Up Where We Belong
"Up Where We Belong" is a song written by Jack Nitzsche, Buffy Sainte-Marie and Will Jennings, recorded by Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes for the 1982 film An Officer and a Gentleman. Warnes was recommended to sing a song from the film because of her previous soundtrack successes, she had the idea for the song to be a duet that she would perform with Cocker. Jennings selected various sections of the score by Nitsche and Sainte-Marie in creating the structure of the song and added lyrics about the struggles of life and love and the obstacles in the way that we attempt to dodge, it was released in July of that year to coincide with the release of the film. The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US and topped the charts in several other countries, it sold more than one million copies in the US and was recognized by the Recording Industry Association of America as one of the Songs of the Century. Cocker and Warnes were awarded the Grammy for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, Nitzsche, Sainte-Marie, Jennings won both the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.
In 1984, the gospel duo BeBe & CeCe Winans recorded a religious variation of the song that received airplay on Christian radio stations, their remake in 1996 earned them a GMA Dove Award. Various versions of the song have been used to parody the final scene of the film on television shows such as Family Guy, The Simpsons, South Park; the fact that the song is a ballad was seen as a misstep in Cocker's career, built on performing rock and soul. On February 24, 1982, English singer Joe Cocker performed "I'm So Glad I'm Standing Here Today" with the jazz group the Crusaders at the Grammy Awards, their collaboration on the song for a Crusaders album had earned a nomination that year in the category of Best Inspirational Performance. Singer-songwriter Jennifer Warnes saw the show from home, she had been a fan of Cocker's since her teens and at one time had a poster of him on her wall showing him performing at Woodstock, her love for the singer was still evident on this night many years later. "I was so moved, I was hollering out loud with joy, jumping up and down...
After a difficult battle with drugs and alcohol, Joe was in total command once again. I knew at that moment that I would sing with Joe." Meanwhile, plans were being made for An Officer and a Gentleman to be distributed by Paramount Pictures, studio executive Frank Mancuso was insistent upon having some kind of music to use to promote the film. The director of the film, Taylor Hackford, was interested in producing an original title song to help market it, but there was no remaining budget for such a recording, he proceeded with the idea anyway, working with Joel Sill, head of music at Paramount at the time, without anyone else at the studio knowing that they were doing so. The director contacted his friend Gary George to consult with regarding the selection of a recording artist for the song. George, the former head of publicity at Warner Bros. Records, had become a manager and suggested Warnes, a client of his. One of the six songs that Warnes had placed in the top half of the Billboard Hot 100 at that point was the number six hit "Right Time of the Night" from 1977.
Her soundtrack credits included the Oscar-nominated "One More Hour" from Ragtime and the Oscar-winning "It Goes Like It Goes" from Norma Rae, like the Hackford film had a lead female character who worked in a factory. Hackford rejected the idea of Warnes singing a song for An Officer and a Gentleman "because he felt she had too sweet a sound," but Warnes met with Sill and discussed the possibility of doing so: "I suggested to Joel that I sing on that film in a duet with Joe Cocker." Sill thought. He said, "I discussed with Taylor, since the film centered around Richard and Debra that maybe we should have a duet" and that with Cocker and Warnes they would be "matching the characters to some degree; the dynamic between the two was the soft and the rough, that, to some degree, Debra Winger's character was very soft in the picture though she was in a rough environment. And Richard Gere's character, to some degree, was a rough character until he was softened up by her." Hackford thought the idea had potential and now had another friend in the music industry to ask for a favor.
Chris Blackwell was the owner of Island Records, Cocker was now recording for Island. "I called Chris and said I want to do this, he just, on the phone, said,'OK, I'll make this happen.'" What would convince Cocker to work on the project, was a small portion of the lyrics. He described it as "the'Up' part, what made me realize it had hit potential, it was so unusual – that'Love, lift us up...'" The last scene of the film brought the story to a happy ending, Hackford wanted to have a song playing during the closing credits that would act as a reflection of the relationship portrayed and incorporate the theme music composed by Jack Nitzsche and Buffy Saint-Marie. Nitzsche wanted to have Sainte-Marie write the lyrics, but her background in folk music caused Sill and Hackford to look elsewhere. Sill invited a lyricist who he'd worked with before, Will Jennings, to the studio to view a rough cut of the film, that gave Jennings inspiration for the structure and lyrics of what became "Up Where We Belong".
