Danish passports are issued to citizens of the Kingdom of Denmark to facilitate international travel. Different versions exist for nationals of Denmark and the Faroe Islands although all citizens have the same nationality, Danish nationals residing in Greenland and the Faroe Islands can choose between the Danish EU passport and the local non-EU passport. Every Danish citizen is a citizen of the European Union, the passport entitles its bearer to freedom of movement in the European Economic Area and Switzerland as provided in Directive 2004/38/EC. According to the 2016 Visa Restrictions Index, Danish citizens can visit 174 countries without a visa or with a visa granted on arrival, the Danish and Greenlandic versions of the passport have burgundy colour covers, according to the European Unions recommendations, while the Faroese version is green. All contain the Danish Coat of Arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover, with the word DANMARK above it, since 1 August 2006, biometric passports are issued.
Above the word DANMARK, the Danish version contains the words DEN EUROPÆISKE UNION, while in the Greenlandic, fields on the bearers page are in Danish and French, with translations in the official languages of the European Union elsewhere in the document. Instead of French, Faroese or Greenlandic are used in the Faroese, the page contains the following information, Photo of the passport holder Type Passport No. Names containing special letters are spelled the way in the non-machine-readable zone, but are mapped in the machine-readable zone, æ becoming AE, ø becoming OE. This follows the international machine-readable passport standard, besides the ordinary passport, 3 versions of blue service passports and a single red diplomatic passport are issued. The latter does not bear the text DEN EUROPÆISKE UNION, in 2016, Danish citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 174 countries and territories, thus ranking the Danish passport 4th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index.
According to the World Tourism Organization 2016 report, the Danish passport is 1st in the world in terms of travel freedom, the passport design including images from the Jelling Stones was introduced in 1997, when the current red design was introduced. Previous Danish passports had green or beige. EU rules allow any citizen of a country to travel anywhere in the EU without a passport, if they have a national identity card stating citizenship. Denmark and a few other EU countries do not issue such cards, there has been some political support for introducing such cards since the EU rule was introduced, but this has not yet become a reality
Utrecht University is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands, established March 26,1636, it had an enrollment of 30,449 students in 2012, and employed 5,295 faculty and staff. In 2011,485 PhD degrees were awarded and 7,773 scientific articles were published, the 2013 budget of the university was €765 million. The universitys motto is Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos, which means Sun of Justice and this motto was gleaned from a literal Latin Bible translation of Malachi 4,2. Utrecht University is led by the University Board, consisting of prof. dr, bert van der Zwaan and Hans Amman. This section incorporates text translated from the Dutch Wikipedia article Utrecht University was founded on March 26,1636, the influential professor of theology Gisbertus Voetius delivered the inaugural speech, and Bernardus Schotanus became the universitys first rector magnificus. Initially, only a few dozen students attended classes at the university, seven professors worked in four faculties, which offered all students an introductory education, and three higher-level faculties.
Utrecht University flourished in the century, despite competition with the older universities of Leiden and Groningen. Leiden, in particular, proved a strong competitor and made further improvement necessary, a botanical garden was built on the grounds of the present Sonnenborgh Observatory, and three years the Smeetoren added an astronomical observatory. The university attracted students from abroad. They witnessed the intellectual and theological battle the proponents of the new philosophy fought with the proponents of the strict Reformed theologian Voetius, Louvain, Groningen and Ghent were the five universities of the new state, and Leiden received the title of eerste hoge school. Two of the universities became part of the new Belgian state after it separated from the northern Netherlands in 1830 and this left Utrecht one of only three Dutch universities. Utrecht played a prominent role in the age of Dutch science. Around 1850 the Utrechtian School of science formed, with Pieter Harting, Gerardus J.
Mulder, buys Ballot and Franciscus Donders among the leading scientists. They introduced the educational laboratory as a learning place for their students. The University is represented in the Stichting Academisch Erfgoed, a foundation with the goal of preserving university collections, the other five faculties and most of the administrative services are located in De Uithof, a campus area on the outskirts of the city. University College Utrecht is situated in the former Kromhout Kazerne, which used to be a Dutch military base, University College Roosevelt is located off-campus in the city of Middelburg in the south-west of the Netherlands. Utrecht University counts a number of distinguished scholars among its alumni and faculty, on the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities list, the University of Utrecht was ranked 56th in the world and the highest in the Netherlands
St. Martin's Cathedral, Utrecht
St. Martins Cathedral, Utrecht, or Dom Church, is a Gothic church dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, which was the cathedral of the Diocese of Utrecht during the Middle Ages. It is the countrys only pre-Reformation cathedral, but has been a Protestant church since 1580 and it was once the Netherlands largest church, but the nave collapsed in a storm in 1674 and has never been rebuilt, leaving the tower isolated from the east end. The building is the one church in the Netherlands that closely resembles the style of classic Gothic architecture as developed in France, all other Gothic churches in the Netherlands belong to one of the many regional variants. Unlike most of its French predecessors, the building has one tower, the 112-metre-high Dom Tower. The first chapel in Utrecht was founded around 630 by Frankish clergy under the patronage of the Merovingian kings but was destroyed during an attack of the Frisians on Utrecht shortly thereafter, the site of this first chapel within Utrecht is unknown.
