University of Warwick
The University of Warwick is a public research university on the outskirts of Coventry, England. It was founded in 1965 as part of a government initiative to expand higher education. Within the University, Warwick Business School was established in 1967, Warwick Law School was established in 1968, Warwick Manufacturing Group was established in 1980 and Warwick Medical School was opened in 2000. Warwick merged with Coventry College of Education in 1979 and Horticulture Research International in 2004. Warwick is cited as amongst the world's most targeted university institutions by employers. Warwick is based on a 290 ha campus on the outskirts of Coventry, with a satellite campus in Wellesbourne and a central London base at the Shard, it is organised into three faculties — Arts, Science Technology Engineering and Medicine, Social Sciences — within which there are 32 departments. As of 2018, Warwick has 2,492 academic and research staff, it had a consolidated income of £631.5 million in 2017/18, of which £126.5 million was from research grants and contracts.
Warwick Arts Centre, a multi-venue arts complex in the university's main campus, is the largest venue of its kind in the UK outside London. Warwick ranks in the top ten of all major domestic rankings of British universities. Warwick is ranked 7th in the UK for its research, according to the Research Excellence Framework 2014 by GPA. A selective institution, Warwick has an average intake of 4,950 undergraduates out of 38,071 applicants yielding 7.6 applicants per place. In 2017, Warwick was named as the university with the joint second highest graduate employment rate of any UK university, with 97.7 per cent of its graduates in work or further study three and a half years after graduation. Warwick is a member of AACSB, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, EQUIS, the European University Association, the Midlands Innovation group, the Russell Group and Universities UK, it is the only European member of the Center for Urban Science and Progress, a collaboration with New York University.
The university has extensive commercial activities, including the University of Warwick Science Park and Warwick Manufacturing Group. The idea for a university in Warwickshire was first mooted shortly after World War II, although it was not founded for a further two decades. A partnership of the city and county councils provided the impetus for the university to be established on a 400-acre site jointly granted by the two authorities. There was some discussion between local sponsors from both the city and county over whether it should be named after Coventry or Warwickshire; the name "University of Warwick" was adopted though the County Town of Warwick itself lies some 8 miles to its southwest and Coventry's city centre is only 3.5 miles northeast of the campus. The establishment of the University of Warwick was given approval by the government in 1961 and received its Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1965. Since the university has incorporated the former Coventry College of Education in 1979 and has extended its land holdings by the continuing purchase of adjoining farm land.
The university benefited from a substantial donation from the family of Jack Martin, which enabled the construction of the Warwick Arts Centre. The university admitted a small intake of graduate students in 1964 and took its first 450 undergraduates in October 1965. Since its establishment Warwick has expanded its grounds to 721 acres with many modern buildings and academic facilities and woodlands. In the 1960s and 1970s, Warwick had a reputation as a politically radical institution. Under Vice-Chancellor, Lord Butterworth, Warwick was one of the first UK universities to adopt a business approach to higher education, develop close links with the business community and exploit the commercial value of its research; these tendencies were critiqued by British historian and then-Warwick lecturer, E. P. Thompson, in his 1970 edited book Warwick University Ltd.. More the university was seen as a favoured institution of the Labour government, it was academic partner for a number of flagship Government schemes including the National Academy for Gifted and Talented Youth and the NHS University.
Tony Blair described Warwick as "a beacon among British universities for its dynamism and entrepreneurial zeal". In a 2012 study by Virgin Media Business, Warwick was described as the most "digitally-savvy" UK university; the Leicester Warwick Medical School, a new medical school based jointly at Warwick and Leicester University, opened in September 2000. On the recommendation of Tony Blair, Bill Clinton chose Warwick as the venue for his last major foreign policy address as US President in December 2000. Sandy Berger, Clinton’s National Security Advisor, explaining the decision in his Press Briefing on 7 December 2000, said that: "Warwick is one of Britain's newest and finest research universities, singled out by Prime Minister Blair as a model both of academic excellence and independence from the government." In February 2001, IBM donated a new S/390 computer and software worth £2 million to Warwick, to form part of a "Grid" enabling users to remotely share computing power. In April 2004 Warwick merged with the Wellesbourne and Kirton sites of Horticulture Research International.
