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Jennifer Saunders

Jennifer Jane Saunders is an English comedian, screenwriter and actress. She has won three BAFTAs, a British Comedy Award, a Rose d'Or Light Entertainment Festival Award, two Writers' Guild of Great Britain Awards, a People's Choice Award. Saunders first found attention in the 1980s when she became a member of The Comic Strip after graduating from the Central School of Speech and Drama in London. With her comedy partner Dawn French, she wrote and starred in their eponymous sketch show and Saunders, for which she and French received a BAFTA fellowship in 2009. Saunders received acclaim through the early to mid-1990s for writing, playing the main character of Edina Monsoon, in the BBC sitcom Absolutely Fabulous, she has guest-starred in the American sitcoms Roseanne and Friends and won the People's Choice Awards for voicing the evil Fairy Godmother in DreamWorks' animated Shrek 2. In 2015, Saunders voiced Queen Elizabeth II in the animated comedy film Minions, in 2016 she voiced Nana Noodleman in the animated musical film Sing.

Jennifer Jane Saunders was born on 6 July 1958 in Sleaford, England. Her mother, was a biology teacher, her father, Robert Thomas Saunders, served as a pilot in the Royal Air Force, he reached the rank of group captain, worked for British Aerospace. She has three brothers; as her father was in the armed forces, Saunders changed schools many times. She was educated from the age of five to 18 in boarding schools and at St Paul's Girls' School, an independent school in west London. After school, she worked for a year in Italy as an au pair, she received a place at the Central School of Speech and Drama in London on a drama teachers' course in 1977, where she met her future comedy partner, Dawn French. Both came from RAF backgrounds, they had grown up on the same base having had the same best friend, without meeting. The comic duo did not get on well, as far as Saunders was concerned, French was a "cocky little upstart"; the distrust was mutual: French considered Saunders snooty and uptight. French wanted to become a drama teacher, whereas Saunders loathed the idea and had not understood what the course was about.

Saunders was shocked to find that she was taking a course to become a teacher, as her mother had filled in the application form. Her mother was saddened. After the initial friction while at college and French shared a flat together. French has remarked on Saunders's messy habits when sharing the house, stating, "When we lived together in Chalk Farm, she had a room at the top of the house. We got broken into and the police said,'Well, it is quite bad, but the worst is that room at the top.' And, of course, nobody had been in there." The two performed together after graduation, working the festival and stand-up circuits. They formed. Saunders described the act, which involved wearing tampons in their ears, as "cringeworthy." The manager of the club where they performed recalled, "They didn't seem to give a damn. There was no star quality about them at all." French and Saunders would come to public attention as members of the informal comedy collective The Comic Strip, part of the alternative comedy scene in the early 1980s.

They answered a 1980 advert in The Stage newspaper looking for female comedians to perform at The Comic Strip, which had, until that point, only had male performers. When they walked into the audition, they were told, "You're booked; when can you start?"Both Saunders and French became continuing members of The Comic Strip, which included Peter Richardson, Rik Mayall, Robbie Coltrane, as well as Saunders' future husband Adrian Edmondson. The group performed at the Boulevard Theatre, above Soho's Raymond Revuebar, gained a cult following, with visiting audience members including Dustin Hoffman, Jack Nicholson, Robin Williams, who once joined in the performance. By the time French and Saunders became members of The Comic Strip, French was working as a drama teacher, whilst Saunders was on the dole and spending a lot of her time sleeping in bed after the dole office closed for the day; the comedy group appeared on Channel 4's first night on air, in the first episode of The Comic Strip Presents: Five Go Mad In Dorset, broadcast on 2 November 1982.

In the episodes "Bad News" and "More Bad News", Saunders plays a trashy rock journalist touring with the fictional heavy metal band Bad News. In 1985, Saunders starred in and co-wrote Girls on Top with French, Tracey Ullman, Ruby Wax, which portrayed four eccentric women sharing a flat in London. Saunders appeared in Ben Elton's Happy Families where she played various members of the same family, including all four Fuddle sisters in the six-episode BBC situation comedy. Saunders starred in a Comic Strip film called The Supergrass, a little-known parody of slick 1980s police dramas, directed by Peter Richardson. Saunders played Meryl Streep playing Arthur Scargill's wife in Strike, a Comic Strip spoof on the 1984 miners' strike, she appeared twice as a guest on The Young Ones. In 1987, she and French created French and Saunders, a popular sketch comedy series for the BBC, which aired until 2007. By the end of the 1980s, the show was an established comedy programme and became a staple in BBC viewing.