Saint Willibrord, the Apostle to the Frisians, established a chapel devoted to Saint Martin on the site of the current building. This church was destroyed by the Normans in the 9th century during one of their raids on Utrecht. During this period St. Martins came to be the church of Utrecht. The church had its own small territorial close and was led by a chapter of canons. The church was destroyed by fires and rebuilt. A Romanesque style church was built by Bishop Adalbold and consecrated in 1023 and it is thought to have been the center of a cross-shaped conglomeration of 5 churches, called a Kerkenkruis, built to commemorate Conrad II. The construction of the Gothic cathedral continued into the 16th century, the first part to be built was the choir. The Dom Tower was started in 1321 and finished in 1382, after 1515, steadily diminishing financing prevented completion of this building project, of which an almost complete series of building accounts exists. In 1566, the Beeldenstorm or Iconoclast Fury swept across much of the Low Countries, as a result, many of the ornaments on both the exterior and interior of the cathedral were destroyed.
In 1580 the Utrecht city government devolved the cathedral from the Diocese of Utrecht to local Calvinists. From on Protestant services were held in the building with one exception, in 1672 and 1673, during the Franco-Dutch War. A year after the French retreat, the unfinished and insufficiently supported nave collapsed on 1 August 1674 during a massive storm that caused a tornado. Over the subsequent centuries, much of the building fell into further neglect
Normandy is one of the regions of France, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Administratively, Normandy is divided into five departments, Eure, Orne and it covers 30,627 km², forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France, Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language. The historical region of Normandy comprised the region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements, or departments of Mayenne. For a century and a following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman. Archaeological finds, such as paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC, when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the methods, Roman roads.
Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy, in the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates, Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast, the Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis, the Vikings started to raid the Seine Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, after attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagnes empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Norwegian Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory which he, the name Normandy reflects Rollos Viking origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and they became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Saxons and indigenous Franks and Celts. Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades. They carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor, the 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands
Jelling is a village in Denmark with a population of 3,370, located in Jelling Parish approx. The village lies 105 metres above sea level, Jelling is located in Vejle municipality and Region of Southern Denmark. The town is famous for the Jelling stones, national monuments. Until the Municipal Reform of 2007 on 1 January 2007, Jelling was the capital of Jelling municipality, Jelling Sparekasses slogan was, If king Gorm was alive today. We would probably be the countrys National Bank, from Jelling it is 56 km to Herning and Silkeborg,80 km to Aarhus and 10 km to the regional capital Vejle. Jelling is close to the Østjyske Motorvej – and Midtjyske Motorvej –, the railroad track Herning – Vejle goes through Jelling. In 2003 Jelling municipality was the first municipality in Denmark to offer its residents wireless Internet connection, up to 4 Mbit broadband, Vejle municipality is working to execute a master plan in the village centre. The plan is to redirect traffic in Jelling, and close Gormsgade, Jelling is an old and important historical town in the history of Denmark.
In the Viking Age it served as the seat of the first Monarchs of the Kingdom of Denmark. Jelling is the site of a stone ship and two large burial mounds, the Jelling stones and Jelling Church which are an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In the North Mound, built between 958 and 959 CE, an empty burial chamber was found, the South Mound was built around 970 and contains no burial. Beneath the two mounds is a stone ship from around the end of the 9th century. Between the two mounds stands two rune stones, the Jelling stones, near the stones, Gorms son King Harald Bluetooth built a wooden church, and beneath it re-interred the remains of his father. The Jelling Music Festival is held annually and is currently Denmarks third largest festival, bredagerskolen is the largest school in Vejle municipality. The school currently has 810 students divided into 0–9 classes over 2–5 traces, the village houses the CVU Lillebælt, which trains teachers and educators. There are three stores in Jelling, two gas stations, three garages, two banks, two breweries, and some other stores.