In July 2004 Warwick was the location for an important agreement between the Labour Party and the Trade Unions on Labour policy and trade union law, which has subsequently become known as the "Warwick Agreement". In June 2006 the new University Hospital Coventry opened, inc
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
Aled Jones, is a Welsh singer and radio and television presenter. As a teenage chorister, he reached widespread fame during the mid-1980s. Since he has become well known for his television work with the BBC and ITV, as well as his radio work. In September 2012, Jones joined ITV Breakfast where he presented Daybreak, alongside Lorraine Kelly and Kate Garraway. For the BBC, he has presented Cash in the Attic, Going Back Giving Back. Jones was born in St. David's Hospital in Bangor, the only child of Nest Rowlands, a teacher, Derek John Jones, a draughtsman for a shipbuilder, he was raised in the small Welsh-speaking community of Llandegfan in Anglesey, attended Ysgol David Hughes. Jones joined the choir of Bangor Cathedral at age nine and was lead soloist within two years, although he was never Head Chorister; the remarkable quality of Jones' treble voice was appreciated by a member of the congregation, Hefina Orwig Evans, who wrote a letter to local record company Sain, he was duly signed. In 1982, Jones won the Cerdd Dant solo competitions for competitors under 12 at the Urdd Eisteddfod.
Jones became famous for the cover version of "Walking in the Air", the song from Channel 4's animated film The Snowman, based on the book by Raymond Briggs. The record reached No. 5 in the UK charts in 1985. The version used in the 1982 film was performed by a St. Paul's Cathedral choirboy. In June 1985, Jones was the subject of an Emmy award-winning BBC Omnibus documentary entitled The Treble. Jones, with the National Philharmonic Orchestra, was behind the Santa Claus The Movie, original motion picture soundtrack, Every Christmas Eve of 1985. In 1985, Jones was called by Mike Oldfield to sing on Oldfield's single "Pictures in the Dark", a three-voice song, on which he performed with Anita Hegerland and Barry Palmer, which became popular. In 1986, he sang the theme song for the Siriol Animation film A Winter Story; the song was a modest success. Jones' recording career was temporarily halted when his voice broke at 16. By he had recorded 16 albums, sold more than six million copies, sung for Pope John Paul II, the Queen, the Prince and Princess of Wales in a private recital, as well as presenting numerous children's television programmes.
He sang at the wedding of celebrities Bob Geldof and Paula Yates in 1986. Jones had the distinction of being the first artist to have two classical albums listed in the popular music charts, worked with Leonard Bernstein. In 1986, he sang the oratorio Athalia with Emma Kirkby. Jones' first biography, Walking on Air, was published in 1986. In September 1990, Jones made his acting debut at the Royal Theatre in Shaun McKenna's adaptation of Richard Llewellyn's How Green Was My Valley playing the teenage Huw Morgan. Jones went on to study at the Royal Academy of Music and the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, before beginning his adult recording career which has featured a religious/inspirational repertoire. In 1995 he took the leading role in the long-running production of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Joseph and the Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat on a Blackpool pier. From September 1996 to May 1997 Jones played the young Tom Gradgrind in a large-scale national touring production of Charles Dickens's Hard Times.
Theatres at which the play was presented included Brighton Theatre Royal, Bath Theatre Royal and Richmond Theatre. In 2005, Jones launched his autobiography, Aled: The Autobiography, written in collaboration with Darren Henley. In 2013, Jones released Aled Jones: My Story. Following the launch of his first baritone album, Aled on the Universal Music label in Australia in May 2003, Jones visited the country on a promotional tour, he has since toured in concert there five times: in Dec 2003, Aug 2006, Oct 2008, Aug/Sep 2010 and Feb 2015, performing in eight cities. Jones has released two singles with Terry Wogan in aid of the Children in Need appeal. From 3 July to 30 August 2008, Jones played the lead role of Caractacus Potts in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang at the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff, he returned to the stage, playing Bob Wallace in White Christmas at the Theatre Royal, at The Lowry, Salford Quays, from November 2009 until 9 January 2010, again from 11 to 26 November 2011 at the Mayflower Theatre, from 1 to 17 December at the Grand Canal Theatre, at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool On 8 November 2014 Jones made his West End debut, again playing Bob Wallace in "White Christmas", this time at the Dominion Theatre, Tottenham Court Road.
