Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It is the seat of Kalmar Municipality, it is the capital of Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 236,399 inhabitants. From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Kalmar was one of Sweden's most important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the episcopal see of Kalmar Diocese, with a bishop, the Kalmar Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic architecture, it became a fortified city, with the Kalmar Castle as the center. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Kalmar's importance diminished, until the industry sector was initiated in the 19th century; the city is home to parts of Linnaeus University. Kalmar is adjacent to the main route to the island of Öland over the Öland Bridge; the area around Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times. Excavations have found traces of stone age gravefields. However, the oldest evidence for there being a town is from the 11th century.
According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian king Saint Olav had his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of Kalmar is from somewhere between 1255 and 1267, making it the oldest known city seal in Scandinavia. In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were established, with the construction of a round tower for guard and lookout; the tower was continuously expanded in the 13th century, as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between the heads of state of Sweden and Norway, on 13 July 1397, the Kalmar Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's strategic location, near the Danish border, its harbour and trade involved it in several feuds. There are two events independently labelled the Kalmar Bloodbath, 1505: the first in 1505, when King John of Denmark and Sweden had the mayor and city council of Kalmar executed. In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa, his sons Erik XIV of Sweden and John III of Sweden would organize a rebuilding of the castle into the magnificent Renaissance castle it is today.
Kalmar became a diocese in 1603, a position it held until 1915. In 1634, Kalmar County was founded, with Kalmar as the natural capital. In 1660, the Kalmar Cathedral was begun by drawings of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, it would be inaugurated in 1703. In 1611 -- 1613, it suffered in the Kalmar War. 1611 by no means the only dark year. The last was during the Scanian War in the 1670s, so there have been 22 sieges altogether. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the strategic importance of Kalmar diminished as the borders were redrawn further south. In 1689, the King established his main naval base further south in Karlskrona and Kalmar lost its status as one of Sweden's main military outposts; the new city of Kalmar was built on Kvarnholmen around the mid-1600s. The transfer from the old town was completed by 1658; the new, fortified town was planned following current baroque patterns. Cathedral and town hall face each other across Stortorget; the cathedral was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and is one of the foremost examples of baroque classicism in Sweden.
Its design reflects the complex interaction between the new style, liturgical considerations and the fortress-city requirements. The work began in 1660, but it was interrupted on several occasions, including when the Scanian War raged. Construction resumed, Kalmar Cathedral stood finished in 1703. In more recent times, Kalmar has been an industrial city with Kalmar Verkstad making steam engines and large machinery bought by Bombardier who closed the factory in 2005. A shipyard, Kalmar Varv, was founded in 1679 and closed 1981. Volvo opened their Kalmar factory for building cars i.e. 264, 740, 760, 960 in 1974, but closed it 1994 and due to further relocation of industry jobs in the 1990s and 2000s around 2000 industrial jobs were lost. Kalmar has a research facility for Telia Sonera. Kalmar has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has installed computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use by 10 percent, paying off the cost of the devices in just a year.
The company is now looking to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel. A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once released as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, generates enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000 homes. Bicycle lanes are common. Building codes now require thermal insulation and efficient windows for new construction or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs, car dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles. In 2011 Guldfågeln Arena was initiated, it is the new stadium of the football team of the city, Kalmar FF. The capacity of the stadium is 12,000 people and it is one of the newest stadiums in Sweden; the stadium was built to host concerts and did so in the summer of 2011 when Swedish artists Håkan Hellström and The Ark performed. Kalmar has a cold oceanic climate, it is somewhat continental with warm summers and cold winters which averages just above the freezing point during days and goes somewhat below it at
Kjellbergska flickskolan was a Girls' School in Gothenburg, Sweden. It was active between 1835 and 1967; the school was founded by a fund granted in the will of the wealthy merchant Jonas Kjellberg. Jonas Kjellberg was a merchant and trader who in 1808, formed an import and shipping company under the name Jonas Kjellberg & Co. Kjellberg died in 1832, the school was inaugurated in 1835; the stated purpose of the school was to provide education to make it possible for females to support themselves professionally. This separated the school from most other contemporary girls' schools, which had the purpose to educate their students as ideal wives and mothers, it was thereby a part of the wave of a new type of girls' schools, established in Sweden in the mid 19th-century in response to a contemporary Swedish debate about women's education. Further more, Kjellbergska flickskolan accepted students free of charge, which made it possible to accept just the kind of student which answered to the description of a female who would be to need to support herself from the middle classes.