"And all through the film I was hearing these bits and pieces of music, at the end of it I had it in my head, you know, how there was a song. I heard a chorus here and a verse here and a bridge there, so when I finished, Joel was there, I said,'Joel, just give me all the music from it,' all of Nitzsche'
Parrot Records was an American record label, a division of London Records, which started in 1964. The label licensed recordings made by Decca Records, for release in the United States and Canada, most notably by the Zombies, Tom Jones, Engelbert Humperdinck, Jonathan King, Hedgehoppers Anonymous, Savoy Brown and Alan Price. Other artists included Love Sculpture and Bobby "Boris" Pickett; the label lasted until 1979. After Parrot became defunct, its artists were moved to the London label; the Parrot catalogue is managed by Polydor, a unit of Universal Music Group in the US. List of record labels List of recordings on the Parrot label Parrot Records from BSN Pubs
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Joan Chandos Baez is an American singer, songwriter and activist whose contemporary folk music includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 60 years, releasing over 30 albums. Fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. Although regarded as a folk singer, her music has diversified since the counterculture era of the 1960s, encompasses genres such as folk rock, pop and gospel music. Although a songwriter herself, Baez interprets other composers' work, having recorded songs by Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers Band, the Beatles, Jackson Browne, Leonard Cohen, Woody Guthrie, Violeta Parra, the Rolling Stones, Pete Seeger, Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder and many others. On her past several albums, she has found success interpreting songs of more recent songwriters, including Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle, Natalie Merchant and Joe Henry, she achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol. 2, Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold record status.
Songs of acclaim include "Diamonds & Rust" and covers of Phil Ochs's "There but for Fortune" and The Band's "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down". She is known for "Farewell, Angelina", "Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word", "Forever Young", "Here's to You", "Joe Hill", "Sweet Sir Galahad" and "We Shall Overcome", she was one of the first major artists to record the songs of Bob Dylan in the early 1960s. Baez performed fourteen songs at the 1969 Woodstock Festival and has displayed a lifelong commitment to political and social activism in the fields of nonviolence, civil rights, human rights and the environment. Baez was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017. Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9, 1941. Joan's grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left the Catholic Church to become a Methodist minister and moved to the U. S. when her father was two years old. Her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation.
Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead turned to the study of mathematics and physics and received his PhD degree at Stanford University in 1950. Albert was credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Joan's cousin, John C. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, her mother, Joan Baez, referred to as Joan Senior or "Big Joan", was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1913 as the second daughter of an English Anglican priest who claimed to be descended from the Dukes of Chandos. Born in April 1913, she died on days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters – Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, sometimes professionally known as Pauline Marden. To varying degrees, both women were political activists and musicians like their sister, they are notable for having been married to other American artists – Pauline to painter Brice Marden and Mimi to author and musician Richard Fariña with whom she collaborated for several years. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joan's early childhood, she has continued to identify with the tradition in her commitment to pacifism and social issues.
While growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage. She became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, she declined to play in any white student venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states, she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958. Due to her father's work with UNESCO, their family moved many times, living in towns across the U. S, as well as in England, Switzerland, Spain and the Middle East, including Iraq. Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the true core of her life, "looming larger than music"; the opening line of Baez's memoir And a Voice to Sing With is "I was born gifted". A friend of Joan's father gave her a ukulele, she learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues, the music she was listening to at the time.
Her parents, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction. When Baez was 13, her aunt and her aunt's boyfriend took her to a concert by folk musician Pete Seeger, Baez found herself moved by his music, she soon began performing them publicly. One of her earliest public performances was at a retreat in Saratoga, California for a youth group from Temple Beth Jacob, a Redwood City, California Jewish congregation. A few years in 1957, Baez bought her first Gibson acoustic guitar. In 1958, her father accepted a faculty position at MIT, moved his family to Massachusetts. At that time, it was in the center of the up-and-coming folk-music scene, Baez began performing near home in Boston and nearby Cambridge, she performed in clubs, attended Boston University for about six weeks. In 1958, at the Club 47 in Cambridge, she gave her first concert; when designing the poster for the performance, Baez considered changing her performing name to either Rachel Sandperl, the surname of her long-t
William Thomas Medley is an American singer and songwriter, best known as one half of The Righteous Brothers. He is noted for his bass-baritone voice, exemplified in songs such as "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'". Medley produced a number of the duo's songs, including "Unchained Melody" and "Soul and Inspiration". Medley is a successful solo artist, his million-selling #1 duet with Jennifer Warnes " The Time of My Life" won a number of awards. Medley was born on September 1940 in Santa Ana, California, to Arnol and Irma Medley, he attended Santa Ana High School and graduated in 1958. Medley was started singing in a church choir, his parents had a swing band. He became interested in R&B music listening to black music radio stations. An early influence he cited is Little Richard who he first heard when he was fifteen or sixteen years old, Ray Charles, Bobby Bland, B. B. King. Medley first formed a singing duo called The Romancers with his friend Don Fiduccia, who played the guitar, he began to record multi-track recordings in his living room.