Following the publication of Aled's Forty Favourite Hymns in 2009, a further book, Favourite Christmas Carols, was published on 28 October 2010. On 29 November, Aled's Christmas Gift, was issued to accompany the book. On 11 October 2010, Jones was confirmed to take over as stand-in presenter of the early morning breakfast slot on BBC Radio 2 following the departure of Sarah Kennedy, a role he covered in the years leading up to her departure. Jones covered this slot for six weeks until the beginning of his UK tour. Jones is mentoring Isabel Suckling, the youngest classical recording artist signed by Decca Records and first choirgirl to sign a record contract with a major music label to date. Suckling's debut album was endorsed by Jones, who described it as "breathtaking" and it was released on 29 November 2010. In 2011, Jones hosted the television and DVD series, Classical Des
The Phasmatodea are an order of insects whose members are variously known as stick insects, stick-bugs, walking sticks or bug sticks. They are referred to as phasmatodeans, phasmids, or ghost insects. Phasmids in the family Phylliidae are called leaf-bugs, walking leaves, or bug leaves; the group's name is derived from the Ancient Greek φάσμα phasma, meaning an apparition or phantom, referring to their resemblance to vegetation while in fact being animals. Their natural camouflage makes them difficult for predators to detect; the genus Phobaeticus includes the world's longest insects. Members of the order are found on all continents except Antarctica, but they are most abundant in the tropics and subtropics, they are herbivorous, with many species living unobtrusively in the tree canopy. They have a hemimetabolous life cycle with three stages: egg and adult. Many phasmids are parthenogenic, do not require fertilized eggs for female offspring to be produced. In hotter climates, they may breed all year round.
Some species can disperse by flying, while others are more restricted. Phasmids can be large, ranging from 1.5 centimetres to over 30 centimetres in length. Females of the genus Phobaeticus are the world's longest insects, measuring up to 56.7 centimetres in total length in the case of Phobaeticus chani, including the outstretched legs. The heaviest species of phasmid is to be Heteropteryx dilatata, the females of which may weigh as much as 65 g; some phasmids have cylindrical stick-like shapes, while others have flattened, leaflike shapes. Many species have reduced wings; the thorax is long in the winged species, since it houses the flight muscles, is much shorter in the wingless forms. Where present, the first pair of wings is narrow and cornified, while the hind wings are broad, with straight veins along their length and multiple cross-veins; the body is further modified to resemble vegetation, with ridges resembling leaf veins, bark-like tubercles, other forms of camouflage. A few species, such as Carausius morosus, are able to change their pigmentation to match their surroundings.
The mouthparts project out from the head. Chewing mandibles are uniform across species; the legs are long and slender, some species are capable of limb autotomy. Phasmids have long, slender antennae, as long as or longer than the rest of the body in some species. All phasmids possess compound eyes. Phasmids have an impressive visual system that allows them to perceive significant detail in dim conditions, which suits their nocturnal lifestyle, they are born equipped with tiny compound eyes with a limited number of facets. As phasmids grow through successive molts, the number of facets in each eye is increased along with the number of photoreceptor cells; the sensitivity of the adult eye is at least tenfold in its first instar. As the eye grows more complex, the mechanisms to adapt to dark/light changes are enhanced: eyes in dark conditions evidence fewer screening pigments, which would block light, than during the daytime, changes in the width of the retinal layer to adapt to changes in available light are more pronounced in adults.
The larger size of the adult insects' eyes makes them more prone to radiation damage. This explains why grown individuals are nocturnal. Lessened sensitivity to light in the newly emerged insects helps them to escape from the leaf litter wherein they are hatched and move upward into the more brightly illuminated foliage. Young stick insects are diurnal feeders and move around expanding their foraging range. Stick insects have two types of pads on their legs: sticky "toe pads" and non-stick "heel pads" a little further up their legs; the heel pads are covered in microscopic hairs which create strong friction at low pressure, enabling them to grip without having to be peeled energetically from the surface at each step. The sticky toe pads are used to provide additional grip when climbing but are not used on a level surface. Phasmatodea can be found all over the world except for the Patagonia, they are most numerous in the subtropics. The greatest diversity is found in Southeast Asia and South America, followed by Australia, Central America, the southern United States.