The newly opened town house is to house Borgerservice, a library, a cinema, a café, and one of the two breweries
Boris Stones, called Dvina Stones, are seven medieval artifacts erected along the bank of the Western Dvina between Polotsk and Drissa, Belarus. They probably predate Christianity in the area, but were inscribed in the 12th century with text, the largest of the stones is 17 metres in circumference. Although these landmarks were described in the 16th century by Maciej Stryjkowski, Cancrin discovered that a boulder near Orsha had the following inscription, In the year 1171, on the 7th day of March, was completed this cross. Lord, please help your servant Basil, whose name is Rogvolod. Subsequently, several other boulders with Boriss name were discovered, in the 1930s, two of these were blown up by Communist authorities as religious objects and their remains used to pave the road between Minsk and Moscow. Another one was thrown into the river, where it lay until its discovery in 1988, when an attempt to recover it was made, the stone broke apart into three pieces. Three other boulders were moved to be exhibited near St.
Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk, in the Museum of Boulders in Minsk, and in Kolomenskoe near Moscow. Both names for the stones are somewhat misleading, only four of them are located along the banks of the Dvina, what unites them is their programmatic illustration, In each case the centrepiece is an enormous cross flanked by abbreviated elements of the conventional Greek legend proclaiming Christs victory. The cross of Saint Euphrosyne Jelling stones — similar landmarks in Denmark Franklin, writing and culture in early Rus, c
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a widely revered god. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the folklore of Germanic Europe. Forms of his name appear frequently throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are mainly found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland and these texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded, frequently wielding a spear named Gungnir, and wearing a cloak, Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the god Baldr with Frigg, and is known by hundreds of names. Odin has an association with Yule, and mankinds knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him. In Old Norse texts, Odin is given primacy over female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—and oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for her afterlife location, Fólkvangr. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt and he has been associated with charms and other forms of magic, particularly in Old English and Old Norse texts.
Odin has been a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, in the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media. He is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples, some branches focus particularly on him. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning seer, prophet. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs possessed, Old Norse óðr, frantic, additionally the Old Norse noun æði rage and Old High German wuotī madness derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. Over 170 names are recorded for the god Odin and these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples, the weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg.
Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, all of these terms derive from Proto-Germanic *Wodensdag, itself a Germanic interpretation of Latin Dies Mercurii. However, in Old High German, the derived from Odins was replaced by a translation of Church Latin media hebdomas. The earliest records of the Germanic peoples were recorded by the Romans and they regard it as a religious duty to offer to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind, in this instance, Tacitus refers to the god Odin as Mercury, Thor as Hercules, and Týr as Mars, and the identity of the Isis of the Suebi has been debated. But their rankings in their respective religious spheres may have very different
Old Norse religion
Norse religion refers to the religious traditions of the Norsemen prior to the Christianization of Scandinavia, specifically during the Viking Age. Norse religion is a folk religion and it was the northern variation of the religion practiced in the lands inhabited by the Germanic tribes across most of Northern and Central Europe prior to Roman and Holy Roman incursions. However, it was not formalized nor categorized as a subset of Germanic paganism until it was described by outsiders who came into contact with native practitioners. The Norse - or people of Scandinavia - have always had contact with cultures outside Scandinavia. They were well aware of foreign religions and they traded and sometimes worked as henchmen for other cultures, including the Romans. Most titles bestowed upon Norse religion are the ones which were used to describe the religion in a competitive manner, some of these terms were hedendom, Heathenry or Pagan. A more romanticized name for Norse religion is the medieval Icelandic term Forn Siðr or Old Custom, knowledge about Norse religion has been gathered from archaeological discoveries and from literature produced after the Christianization of Scandinavia.
The literary sources that reference Norse paganism were written after the religion had declined, the vast majority of this came from 13th-century Iceland, where Christianity had taken longest to gain hold because of its remote location. The key literary texts for the study of Norse religion are the Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, the Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus and the Poetic Edda, by an unknown writer or writers. Saga literature informs us of the not only of the literate elite. Sagas are categorized on the basis of events described in the saga took place. Though Sagas are often mythical in nature, the ambitions are to give a realistic description of past events. Many sites in Scandinavia have yielded information about early Scandinavian culture. The oldest extant cultural examples are petroglyphs or helleristninger/hällristningar and these are usually divided into two categories according to age, hunting-glyphs and agricultural-glyphs. The hunting glyphs are the oldest and are found in Northern Scandinavia.
