case fatality rate and a lower incidence of severe fever and confusion than that of the cases nationwide of 2013-2015. From April 3, 1948 to May 1949, the South Korean government conducted an anticommunist campaign to suppress an attempted uprising on the island; the main cause for the rebellion was the election scheduled for May 10, 1948, designed by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea to create a new government for all of Korea. The elections were only planned for the south of the country, the half of the peninsula under UNTCOK control. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters for the South Korean Labor party reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island.

Atrocities were committed by both sides, but those by South Korean government forces are the best-documented. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people, killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers encountered police. Between 40,000 and 60,000 people died as a result of the rebellion, or up to 25% of the island’s total population; some 40,000 others fled to Japan to escape the fighting. In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through strict punishment. However, in 2006, the Korean government apologized for its role in the killings and promised reparations; as of 2010, these had not been paid. In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport. On November 11, 2018, It was announced that preparations were being made for North

Dark horse

A dark horse is a less known person or thing that emerges to prominence in a situation in a competition involving multiple rivals, or a contestant that on paper should be unlikely to succeed but yet still might. The term began as horse racing parlance for a race horse, unknown to gamblers and thus difficult to place betting odds on; the first known mention of the concept is in Benjamin Disraeli's novel The Young Duke. Disraeli's protagonist, the Duke of St. James, attends a horse race with a surprise finish: "A dark horse which had never been thought of, which the careless St. James had never observed in the list, rushed past the grandstand in sweeping triumph." The concept has been used in political contexts in such countries as Iran, Russia, Finland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Politically, the concept came to the United States in the nineteenth century when it was first applied to James K. Polk, a unknown Tennessee politician who won the Democratic Party's 1844 presidential nomination over a host of better-known candidates.

Polk won the nomination on the ninth ballot at his party's national nominating convention, went on to become the country's eleventh president. Other successful dark horse candidates for the United States presidency include: Franklin Pierce, chosen as the Democratic nominee and elected the fourteenth president in 1852. Abraham Lincoln, chosen as the Republican nominee and elected as the sixteenth president in 1860. Rutherford B. Hayes, elected the nineteenth president in 1876. James A. Garfield, elected the twentieth president in 1880. Warren G. Harding, Senator from Ohio, elected the twenty-ninth president in 1920 after his surprise nomination. Jimmy Carter, former Governor of Georgia elected the thirty-ninth president in 1976. Barack Obama, the Junior Senator from Illinois, little known outside of his constituency when he announced his candidacy in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries but emerged from obscurity to narrowly edge out the favored Hillary Clinton for the nomination. Obama would be elected president.

Donald Trump, a real estate investor and reality television personality, defeated 15 established rivals for the Republican nomination before defeating former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in the general election. Trump had never held political office prior to his presidency, but had been running or espousing to run for President since 1999; the two most famous unsuccessful dark horse presidential candidates in American history are Democrat William Jennings Bryan, a three-term congressman from Nebraska nominated on the fifth ballot after impressing the 1896 Democratic National Convention with his famous Cross of Gold speech, Republican businessman Wendell Willkie, nominated on the sixth ballot at the 1940 Republican National Convention despite never having held government office and having only joined the party in 1939. Outside of the United States, the dark horse status attributed to Alberto Fujimori, who rose to the Presidency in Peru. In Nigeria, Goodluck Jonathan can be referred as a dark horse, as he was the first president from the marginalized Niger Delta region, he rose through three political offices through unusual circumstances.

In Finland, Lauri Kristian Relander was elected President as a dark horse in 1925, his party naming him as its candidate only after the people had voted for presidential electors. A dark horse presidency in Finland remained possible, sometimes speculated upon, until the electoral system was changed to a direct personal vote in 1987. Several government ministers, who were appointed to the third cabinet of Russian prime minister Dimitri Medvedev on 21 May 2012, were described as "dark horses" for lacking experience, such as Olga Golodets, Vladimir Medinsky and Alexander Novak; some of the candidates for the presidency of Iran in 2013 were labelled as dark horse, including Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf, Mohsen Rezai, Mostafa Pourmohammadi, Mohammad Saeedikia and Mohammad Gharazi. In the United Kingdom, Jeremy Corbyn, who won the 2015 Labour Party leadership election despite struggling to secure enough nominations from the Parliamentary Labour Party to stand as a candidate, has been described as a dark horse.