Saunders appeared in Amnesty International's The Secret Policeman's Biggest Ball live benefit in 1989, along with Dawn French and others. Saunders and French followed separate careers as well as maintaining their comedy sketch show. Saunders' biggest solo success has been Absolutely Fabulous; the co

Climate change mitigation scenarios

Climate change mitigation scenarios are possible futures in which global warming is reduced by deliberate actions, such as a comprehensive switch to energy sources other than fossil fuels. These are actions that minimize emissions so atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are stabilized at levels that restrict the adverse consequences of climate change. Using these scenarios, the examination of the impacts of different carbon prices on an economy is enabled within the framework of different levels of global aspirations. A typical mitigation scenario is constructed by selecting a long-range target, such as a desired atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, fitting the actions to the target, for example by placing a cap on net global and national emissions of greenhouse gases. An increase of global temperature by more than 2 °C has come to be the majority definition of what would constitute intolerably dangerous climate change with efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels per the Paris Agreement.

Some climate scientists are of the opinion that the goal should be a complete restoration of the atmosphere's preindustrial condition, on the grounds that too protracted a deviation from those conditions will produce irreversible changes. A stabilization wedge is an action; the name is derived from the triangular shape of the gap between reduced and unreduced emissions trajectories when graphed over time. For example, a reduction in electricity demand due to increased efficiency means that less electricity needs to be generated and thus fewer emissions need to be produced; the term originates in the Stabilization Wedge Game. As a reference unit, a stabilization wedge is equal to the following examples of mitigation initiatives: deployment of two hundred thousand 10 MW wind turbines. Pacala and Socolow proposed in their work, Stabilization Wedges, that seven wedges are required to be delivered by 2050 - at current technologies - to make a significant impact on the mitigation of climate change.

There are, sources that estimate the need for 14 wedges because Pacala and Socolow's proposal would only stabilize carbon dioxide emissions at current levels but not the atmospheric concentration, increasing by more than 2 ppm/year. In 2011, Socolow revised their earlier estimate to nine. Contributions to climate change, whether they cool or warm the Earth, are described in terms of the radiative forcing or imbalance they introduce to the planet's energy budget. Now and in the future, anthropogenic carbon dioxide is believed to be the major component of this forcing, the contribution of other components is quantified in terms of "parts-per-million carbon dioxide equivalent", or the increment/decrement in carbon dioxide concentrations which would create a radiative forcing of the same magnitude. At present, non-CO2 contributions to climate change and negative, are believed to cancel out, so that the net radiative forcing being experienced at present, expressed in ppm CO2-e, is more or less the same as the actual current level of carbon dioxide.

To some extent this legitimates the statement of targets just in terms of ppm CO2, as is the case. However, the positive and negative non-CO2 will not balance in future, so a target stated in terms of CO2e is less ambiguous; the BLUE scenarios in the IEA's Energy Technology Perspectives publication of 2008 describe pathways to a long-range concentration of 450 ppm. Joseph Romm has sketched. World Energy Outlook 2008, mentioned above describes a "450 Policy Scenario", in which extra energy investments to 2030 amount to $9.3 trillion over the Reference Scenario. The scenario features, after 2020, the participation of major economies such as China and India in a global cap-and-trade scheme operating in OECD and European Union countries; the less conservative 450 ppm scenario calls for extensive deployment of negative emissions, i.e. the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. According to the International Energy Agency and OECD, "Achieving lower concentration targets depends on the use of BECCS"; this is the target advocated in the Stern Review.

As a doubling of CO2 levels relative to preindustrial times, it implies a temperature increase of about three degrees, according to conventional estimates of climate sensitivity. Pacala and Socolow list 15 "wedges", any 7 of which in combination should suffice to keep CO2 levels below 550 ppm; the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook report for 2008 describes a "Reference Scenario" for the world's energy future "which assumes no new government policies beyond those adopted by mid-2008", a "550 Policy Scenario" in which further policies are adopted, a mixture of "cap-and-trade systems, sectoral agreements and national measures". In the Reference Scenario, between 2006 and 2030 the world invests $26.3 trillion in energy-supply infrastructure. Greenhouse gas concentrations are aggregated in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent; some multi-gas mitigation scenarios have been modeled by al.. In a 2000 paper, Hansen argued that the 0.75 °C rise in average globa


Peney-le-Jorat is a former municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is in close proximity to both France and Italy; the villages of Villars-Tiercelin, Montaubion-Chardonney, Villars-Mendraz and Peney-le-Jorat merged on 1 July 2011 into the new municipality of Jorat-Menthue. Peney-le-Jorat is first mentioned around 1141-43 as Pinoy. Peney-le-Jorat has an area, as of 2009, of 4.5 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.45 km2 or 54.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.77 km2 or 39.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.26 km2 or 5.8% is settled. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.9%. Out of the forested land, 38.3% of the total land area is forested and 1.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 38.3% is used for growing crops and 16.4% is pastures. The municipality was part of the Oron District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Peney-le-Jorat became part of the new district of Gros-de-Vaud.