These finds seem to indicate an existence based on hunting and fishing. These motifs were gradually subsumed by glyphs with more zoomorphic, or perhaps religious, the glyphs from the region of Bohuslän are complemented with younger agricultural glyphs, which seem to depict an existence based more heavily on agriculture. These motifs primarily depict ships and lunar motifs, geometrical spirals and anthropomorphic beings and these finds shows several signs of rituals in a seemingly religious context, including some strong indications of human sacrifice such as the case of the Tollund Man bog body
A facsimile is a copy or reproduction of an old book, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible. It differs from other forms of reproduction by attempting to replicate the source as accurately as possible in scale, condition, for books and manuscripts, this entails a complete copy of all pages, hence, an incomplete copy is a partial facsimile. Facsimiles are sometimes used by scholars to research a source that they do not have access to otherwise, many are sold commercially, often accompanied by a volume of commentary. They may be produced in limited editions, typically of 500–2,000 copies, the term fax is a shortened form of facsimile though most faxes are not reproductions of the quality expected in a true facsimile. Advances in the art of facsimile are closely related to advances in printmaking, for instance, were the focus of early explorations in making facsimiles, although these examples often lack the rigidity to the original source that is now expected.
An early example is the Abraham Ortelius map, innovations during the 18th century, especially in the realms of lithography and aquatint, facilitated an explosion in the number of facsimiles of old master drawings that could be studied from afar. In the past, a such as the photostat, hectograph. More recently, facsimiles have been made by the use of form of photographic technique. For documents, a facsimile most often refers to document reproduction by a photocopy machine, in the digital age, an image scanner, a personal computer, and a desktop printer can be used to make a facsimile. Important illuminated manuscripts like Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry are not only on display to the public as facsimiles, unlike normal book reproductions, facsimiles remain truer to the original colors—which is especially important for illuminated manuscripts—and preserve defects. Facsimiles are best suited to printed or hand-written documents, and not to such as three-dimensional objects or oil paintings with unique surface texture.
Reproductions of those objects are often referred to as replicas
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Gorm the Old
Gorm the Old, called Gorm the Languid, was the first historically recognized ruler of Denmark, reigning from c. 936 to his death c. 958. He ruled from Jelling, and made the oldest of the Jelling Stones in honour of his wife Thyra, Gorm was born before 900 and died c. 958. Gorm is the son of semi-legendary Danish king Harthacnut. Chronicler Adam of Bremen says that Harthacnut came from Nortmannia to Denmark and he deposed the young king Sigtrygg Gnupasson, reigning over Western Denmark. When Harthacnut died, Gorm ascended the throne, heimskringla reports Gorm taking at least part of the kingdom by force from Gnupa, and Adam himself suggests that the kingdom had been divided prior to Gorms time. Gorm is first mentioned as the host of Archbishop Unni of Hamburg, according to the Jelling Stones, Gorms son, Harald Bluetooth, won all of Denmark, so it is speculated that Gorm only ruled Jutland from his seat in Jelling. Gorm married Thyra, who is given conflicting and chronologically dubious parentage by late sources, Gorm raised one of the great burial mounds at Jelling as well as the oldest of the Jelling Stones for her, calling her tanmarkar but.
Gorm was the father of three sons, Toke and Harald, King Harald Bluetooth and his wife, Thyra, is credited with the completion of the Danevirke, a wall between Denmarks southern border and its unfriendly Saxon neighbors to the south. The wall was not new, but it was expanded with a ditch, the Danevirke ran between the Schlei and the Treene river, across what is now Schleswig. Gorm died in the winter of 958–959 and dendrochronology shows that his burial chamber was made from wood of timbers felled in 958, arild Huitfeldt explains how in Danmarks Riges Krønike, The three sons were Vikings in the truest sense, departing Denmark each summer to raid and pillage. Harald came back to the enclosure at Jelling with the news that his son Canute had been killed in an attempt to capture Dublin. Canute was shot with an arrow while watching some games at night. No one would tell the king in view of the oath the king had made, Queen Thyra ordered the royal hall hung with black cloth and that no one was to say a single word.
When Gorm entered the hall, he was astonished and asked what the mourning colors meant, Queen Thyra spoke up, Lord King, you had two falcons, one white and the other gray. The white one flew far afield and was set upon by birds which tore off its beautiful feathers and is now useless to you. Meanwhile the gray falcon continues to catch fowl for the kings table, Gorm understood immediately the Queens metaphor and cried out, My son is surely dead, since all of Denmark mourns. You have said it, your majesty, Thyra announced, Not I, according to the story Gorm was so grieved by Canutes death that he died the following day. This account would contradict information on the Jelling Stones which point to Queen Thyra dying before Gorm