In this, the school followed the example of the Fruntimmersföreningens flickskola from 1815. The most common occupation acceptable for a professional middle class woman in the 19th-century was that of a teacher or governess, the school functioned as an educational institution for female teachers. Between 1908 and 1932, it offered teachers training courses to adult women; the graduates of these courses were, from 1910 onward, counted as equal to those from the Högre lärarinneseminariet in Stockholm. The subjects were religion, German, Swedish, geography, mathematics, music and handicrafts; the number of students counted 15 in the ages of 91-5 in 1835. The school was managed by a female principal supervised by a board, it moved from one address to another until it was provided with a permanent home in 1870. At the time of the introduction of compulsory elementary schools in Sweden in 1842, it was one of five schools in Sweden to provide academic secondary education to females: the others being Societetsskolan and Fruntimmersföreningens flickskola in Gothenburg, Askersunds flickskola in Askersund and Wallinska skolan in Stockholm.
In 1943, the school became a part of the communal school system in accordance with a new educational law, in 1967, it was abolished in accordance with the new law against girls' schools. 1835-1872: Helena Eldrup 1872-1884: Therese Kamph 1884-1886: Hanna Lindström 1886-1912: Martha von Friesen 1912-1931: Thyra Kullgren Göteborgs Kalender för 1857, Utgifven af S. A. Hedlund och Anton Berg, Hedlund & Lindskog, Göteborg 1857 s. 113 Kronologiska anteckningar om viktigare händelser i Göteborg 1619-1982, Agne Rundqvist, Ralf Scander, Anders Bothén, Elof Lindälv, utgiven av Göteborgs hembygdsförbund 1982 s. 40, 60, 74, 112 Från Börsen till Park Avenue: Intressanta göteborgsbyggnader uppförda mellan 1850 och 1950, uppställda i kronologisk ordning och avbildade på vykort, Ove Nylén, Haspen Förlag 1988 ISBN 91-970916-3-4 s. 46 Kjellbergare: om en flickskola, red. Helena Jos Person, Kjellbergska flickskolans kamratförening, Göteborg 2010 ISBN 978-91-978806-5-7 Marianne Johansson. En studie av synen på kvinnor och högre utbildning.
I samband med läroverksreformen 1927
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people. These include oral traditions such as tales and jokes, they include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites; each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration; the academic study of folklore is called Folklore studies, it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph. D. levels. To understand folklore, it is helpful to clarify its component parts: the terms folk and lore.
It is well-documented. He fabricated it to replace the contemporary terminology of "popular antiquities" or "popular literature"; the second half of the compound word, proves easier to define as its meaning has stayed stable over the last two centuries. Coming from Old English lār'instruction,' and with German and Dutch cognates, it is the knowledge and traditions of a particular group passed along by word of mouth; the concept of folk proves somewhat more elusive. When Thoms first created this term, folk applied only to rural poor and illiterate peasants. A more modern definition of folk is a social group which includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions. "Folk is a flexible concept which can refer to a nation as in American folklore or to a single family." This expanded social definition of folk supports a broader view of the material, i.e. the lore, considered to be folklore artifacts. These now include all "things people make with words, things they make with their hands, things they make with their actions".
Folklore is no longer circumscribed as being chronologically obsolete. The folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a social group. Transmission is a vital part of the folklore process. Without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, they would become cultural shards relegated to cultural archaeologists. For folklore is a verb; these folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally, as a rule anonymously and always in multiple variants. The folk group is not individualistic, it nurtures its lore in community. "As new groups emerge, new folklore is created… surfers, computer programmers". In direct contrast to high culture, where any single work of a named artist is protected by copyright law, folklore is a function of shared identity within the social group. Having identified folk artifacts, the professional folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs and objects for the group. For these cultural units would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group.