The village is located on a plateau in the middle Jorat. It consists of a number of surrounding hamlets; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure, on three Hills as many Pine-trees Argent, in chief two Gad-flies Or. Peney-le-Jorat has a population of 377; as of 2008, 12.6% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 25.7%. It has changed at a rate of 11.3 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with Portuguese being second most common and German being third. There are 2 people. Of the population in the village 96 or about 30.8% were born in Peney-le-Jorat and lived there in 2000. There were 144 or 46.2% who were born in the same canton, while 43 or 13.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 28 or 9.0% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 4 live births to Swiss citizens and 2 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there was 1 death of a Swiss citizen and 1 non-Swiss citizen death.

Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 3 while the foreign population increased by 1. There was 1 Swiss man. At the same time, there were 8 non-Swiss men and 7 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 7 and the non-Swiss population increased by 15 people. This represents a population growth rate of 2.2%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Peney-le-Jorat is. Of the adult population, 35 people or 9.3 % of the population are between 29 years old. 48 people or 12.7% are between 30 and 39, 68 people or 18.0% are between 40 and 49, 45 people or 11.9% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 34 people or 9.0% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 19 people or 5.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 13 people or 3.4% who are between 80 and 89, there is 1 person, 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 140 people who never married in the village.

There were 9 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.61, about equal to the cantonal average of 0.61 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m² as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms and habitable cellars and attics. About 62.1 % of the total households were in other words did not pay rent. As of 2000, there were 114 private households in the village, an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 25 households that consist of 8 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 116 households that answered this question, 21.6% were households made up of just one person. Of the rest of the households, there are 37 married couples without children, 45 married couples with children There were 6 single parents with a child or children. There was 1 household, made up of unrelated people and 2 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 37 single family homes out of a total of 77 inhabited buildings.

There were 16 multi-family buildings, along with 22 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 2 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 15 were built before 1919, while 4 were built between 1990 and 2000; the most multi-family homes were built before 1919 and the next most were built between 1971 and 1980. In 2000 there were 124 apartments in the village; the most common apartment size was 5 rooms of which there were 39. There were 59 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 103 apartments were permanently occupied, while 17 apartments were seasonally occupied and 4 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the village, in 2010, was 0.66%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In

Veterans Stadium

Veterans Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium in Philadelphia, United States. It was located at the northeast corner of Broad Street and Pattison Avenue, as part of the South Philadelphia Sports Complex; the listed seating capacities in 1971 were 65,358 seats for football, 56,371 for baseball. It hosted the Philadelphia Phillies of Major League Baseball from 1971 to 2003 and the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League from 1971 to January 2003; the 1976 and 1996 Major League Baseball All-Star Games were held at the venue. The Vet hosted the annual Army-Navy football game seventeen times between 1980 and 2001. In addition to professional baseball and football, the stadium hosted other amateur and professional sports, large entertainment events, other civic affairs, it was demolished by implosion in March 2004 after being replaced by the adjacent Citizens Bank Park and Lincoln Financial Field. A parking lot now sits on its former site; as early as 1959, Phillies owner R. R. M. Carpenter Jr. proposed building a new ballpark for the Phillies on 72 acres adjacent to the Garden State Park Racetrack in Cherry Hill, New Jersey.

The Phillies' then-home, Connie Mack Stadium, was starting to show its age, had inadequate parking, was located in a declining neighborhood. Furthermore, in 1959 alcohol sales at sporting events were banned in Pennsylvania but were legal in New Jersey; the proposed ballpark would have seated 45,000 fans, been expandable to 60,000 and would have had 15,000 parking spaces. The American League's Philadelphia Athletics had moved to Kansas City, Missouri after the 1954 season, the NBA's Philadelphia Warriors had moved to San Francisco in 1962, Philadelphians weren't about to lose another professional sports franchise. In 1964, Philadelphia voters approved a US$25-million-bond issue for a new stadium to serve as the home of both the Eagles and the Phillies; because of cost overruns, the voters had to go to the polls again in 1967 to approve another $13 million. At a total cost of $60 million, it was one of the most-expensive ballparks to date; the stadium was named in 1968, for the veterans of all wars.