At 19, he had two songs, "Womaling" and "Chimes of My Heart", recorded by vocal group The Diamonds. Medley and Fiduccia formed a group called The Paramours in 1960 with Sal Fasulo and Nick Tuturro joined by Mike Rider and Barry Rillera; the band had their first paying gig at Little Italy restaurant in Anaheim. The Paramours were signed to Mercury Records' subsidiary label Smash Records, released songs such as "That's The Way We Love" and "Miss Social Climber" in 1961. Medley first met his singing partner Bobby Hatfield through Barry Rillera, in both Hatfield's and Medley's group and asked them to see each other's show. In 1962, they formed a new group, but kept the name Paramours, which included saxophone player John Wimber who went on to found The Vineyard Church movement, they performed at The Black Derby nightclub in Santa Ana, released a single "There She Goes" in December 1962 with a small record label Moonglow. However, the band did not have much success and soon broke up, leaving Hatfield and Medley to perform as a duo in 1963.
Medley and Hatfield adopted the name The Righteous Brothers, their first single was the Medley-penned "Little Latin Lupe Lu" released under the label Moonglow Records. Medley recorded as a solo artist with Moonglow, released a single "Gotta Tell You How I Feel" which did not chart. In 1964, The Righteous Brothers appeared in a show with other groups in the Cow Palace in San Francisco where Phil Spector was conducting the band for the entire show. Spector was arranged to have them record for his own label Philles Records. In 1965, they had their first No. 1 hit, "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'", produced by Phil Spector. According to music publishing watchdog Broadcast Music, Inc. "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" is the most-played song in the history of American radio. They recorded other songs such as "Unchained Melody" with Philles Records. Medley, who had produced the duo before they signed with Spector and Philles, was the actual producer on many tracks and'B' sides credited to Spector, including "Unchained Melody", intended to be an album track.
On singles such as "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" and "Just Once in My Life", the vocals were concentrated on Medley, but on a few singles, such as "Unchained Melody" and "Ebb Tide", Hatfield performed solo. The duo left Spector in 1966 to sign with Verve Records where they had a hit with "Soul and Inspiration", but broke up in 1968 when Medley left to pursue his own career. Medley was performing three shows a night in Las Vegas. Under advice, he sought out Hatfield to reform The Righteous Brothers in 1974, they signed with Haven Records recorded "Rock and Roll Heaven" which became a hit. In 1976, Medley decided to quit music for some time after the death of his first wife, he reunited with Hatfield in 1981 for the 30th special of American Bandstand, where they performed an updated version of "Rock and Roll Heaven". Although Medley focused his attention on his solo career in the 1980s, they continued to appear together as a duo. After a resurgence in popularity in 1990s due to the use of "Unchained Melody" in the film Ghost, they toured extensively as a duo until Hatfield's death in November 2003.
The Righteous Brothers were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in March 2003 by Billy Joel. Medley had a moderately successful solo career. In 1968, Medley first recorded "I Can't Make It Alone" written by Carole King, but the song failed to make much of an impact; the following singles, "Brown Eyed Woman" written by Mann and Weil, "Peace, Peace", both performed better and were Top 40 Pop hits. In 1969, he won 2nd place at the Festival Internacional da Canção in Rio de Janeiro, with the song "Evie", by Jimmy Webb. Medley performed "Hey Jude" at the 1969 Grammy Awards, was signed to A&M Records which released a number of his records. One of his recordings, "Freedom and Fear" from Michel Colombier's album Wings, was nominated for a Grammy in 1972. Medley released several solo albums during the 1970s and 1980s, enjoyed a resurgence in his career in the 1980s, he released an album, Sweet Thunder in 1980, containing a version of "Don't Know Much", written and performed by Barry Mann the same year.