In addition, surprising or unlikely nominations for such prizes as the Academy Award are referred to as dark horses. Guitarist and singer-songwriter George Harrison was nicknamed the "dark horse" of The Beatles, as his visibility as a songwriter and vocalist increased in the Beatles' career on Abbey Road. Harrison went on to name his solo label Dark Horse Records and release both an album and a song titled "Dark Horse." Switchfoot's song "Dark Horses" was inspired by an organization called StandUp for Kids, which aids homeless and street children across America. The 24th chapter of Mark Helprin's novel Winter's Tale is called'White Horse and Dark Horse,' referring to the character of Praeger de Pinto as an outlier candidate for the Mayor of New York City. Stalking horse

New York State Route 253

New York State Route 253 is a 10.83-mile-long east–west state highway in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The western terminus of the route is at NY 383 in the village of Scottsville, its eastern terminus is at NY 65 in the town of Pittsford. NY 253 connects to the New York State Thruway in the town of Henrietta; the majority of NY 253 passes through either residential areas. NY 253 extended from NY 36 in Mumford to NY 64 south of the village of Pittsford when it was assigned as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. By 1938, it was truncated to Scottsville on its western end but extended northeastward to Penfield; the portion of NY 253 through East Rochester and Penfield was realigned twice in the 1960s and 1970s before the route was cut back to NY 65 in Pittsford in the 1980s. Since that time, NY 253 has been rerouted twice in Henrietta. NY 253 begins at an intersection with NY 383 in the village Scottsville, it heads east out of the village and into the surrounding town of Wheatland as Scottsville–West Henrietta Road.

Just after crossing the Genesee River into the town of Henrietta, NY 253 turns northward to parallel the river. After about 0.25 miles, Scottsville–West Henrietta Road turns eastward. The roadway curves to the east, coming within 50 yards of the New York State Thruway and serving the highway's Scottsville service area. NY 253 and the Thruway follow parallel routings for 0.5 miles before NY 253 shifts south to intersect East River Road, a highway connecting the village of Avon to the city of Rochester. East of River Road, NY 253 crosses the Livonia and Lakeville Railroad and continues to parallel the Thruway through a populated area of Henrietta toward the hamlet of West Henrietta. Instead of entering the hamlet, NY 253 leaves Erie Station Road and follows an industrial parkway named Thruway Park Drive around the northwestern edge of the community. Upon reaching the eastern end of Thruway Park Drive at NY 15, NY 253 turns north, joining NY 15 on West Henrietta Road and crossing over the Thruway.

NY 15 and NY 253 continue northward along the heavily-developed and commercial West Henrietta Road to Lehigh Station Road, where NY 253 splits from NY 15 and follows Lehigh Station Road eastward. Like West Henrietta Road before it, Lehigh Station Road is a major commercial strip, consisting of hotels and other establishments; this trend begins to cease as NY 253 meets I-390 at an interchange, ceases at a junction with Middle Road, a alternate route to I-390 between NY 251 in Rush and Calkins Road. Past Middle Road, NY 253 enters a predominantly residential neighborhood, it crosses a spur of the LAL that serves a pair of businesses on NY 253 and continues to the official town center of Henrietta, where it intersects NY 15A. NY 253 continues onward, meeting Pinnacle Road, a highway leading from NY 251 to NY 252, 1 mile east of NY 15A. East of Pinnacle Road, the amount of development along NY 253 declines and it continues eastward through open fields to its eastern terminus at NY 65 about 1 mile east of the Henrietta–Pittsford town line.

NY 253 was assigned as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. It began at NY 36 in the hamlet of Mumford and followed Scottsville–Mumford Road to the village of Scottsville. NY 253 had overlaps with NY 251 and NY 35 through Scottsville continued east on Scottsville–West Henrietta, East River, Erie Station roads to the Henrietta hamlet of West Henrietta. Here, it turned north to follow NY 2 to Lehigh Station Road, which it followed eastward to its end at NY 65 in the town of Pittsford. NY 253 continued on, joining NY 65 northward to Calkins Road, it followed Calkins and Mendon Center Roads to NY 64 south of the village of Pittsford. NY 253 was extended northward through Pittsford and East Rochester by 1936 along NY 64, NY 15, Washington Street to a new terminus at NY 33 in Penfield. NY 35 was rerouted south of Scottsville c. 1938 to follow the routing of NY 253 to Mumford. As a result, NY 253 was truncated to the northern terminus of its overlap with NY 35 north of the village center.

The bridge carrying NY 253 over Irondequoit Creek in Penfield's Linear Park was closed to vehicular traffic in the 1960s. The portion of North Washington Street north of the creek, now severed from the rest of the route, was renamed Linear Park Drive. NY 253, was rerouted north of the junction of North Washington Street and Linden Avenue to follow Linden Avenue eastward across Irondequoit Creek to Whitney Road in Perinton, it turned north to follow Whitney and Five Mile Line Roads to the Four Corners of Penfield, where it ended at NY 441. An extension of Panorama Trail, named Panorama Trail South, was built from Panorama Creek Drive south to North Washington Street in the late 1960s and early 1970s to connect Washington to the new NY 441 limited-access highway being constructed through the towns of Brighton and Penfield. NY 253 was rerouted by 1971 to follow North Washington Street and the new highway northwest to the latter road's interchange with NY 441. In the latter half of the 1980s, NY 253 was truncated southward to the southern terminus of its overlap with NY 65 in Pittsford.

The former routing of NY 253 north of NY 96 was redesignated as NY 153 while the segment between NY 65 and NY 64 on Calkins and Mendon Center Roads became NY 943C, an unsigned reference route 1.68 miles