As early as December 1969, the Phillies expected that they would play the first month of the 1970 season at Connie Mack Stadium before moving to the new venue. However, the opening was delayed a year because of a combination of bad cost overruns; the stadium's design was nearly circular, was known as an "octorad" design, which attempted to facilitate both football and baseball. Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego had been designed; as was the case with other cities where this dual approach was tried, the fundamentally different sizes and shapes of the playing fields made the stadium inadequate to the needs of either sport. The stadium opened with a $3 million scoreboard complex that at the time was the most expensive installed; the Phillies played their first game at the stadium on April 10, 1971, beating the Montreal Expos, 4–1, before an audience of 55,352. The first ball was dropped by helicopter to Phillies back-up catcher Mike Ryan. Jim Bunning was the winning pitcher. Entertainer Mike Douglas, whose daily talk show was taped in Philadelphia, sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" before the game.

The emcee for the opening ceremonies was newly-arrived Phillies play-by-play announcer Harry Kalas. Boots Day opened the game by grounding out to Bunning. Larry Bowa had the stadium's first hit and Don Money slugged the first home run. Veterans Stadium hosted its first regular-season NFL game on September 26, 1971, as the Eagles lost 42-7 to the Dallas Cowboys; the Eagles' only points came from Al Nelson's then-record 102-yard return of a missed field goal by Mike Clark in the fourth quarter. As the stadium aged, its condition deteriorated. A hole in the wall allowed visiting teams' players to peep into the Eagles Cheerleaders dressing room. So many mice infested the stadium; the final football game played at the Vet was the Eagles' 27–10 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the NFC Championship Game on January 19, 2003. The Eagles moved into Lincoln Financial Field in August 2003; the final game played at the stadium was the afternoon of September 28, 2003, a 5-2 Phillies loss to the Atlanta Braves.

The final hit was recorded by Greg Maddux of the Braves, the final loss by the Phils' Kevin Millwood. The final Phillies run was scored by Marlon Byrd at the top of the 3rd inning, the final run altogether by the Braves' Andruw Jones on a double by Robert Fick at the top of the 5th; the final hit at the Vet was a single by the Phills' Pat Burrell at the bottom of the 9th. The next batter, Chase Utley, grounded into a double play to end the Vet. However, the ceremony that followed pulled at the heartstrings of the sellout crowd. Both Paul Owens, a former general manager, Tug McGraw, a former pitcher, made their final public appearances at the park that day; the last publicly broadcast words uttered in the park were by Harry Kalas — a veteran announcer who helped open the facility on April 10, 1971 — who paraphrased his trademark home run call: "And now, Veterans Stadium is like a 3-1 pitch to Jim Thome or Mike Schmidt. It's on a looooooong drive…IT'S

Sinclair Knight Merz

Sinclair Knight Merz was a private Australian company operating across Asia Pacific, the Americas, the Middle East and Africa. The company had global capability in strategic consulting and project delivery. Jacobs Engineering Group announced its acquisition of SKM late in 2013 for AUS$1.3 billion The firm had 7,500 staff working in 47 offices around the world. This workforce represents a range of disciplines including engineers, architects, scientists, project managers and administrative staff; the business was wholly owned by 500 staff members in a partnership arrangement. In the fiscal year 2011-12 the firm’s financial revenue was AUS$1.43 billion. SKM’s operations are divided into four broad “Business Units”: Buildings & Infrastructure Mining & Metals Power & Energy Water & EnvironmentVarious technical disciplines sit within these broad categories. For example, specialist rail and tunneling staff are based in the Infrastructure Business Unit. An umbrella “Group” division contains teams responsible for specific project delivery skills, such as risk management and economic planning.