He signed with Planet Records in 1982 and with RCA Records. In 1984 and 1985, he charted five singles on the country charts with the biggest of these being the Top 20 country hit, "I Still Do," which crossed over to the adult contemporary charts and
Old Ideas is the twelfth studio album by Canadian singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen, released in January 2012. It is Cohen's highest-charting release in the United States, reaching number 3 on the Billboard 200, 44 years after the release of his first album; the album topped the charts in 11 countries, including Finland, where Cohen became, at the age of 77, the oldest chart-topper, during the album's debut week. The album was released on January 27, 2012 in some countries and on January 31, 2012 in the U. S. Before its release, the album was streamed online by NPR on January 22 and on January 23 by The Guardian. Cohen's international concert tours of the late 2000s were prompted by the fact his former manager made off with his life's savings. At their conclusion in 2009, Cohen decided to keep working and began making his twelfth studio album. Fans of Cohen had long become accustomed to long intervals in between albums - between 1979 and 1988 he released three - but the tour appeared to re-energize him, as biographer Sylvie Simmons observed in a 2012 Mojo cover story: "After his former manager helped herself to his savings, leaving him nothing to retire on, Leonard, in his seventies, having not been on the road in 15 years, embarked on one of the most remarkable, remarkably successful, tours in music history, playing three-hour shows each night.
And when it finished...instead of coming home and putting his feet up, he went straight to work on a new album and more extraordinary, in less than 12 months he finished it." Old Ideas was recorded in Los Angeles at Cohen's own studio in his house and at 7th Street Sound with Patrick Leonard and Ed Sanders. Many of the songs explore some of Cohen's favorite themes: mortality, sex and the quest for love in an apocalyptic world. Discussing the song "Amen" in his review of the album in Uncut, Andy Gill observes: Again, it's a rumination on deeper, darker matters delivered in the guise of a love song, the refrain'Tell me that you love me, Amen' punctuating a series of requests to'Tell me again...' that grow progressively bleaker as the song progresses: what kind of love song, for instance, includes a line like'...when the filth of the butcher is washed in the blood of the lamb'? This is about love on a larger scale, about notions of ethics and morality being eroded away as if unnecessary for the future, as Cohen acknowledges with some asperity:'...when the victims are singing and the laws of remorse are restored.'Religious imagery is prevalent, many of the songs feature Cohen on the guitar, a change from his recent albums, dominated by synthesizers.
Cohen worked with co-producer Patrick Leonard, writing four of the tracks with him: the resigned "Going Home," "Show Me the Place," "Anyhow" and "Come Healing." As Cohen told Mojo in 2013, he met the producer when he was making an album with Cohen's son, singer Adam Cohen: And I know the work he did with Madonna. I think he's a seminal figure in modern American music brilliant. I was listening to some of his solo piano work, too. I bumped into him with Adam several times, somehow we got together and these four songs we did together came quickly... Pat saw the lyric for'Going Home' and said,'This could be a good song,' and I said,'I don't think so.' He said,'Can I have a shot at it?' I said,'Sure.' He came back with the music, I don't know if it was the next hour or the next day but it was fast... He is a unusual man and, I guess, we were both in good form... One other song, "Crazy to Love You," was the result of a collaboration with jazz singer Anjani, who had first released the song on her 2006 Cohen-produced album Blue Alert.
The songs "Darkness" and "Lullaby" had been debuted on his recent tours before being committed to tape. Cohen had wanted to call his previous 2004 studio album Old Ideas but opted for Dear Heather instead, fearing that fans might mistake it for a compilation album; the album received uniformly positive reviews from publications including Rolling Stone, the Chicago Tribune, The Guardian. At a record release party for the album in January 2012, Cohen spoke with The New York Times reporter Jon Pareles who states that "mortality was much on his mind and in his songs." Pareles goes on to characterize the album as "an autumnal album, musing on memories and final reckonings, but it has a gleam in its eye. It grapples once again with topics Mr. Cohen has pondered throughout his career: love, faith, redemption; some of the diction is biblical. In a four star review, Victoria Segal of Mojo called Old Ideas, "a surprising album, full of grace, full of sadness, but most full of life." Uncut awarded the album four stars.
The album was named as a nominee for the 2012 Polaris Music Prize on June 14, 2012. The album was listed at #13 on Rolling Stone's list of the top 50 albums of 2012, saying "Cohen adapts to this uncharted age with a lifetime's worth of grace and wit." Rolling Stone named the song Going Home the 20th best song of 2012. All songs written except where noted. "Going Home" – 3:51 "Amen" – 7:36 "Show Me the Place" – 4:09 "Darkness" – 4:30 "Anyhow" – 3:09 "Crazy to Love You" – 3:06 "Come Healing" – 2:53 "Banjo" – 3:23 "Lullaby" – 4:46 "Different Sides" – 4:06 Leonard Cohen – vocals, programming, guitar Patrick Leonard – music, programming E. L. Sanders – vocals, guitar Sharon Robinson – vocals, synth bass The Webb Sisters – vocals Dana Glover – vocals Jennifer Warnes – backing vocals Roscoe Beck – electric bass, acoustic bass Rafael Bernardo Gayol – drums Neil Larsen – Hammond
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a