That meaning can however morph. So Halloween of the 21st century is not the All Hallows' Eve of the Middle Ages, gives rise to its own set of urban legends independent of the historical celebration; the cleansing rituals of Orthodox Judaism were good public health in a land with little water. Compare this to brushing your teeth transmitted within a group, which remains a practical hygiene and health issue and does not rise to the level of a group-defining tradition. For tradition is remembered behavior. Once it loses its practical purpose, there is no reason for further transmission unless it has been imbued with meaning beyond the initial practicality of the action; this meaning is at the core of the study of folklore. With an theoretical sophistication of the social sciences, it has become evident that folklore is a occurring and necessary component of any social group, it is indeed all around us, it does not have to be antiquated. It continues to be created, transmitted and in any group is used to differentiate between "us" and "them".
Folklore began to distinguish itself as an autonomous discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. A particular figure in this development was Johann Gottfried von Herder, whose writings in the 1770s presented oral traditions as organic processes grounded in locale. After the German states were invaded by Napoleonic France, Herder's approach was adopted by many of his fellow Germans who systematized the recorded folk traditions and used them in their process of nation building; this process was enthusiastically embraced by smaller nations like Finland and Hungary, which were seeking political independence from their dominant neighbours. Folklore as a field of study further developed among 19th century European scholars who were contrasting tradition with the newly developing modernity, its focus was the oral folklore of the rural peasant populations, which were considered as residue and survivals of the past that continued to exist within the lower strata of society. The "Kinder- und Hausmärchen" of the Brothers Grimm is the best known but by no means only collection of verbal folklore of the European peasantry of th
Santa Claus known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture, said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved children on Christmas Eve and the early morning hours of Christmas Day. The modern Santa Claus grew out of traditions surrounding the historical Saint Nicholas, the British figure of Father Christmas and the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas; some maintain Santa Claus absorbed elements of the Germanic god Wodan, associated with the pagan midwinter event of Yule and led the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Santa Claus is depicted as a portly, white-bearded man—sometimes with spectacles—wearing a red coat with white fur collar and cuffs, white-fur-cuffed red trousers, a red hat with white fur and black leather belt and boots and who carries a bag full of gifts for children; this image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast.
This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, television, children's books and advertising. Santa Claus is said to make lists of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior, to deliver presents, including toys and candy, to all of the well-behaved children in the world, coal to all the misbehaved children, on the night of Christmas Eve, he accomplishes this feat with the aid of his elves, who make the toys in his workshop at the North Pole, his flying reindeer, who pull his sleigh. He is portrayed as living at the North Pole, laughing in a way that sounds like "ho ho ho". Saint Nicholas of Myra was a 4th-century Greek Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes, he was religious from an early age and devoted his life to Christianity. In continental Europe he is portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of Myra were subjugated by newly arrived Muslim Turkish conquerors, soon after their Greek Orthodox church had been declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the Greek church in Myra. Over the objection of the monks of Myra the sailors took the bones of St. Nicholas to Bari, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. Sailors from Bari collected just half of Nicholas' skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the church sarcophagus; these were taken by Venetian sailors during the First Crusade and placed in Venice, where a church to St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the San Nicolò al Lido. St. Nicholas' vandalized sarcophagus can still be seen in the St. Nicholas Church in Myra; this tradition was confirmed in two important scientific investigations of the relics in Bari and Venice, which revealed that the relics in the two Italian cities belong to the same skeleton.
Saint Nicholas was claimed as a patron saint of many diverse groups, from archers and children to pawnbrokers. He is the patron saint of both Amsterdam and Moscow. During the Middle Ages on the evening before his name day of 6 December, children were bestowed gifts in his honour; this date was earlier than the original day of gifts for the children, which moved in the course of the Reformation and its opposition to the veneration of saints in many countries on the 24th and 25 December. The custom of gifting to children at Christmas has been propagated by Martin Luther as an alternative to the previous popular gift custom on St. Nicholas, to focus the interest of the children to Christ instead of the veneration of saints. Martin Luther first suggested the Christkind as the bringer of gifts, but Nicholas remained popular as gifts bearer for the people. Father Christmas dates back as far as 16th century in England during the reign of Henry VIII, when he was pictured as a large man in green or scarlet robes lined with fur.