The Sinclair & Knight practice was established in Sydney Australia in 1964 by Bruce Sinclair and Jack Knight. The firm grew over the next 30 years, in 1996 it merged with Merz Australia to form Sinclair Knight Merz. A series of mergers over the following ten years saw the firm’s continued expansion in size and services. El Teniente, Chile Hume Highway, Australia Irrigation Modernisation Project, Australia ) The Eden Project Athens Olympic Stadium Wembley Stadium redevelopment Gold Coast desalination plant Port upgrade, Dampier Western Australia The Roundhouse Project Seabird – Indian naval base Dublin Light Rail system Australian Air Warfare Destroyer program Albury-Wodonga Hume Freeway bypass Central Motorway Junction, New Zealand 2011-12 SKM Annual Review Sinclair Knight Merz

Night Watch (Lukyanenko novel)

Night Watch is the first fantasy novel by the Russian author Sergei Lukyanenko to feature his fictional world of the Others. Lukyanenko wrote the story in 1998 and the book was first published in Russia by AST in 1998; the story revolves around a confrontation between two opposing supernatural groups: the Night Watch, an organization dedicated to policing the actions of the Dark Others—and the Day Watch, which polices the actions of the Light Others. The novel is first in a cycle that continues with Day Watch, Twilight Watch, Final Watch, New Watch, Sixth Watch; the first story of the novel, was made into a successful Russian film, Night Watch, although keeping the characters and many of the events of the original novel, alters some significant elements of the story. In the story's worldline there exists a magical realm beneath the surface of all things—referred to as the Twilight; the action in the novel centers on a group of people referred to as the Others —human beings who tapped into the Twilight and gained supernormal abilities.

The Others were the humans from long ago. However, the Others are different from humans, they are born as Others. Humans are not able to become Others; the Twilight does not offer its gifts freely. If sufficiently weakened, they are consumed; the aura of any Other, or emotional state at the time of their first entry into the Twilight, determines whether or not the Other will become a'Light' or'Dark' Other. Furthermore, once determined either Light or Dark, an Other must choose what specific powers they will borrow from the Twilight. Variations such as vampires and healers are all possible, each with their own benefits and restrictions; the choice is made by the state of mind but if choosing Light or Dark during Initiation, a Watch can attempt to steer the powers of someone into what they need at the time. "Initiation" refers to the process of an Other choosing not Light or Dark but choosing to be a part of the Night Watch or Day Watch. An Other can exist without being initiated as part of a Watch, still independently capable of entering the Twilight and becoming Light or Dark.

The choice of becoming light or dark what specific powers you gain is final. The division of Light and Dark had always existed between the Others; those of the Light believed it was their duty to help the helpless. Those of the Dark shunned all obligations, they did what they wanted, regardless of consequences. For many millennia, the two sides fought a vicious battle. Both were willing to use any means necessary to achieve victory, they realized that if they continued their battle, neither side would survive. The leaders of both sides forged the Grand Treaty—a set of laws to govern the way the Others used their powers; the Light Others created the Night Watch, the Dark Others the Day Watch, to ensure that neither side would violate the Treaty. The Inquisition, a group composed of both Dark and Light Others, was created to arbitrate. If they spend them too the Others can use the feelings and emotions of the humans surrounding them to recharge their powers; the Dark Others use negative emotions such as pain or anger, the Light Others use positive emotions such as joy.

Feeding on pain causes pain to increase. Because negative emotions are much easier to achieve in humans, this arrangement creates a situation where the powers of the Dark Others are easier to recharge and are much more available than those of the Light Others. Since the signing of the Treaty, the Night Watch and the Day Watch have kept their eyes on each other, diligently policing every violation; the old leaders continue to plot, using the Others as their pawns. Only time will tell; the novel is divided into three stories - Destiny, Among His Own Kind, All for My Own Kind. Each story is subdivided into a prologue followed by eight chapters in the first story, seven chapters in each of the following stories. Except for the prologues, the majority of the events in each story are written in a first person narrative using the voice of the Light Magician character Anton Gorodetsky, a member of the Night Watch. Events in each of the prologues, as well as intermittent other events in the stories, are written in a third person narrative and take place outside of Gorodetsky's presence.

The entire novel is written in the past tense. A Mage reassigned to field work in the Night Watch, Anton Gorodetsky, is tasked with tracking vampires who have been hunting and killing humans without a licence; as he follows a young boy, magically lured by two vampires through the Metro, he notices a young woman, who has a huge vortex of damnation above her. Trying to free her from the vortex he uses up the power of an amulet he has been given to use against the vampires, but only succeeds in temporarily reducing the curse upon her, he finds the vampires who have been calling Egor, in the struggle to arrest them, because he has used up the amulet trying to do good elsewhere, is forced to kill one while the other gets away. He returns to the Night Watch headquarters, where his boss, Boris Ignatievich, informs him that he could be in danger as Zabulon might want revenge for his actions in killing Dark Others and gives him an owl called Olga, to be his Watch partner. Anton rejects the offer finds Olga in his apartment and reluctantl