Over 300 species are known from the island of Borneo, making it the richest place in the world for Phasmatodea. Phasmatodea species exhibit mechanisms for defense from predators that prevent an attack from happening in the first place, defenses that are deployed after an attack has been initiated; the defense mechanism most identifiable with Phasmatodea is camouflage, in the form of a plant mimicry. Most phasmids are known for replicating the forms of sticks and leaves, the bodies of some species are covered in mossy or lichenous outgrowths that supplement their disguise. Remaining stationary enhances their inconspicuousness; some species have the ability to change color as their surroundings shift. In a further behavioral adaptation to supplement crypsis, a number of species perform a rocking motion where the body is swayed from side to side.
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II. Margaret spent much of her childhood with her parents and sister, her life changed in 1936, when her paternal uncle, King Edward VIII, abdicated to marry a divorcée, Wallis Simpson. Margaret's father became king, her sister became heir presumptive, with Margaret second in line to the throne. During the Second World War, the two sisters stayed at Windsor Castle, despite suggestions to evacuate them to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was considered too young to perform any official duties and instead continued her education. After the war, Margaret fell in love with Group Captain Peter Townsend. In 1952, Margaret's father died, her sister became queen, Townsend divorced his first wife. Early the following year, he proposed to Margaret. Many in the government believed he would be an unsuitable husband for the Queen's 22-year-old sister, the Church of England refused to countenance marriage to a divorced man.
Margaret abandoned her plans with him, in 1960 she married the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, created Earl of Snowdon by the Queen. The couple had two children: Sarah. Margaret was viewed as a controversial member of the British royal family, her divorce in 1978 earned her negative publicity, she was romantically associated with several men. Her health deteriorated in the final two decades of her life. A heavy smoker for most of her adult life, Margaret had a lung operation in 1985, a bout of pneumonia in 1993, at least three strokes between 1998 and 2001, she died at King Edward VII's Hospital on 9 February 2002. Margaret was born on 21 August 1930 at Glamis Castle in Scotland, her mother's ancestral home, was affectionately known as Margot within the royal family, she was delivered by the royal obstetrician. The Home Secretary, J. R. Clynes, was present to verify the birth; the registration of her birth was delayed for several days to avoid her being numbered 13 in the parish register. At the time of her birth, she was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne.
Her father was the Duke of the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. Her mother was the Duchess of York, the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl and the Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne; the Duchess of York wanted to name her second daughter Ann Margaret, as she explained to Queen Mary in a letter: "I am anxious to call her Ann Margaret, as I think Ann of York sounds pretty, & Elizabeth and Ann go so well together." King George V disliked the name Ann but approved of the alternative "Margaret Rose". Margaret was baptised in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1930 by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Margaret's early life was spent at the Yorks' residences at 145 Piccadilly and Royal Lodge in Windsor; the Yorks were perceived by the public as an ideal family: father and children, but unfounded rumours that Margaret was deaf and mute were not dispelled until Margaret's first main public appearance at her uncle Prince George's wedding in 1934. She was educated alongside her sister, Princess Elizabeth, by their Scottish governess Marion Crawford.
Margaret's education was supervised by her mother, who in the words of Randolph Churchill "never aimed at bringing her daughters up to be more than nicely behaved young ladies". When Queen Mary insisted upon the importance of education, the Duchess of York commented, "I don't know what she meant. After all I and my sisters only had governesses and we all married well—one of us well". Margaret was resentful about her limited education in years, aimed criticism at her mother. However, Margaret's mother told a friend that she "regretted" that her daughters did not go to school like other children, the employment of a governess rather than sending the girls to school may have been done only at the insistence of King George V. Margaret's grandfather, George V, died when she was five, her uncle acceded as King Edward VIII. Less than a year on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American, whom neither the Church of England nor the Dominion governments would accept as queen.