He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, bringing peace, good food and wine and revelry. As England no longer kept the feast day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December, the Father Christmas celebration was moved to the 25th of December to coincide with Christmas Day; the Victorian revival of Christmas included Father Christmas as the emblem of'good cheer'. His physical appearance was variable, with one famous image being John Leech's illustration of the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's festive classic A Christmas Carol, as a great genial man in a green coat lined with fur who takes Scrooge through the bustling streets of London on the current Christmas morning, sprinkling the essence of Christmas onto the happy populace. In the Netherlands and Belgium the character of Santa Claus has to compete with that of Sinterklaas, Santa's presumed progenitor. Santa Claus is known as de Kerstman in Dutch and Père Noël in French, but for children in the Netherlands Sinterklaas remains the predominant gift-giver in December.
Sven Adolf Hedlund
Sven Adolf Hedlund known as S. A. Hedlund, was a Swedish newspaper publisher and politician. Sven Adolf Hedlund was born on the island of Eldgarn in Mälaren, Stockholm County, Sweden, as the son of the farmer Carl Adolf Hedlund and his wife Regina, he earned a B. A. in law from Uppsala University. In 1847 he was employed at the Swedish Ministry of Education and at the Swedish National Library in Stockholm. In the same year he became he a coworker for the newspapers Hermoder and Dagligt Allehanda. In 1849 he became managing editor of Örebro Tidning. In 1851 he joined the editorial staff of Sweden's largest newspaper Aftonbladet. In 1852 he became managing editor of Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning, a position he kept until his death; as managing editor of Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning he became a major figure in Swedish press. He was a close friend of publisher Viktor Rydberg. On 11 August 1853 he became engaged to Kristina Rudenschold, married her in 1854. Hedlund was elected as a Member of Parliament, representing Gothenburg Municipality in the lower house from 1867 to 1869 and from 1879 to 1883.
He represented Gothenburg and Bohus County in the upper house from 1875 to 1876, Kristianstad County from 1886 to 1889. During his first period in the parliament Hedlund opposed the agrarian Lantmanna Party, which put him in opposition to the liberal government of Prime Minister Louis De Geer. Although he decided to side with the party he never became a devoted party member. Both as a publisher and politician, Hedlund was a prominent proponent of liberal reforms, he was a strong proponent of political liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion and free trade. He supported the Swedish representative reform of 1866, in which the old Estates Assembly was replaced with a bicameral parliament. Hedlund was active as a local politician and served in the Gothenburg Municipal Council for over thirty years; as such he contributed to the reforms and establishment of many local institutions in the educational system. He was the de facto founder of the Gothenburg Museum in 1961 and the most zealous proponent behind the establishment of the University of Gothenburg in 1887.
In 1860, Hedlund became a member of the Royal Society of Letters in Gothenburg. In 1895, the Gothenburg Museum made a medal of him as the museum's "founder and strong promoter". After suffering apoplectic stroke in 1889, Hedlund retired from his publishing works and public duties, he died in his home in Gothenburg on 16 September 1900. His funerary urn is located at Viktor Rydberg's Mausoleum at Östra kyrkogården in Gothenburg
Hrólfr Kraki, Hroðulf, Roluo, Rolf Krage was a legendary Danish king who appears in both Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian tradition. Both traditions describe him as a Danish Scylding, the nephew of Hroðgar and the grandson of Healfdene; the consensus view is that Scandinavian traditions describe the same people. Whereas the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and Widsith do not go further than treating his relationship with Hroðgar and their animosity with Froda and Ingeld, the Scandinavian sources expand on his life as the king at Lejre and on his relationship with Halga, Hroðgar's brother. In Beowulf and Widsith, it is never explained how Hroðulf are uncle and nephew; the poem Beowulf introduces Hroðulf as kinsman. The text explains that Hroðulf is Hroðgar's nephew and that "each was true to the other". Hroðgar is given three siblings, brothers Heorogar and Halga and an unnamed sister, all the children of Healfdene and belonging to the royal clan known as the Scyldings; the poem does not indicate which of Hroðgar's siblings is Hroðulf's parent, but Scandinavian tradition establishes this as Halga.