The Church would not recognise the marriage of a divorced woman with a living ex-husband as valid. Edward's abdication left a reluctant Duke of York in his place as King George VI, Margaret unexpectedly became second in line to the throne, with the title The Princess Margaret to indicate her status as a child of the sovereign; the family moved into Buckingham Palace. Margaret was a Brownie in the 1st Buckingham Palace Brownie Pack, formed in 1937, she was a Girl Guide and a Sea Ranger. She served as President of Girlguiding UK from 1965 until her death in 2002. At the outbreak of World War II, Margaret and her sister were at Birkhall, on the Balmoral Castle estate, where they stayed until Christmas 1939, enduring nights so cold that drinking water in carafes by their bedside froze, they spent Christmas at Sandringham House before moving to Windsor Castle, just outside London, for much of the remainder of the war. Viscount Hailsham wrote to Prime Minister Winston Churchill to advise the evacuation of the princesses to the greater safety of Canada, to which their mother famously replied, "The children won't go without me.
I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."Unlike other members of the royal family, Margaret was not expected to undertake any public or official duties dur
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents. Species of rats are found throughout the order Rodentia, but stereotypical rats are found in the genus Rattus. Other rat genera include Neotoma and Dipodomys. Rats are distinguished from mice by their size; when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, its name includes the term mouse. The common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. In other words, rat is not a scientific term; the best-known rat species are the brown rat. This group known as the Old World rats or true rats, originated in Asia. Rats are bigger than most Old World mice, which are their relatives, but weigh over 500 grams in the wild; the term rat is used in the names of other small mammals that are not true rats. Examples include the North American pack rats, a number of species loosely called kangaroo rats, others. Rats such as the bandicoot rat are murine rodents related to true rats but are not members of the genus Rattus.
Male rats are called bucks. A group of rats is referred to as a mischief; the common species are opportunistic survivors and live with and near humans. They may cause substantial food losses in developing countries. However, the distributed and problematic commensal species of rats are a minority in this diverse genus. Many species of rats are island endemics, some of which have become endangered due to habitat loss or competition with the brown, black, or Polynesian rat. Wild rodents, including rats, can carry many different zoonotic pathogens, such as Leptospira, Toxoplasma gondii, Campylobacter; the Black Death is traditionally believed to have been caused by the microorganism Yersinia pestis, carried by the tropical rat flea, which preyed on black rats living in European cities during the epidemic outbreaks of the Middle Ages. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is foot-and-mouth disease. Rats become sexually reach social maturity at about 5 to 6 months of age; the average lifespan of rats varies by species.
The black and brown rats diverged from other Old World rats in the forests of Asia during the beginning of the Pleistocene. The characteristic long tail of most rodents is a feature, extensively studied in various rat species models, which suggest three primary functions of this structure: thermoregulation, minor proprioception, a nocifensive-mediated degloving response. Rodent tails—particularly in rat models—have been implicated with a thermoregulation function that follows from its anatomical construction; this particular tail morphology is evident across the family Muridae, in contrast to the bushier tails of Sciuridae, the squirrel family. The tail is hairless and thin skinned but vascularized, thus allowing for efficient countercurrent heat exchange with the environment; the high muscular and connective tissue densities of the tail, along with ample muscle attachment sites along its plentiful caudal vertebrae, facilitate specific proprioceptive senses to help orient the rodent in a three-dimensional environment.
Lastly, murids have evolved a unique defense mechanism termed degloving that allows for escape from predation through the loss of the outermost integumentary layer on the tail. However, this mechanism is associated with multiple pathologies that have been the subject of investigation. Multiple studies have explored the thermoregulatory capacity of rodent tails by subjecting test organisms to varying levels of physical activity and quantifying heat conduction via the animals' tails. One study demonstrated a significant disparity in heat dissipation from a rat's tail relative to its abdomen; this observation was attributed to the higher proportion of vascularity in the tail, as well as its higher surface-area-to-volume ratio, which directly relates to heat's ability to dissipate via the skin. These findings were confirmed in a separate study analyzing the relationships of heat storage and mechanical efficiency in rodents that exercise in warm environments. In this study, the tail was a focal point in measuring heat modulation.
On the other hand, the tail's ability to function as a proprioceptive sensor and modulator has been investigated. As aforementioned, the tail demonstrates a high degree of muscularization and subsequent innervation that ostensibly collaborate in orienting the organism; this is accomplished by coordinated flexion and extension of tail muscles to produce slight shifts in the organism's center of mass, etc. which assists it with achieving a state of proprioceptive balance in its environment. Further mechanobiological investigations of the constituent tendons in the tail of the rat have identified multiple factors that influence how the organism navigates its environment with this structure. A particular example is that of a study in which the morphology of these tendons is explicated in detail. Namely, cell viability tests of tendons of the rat's tail demonstrate a higher proportion of living fibroblasts that produce the collagen for these fibers; as in humans, these tendons contain a high density of golgi tendon organs that help the animal assess stretching of muscle in situ and adjust accordingly by relaying the information to higher cortical areas associated with balance and movement.
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was Queen of the United Kingdom and the Dominions from her husband's accession in 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, she was the last Empress of India. Born into a family of British nobility, she came to prominence in 1923 when she married the Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary; the couple and their daughters embodied traditional ideas of public service. She undertook a variety of public engagements and became known for her cheerful countenance. In 1936, her husband unexpectedly became king when his older brother, Edward VIII, abdicated in order to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Elizabeth became queen, she accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of the Second World War.
During the war, her indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. After the war, her husband's health deteriorated and she was widowed at the age of 51, her elder daughter, aged 25, became the new queen. From the death of Queen Mary in 1953, Elizabeth was viewed as the matriarch of the British royal family. In her years, she was a popular member of the family when other members were suffering from low levels of public approval, she continued an active public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101 years, 238 days, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter, Princess Margaret. Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, his wife, Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck, her mother was descended from British Prime Minister William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Governor-General of India Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, the elder brother of another Prime Minister, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.
The location of her birth remains uncertain, but reputedly she was born either in her parents' Westminster home at Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, or in a horse-drawn ambulance on the way to a hospital. Other possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, the home of her maternal grandmother, Louisa Scott, her birth was registered at Hitchin, near the Strathmores' English country house, St Paul's Walden Bury, given as her birthplace in the census the following year. She was christened there on 23 September 1900, in the local parish church, All Saints, her godparents included her paternal aunt Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon and cousin Venetia James, she spent much of her childhood at St Paul's Walden and at Glamis Castle, the Earl's ancestral home in Scotland. She was educated at home by a governess until the age of eight, was fond of field sports and dogs; when she started school in London, she astonished her teachers by precociously beginning an essay with two Greek words from Xenophon's Anabasis.
Her best subjects were scripture. After returning to private education under a German Jewish governess, Käthe Kübler, she passed the Oxford Local Examination with distinction at age thirteen. On her fourteenth birthday, Britain declared war on Germany. Four of her brothers served in the army, her elder brother, Fergus, an officer in the Black Watch Regiment, was killed in action at the Battle of Loos in 1915. Another brother, was reported missing in action on 28 April 1917. Three weeks the family discovered he had been captured after being wounded, he remained in a prisoner of war camp for the rest of the war. Glamis was turned into a convalescent home for wounded soldiers, she was instrumental in organising the rescue of the castle's contents during a serious fire on 16 September 1916. One of the soldiers she treated wrote in her autograph book that she was to be "Hung, drawn, & quartered... Hung in diamonds, drawn in a coach and four, quartered in the best house in the land." Prince Albert, Duke of York—"Bertie" to the family—was the second son of King George V.
He proposed to Elizabeth in 1921, but she turned him down, being "afraid never, never again to be free to think and act as I feel I ought to". When he declared he would marry no other, his mother, Queen Mary, visited Glamis to see for herself the girl who had stolen her son's heart, she became convinced that Elizabeth was "the one girl who could make Bertie happy", but refused to interfere. At the same time, Elizabeth was courted by James Stuart, Albert's equerry, until he left the Prince's service for a better-paid job in the American oil business. In February 1922, Elizabeth was a bridesmaid at the wedding of Albert's sister, Princess Mary, to Viscount Lascelles; the following month, Albert proposed again. In January 1923, Elizabeth agreed to marry Albert, despite her misgivings about royal life. Albert's freedom in choosing Elizabeth, not a member of a royal family, though the daughter of a peer, was considered a gesture in favour of political modernisation, they selected a platinum engagement ring featuring a Kashmir sapphire with two diamonds adorning its sides.
They married on 26 April 1923, at Westminster Abbey. Unexpectedly, Elizabeth laid her bouquet at the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior on her way into the Abbey, in memory of her brother Fergus. Elizabeth became styled Her Royal Highness The Duchess of York. Following a