Hroðgar and queen Wealhþeow had two young sons, Hreðric and Hroðmund, Hroðulf would be their guardian in case Hroðgar dies. In a deliberately ironic passage it appears that the queen trusts Hroðulf, not suspecting that he will murder her sons to claim the throne for himself: No existence of any Hreðric or Hroðmund, sons of Hroðgar, has survived in Scandinavian sources This Hroerekr is sometimes said to have been killed by Hrólfr, vindicating the foreshadowing in Beowulf; the Scyldings were in conflict with another clan or tribe named the Heaðobards led by their king Froda and his son Ingeld. It is in relation to this war that Hroðulf is mentioned in the other Anglo-Saxon poem where he appears, Widsith. A common identification is. There seems to be some foreshadowing in Beowulf that Hroðulf will attempt to usurp the throne from Hroðgar's sons Hreðric and Hroðmund, a deed that seems to be referred to in Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum, where we find: "... our king, who laid low Rorik, the son of Bok the covetous, wrapped the coward in death."
Rorik is the form we would expect Hreðric to take in Danish and we find personages named Rorik or Hrok or similar in most version of the Hrólf Kraki tradition but differently accounted for indicating that Scandinavian tradition had forgotten who Hreðric/Rorik/Hrok was and various story tellers subsequently invented details to explain references to this personage in older poems. The future slaying of Hreðric may be the occasion of the future burning of the hall of Heorot in the beginning of the poem – though some take it instead to refer to the legendary death of Hrólf Kraki, who in Icelandic sources is said to have died in the burning of his hall by his brother-in-law Hjörvard; the standard view is that, if Beowulf himself has a'cognate' character in Rolf Kraki's story, it is Bödvar Bjarki, who has a younger companion, Hjalti – matching the Beowulf character Wiglaf. Beowulf comes from Geatland and one of Bödvar Bjarki's elder brothers, becomes a king of Götaland. Moreover, like Beowulf, Bödvar Bjarki arrives in Denmark from Götaland, upon arriving in Denmark he kills a beast, ravaging the Danish court for two years.
The monster in Hrólf Kraki's saga, however, is quite unlike the Grendel of Beowulf. Just as Beowulf and Wiglaf slay a dragon at the end of Beowulf, Bödvar Bjarki and Hjalti help each other slay the creature in Denmark. Proponents of this theory, like J. R. R. Tolkien, argue that both the names Beowulf and Bjarki are associated with bears. Bodvar Bjarki is associated with bears, his father being one. In some of the Hrólf Kraki material, Bödvar Bjarki aids Adils in defeating Adils' uncle Áli, in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. In Beowulf, the hero Beowulf aids Eadgils in Eadgils' war against Onela; as far as this Swedish adventure is concerned, Beowulf and Bödvar Bjarki are the same. This match supports the hypothesis that the adventure with the dragon is originally derived from the same story; as for the king of the Danes, Hroðgar, he is identical to Hróar or Ro, the uncle of Hrólf Kraki who in other sources outside of Beowulf rules as a co-king with his brother Helgi. But in those sources it is Hróar/Hroðgar who dies before his brother or who departs to Northumberland to rule his wife's kingdom leaving Helgi/Halga the sole rule of Denmark.
In Beowulf Halga/Helgi has died and Hroðgar is the primary ruler with Hroðulf son of Halga as a junior co-ruler. Furthermore, the Swedish kings referenced in Beowulf are adequately matched with the 5th and 6th century Swedish kings in Uppsala: This has nothing to do with a common origin of the Beowulf and Hrólf Kraki legends in particular but reflects a shared genealogical tradition; the poem Widsith mentions Hroðgar and Hroðulf, but indicates that the feud with Ingeld did not end until the latter was defeated at Heorot: This piece suggests that the conflict between the Scyldings Hroðgar and Hroðulf on one side, the Heaðobards Froda and Ingeld on the other, was well known in Anglo-Saxon England. This conflict appears in Scandinavian sources, but in the Norse tradition the Heaðobards had been forgotten and the conflict is instead rendered as a fam
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w