England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Mercedes-Benz R107 and C107
The Mercedes-Benz R107 and C107 are automobiles which were produced by Mercedes-Benz from 1971 through 1989, being the second longest single series produced by the automaker, after the G-Class. They were sold under the SL and SLC model names as the 280 SL, 280 SLC, 300 SL, 350SL, 350SLC, 380SL, 420SL, 450SL, 450SLC, 500SL and 560 SL; the R107/SL was a two-seat car with a detachable roof. It replaced the W113 SL-Class in 1971 and was replaced by the R129 SL-Class in 1989, it was the only cabriolet Mercedes during its entire production. The C107/SLC was a four-seat car with an optional sliding steel sunroof, it replaced the W111 Coupé in 1971 and was replaced by the C126 S-class coupe in 1981. The R107 and C107 took the chassis components of the midsize Mercedes-Benz W114 model and mated them to the M116 and M117 V8 engines used in the W108, W109 and W111 series; the SL variant was a 2-seat convertible/roadster with standard soft top and optional hardtop and optional folding seats for the rear bench.
The SLC derivative was a 2-door hardtop coupe with normal rear seats. The SLC is referred to as an'SL coupe', this was the first time that Mercedes-Benz had based a coupe on an SL roadster platform rather than on a saloon, replacing the former saloon-based 280/300 SE coupé in Mercedes lineup; the SLC was replaced earlier than the SL, with the model run ending in 1981, with a much larger model, the 380 SEC and 500SEC based on the new S class. Volume production of the first R107 car, the 350 SL, started in April 1971 alongside the last of the W113 cars; the early 1971 350SL are rare and were available with an optional 4 speed fluid coupling automatic gearbox. In addition, the rare 1971 cars were fitted with Bosch electronic fuel injection. Sales in North America began in 1972, cars wore the name 350 SL, but had a larger 4.5L V8 with 3 speed auto. US cars sold from 1972 through 1975 used the Bosch D Jetronic fuel injection system, an early electronic engine management system. From July 1974 both SL and SLC could be ordered with a fuel-injected 2.8L straight-6 as 280 SL and SLC.
US models sold from 1976 through 1979 used the Bosch K Jetronic system, an mechanical fuel injection system. All US models used the 4.5 liter engine, were called 450 SL/SLC. In September 1977 the 450 SLC 5.0 joined the line. This was a homologation version of the big coupé, featuring a new all-aluminum five-liter V8, aluminum alloy bonnet and boot-lid, a black rubber rear spoiler, along with a small front-lip spoiler; the 450SLC 5.0 was produced in order to homologate the SLC for the 1978 World Rally Championship. Starting in 1980, the 350, 450 and 450 SLC 5.0 models were discontinued in 1980 with the introduction of the 380 and 500 SLC in March 1980. At the same time, the cars received a mild makeover; the 280, 380 and 500 SLC were discontinued in 1981 with the introduction of the W126 series 380 and 500 SEC coupes. A total of 62,888 SLCs had been manufactured over a ten-year period of which just 1,636 were the 450 SLC-5.0 and 1,133 were the 500 SLC. Both these models are sought by collectors today.
With the exception of the SL65 AMG Black Series, the SLC remains the only fixed roof Mercedes-Benz coupe based on a roadster rather than a sedan. Following the discontinuation of the SLC in September 1981, the 107 series continued as the 280, 380 and 500 SL. At this time, the V8 engines were re-tuned for greater efficiency, lost a few hp and consumed less fuel- this due to higher axle ratios that went from 3.27:1 to 2.47:1 for the 380 SL and from 2.72:1 to 2.27:1 for the 500 SL. From September 1985 the 280 SL was replaced by a new 300 SL, the 380 SL by a 420 SL. In 1985, the Bosch KE Jetronic was fitted; the KE Jetronic system varied from the earlier, all mechanical system by the introduction of a more modern engine management "computer", which controlled idle speed, fuel rate, air/fuel mixture. The final car of the 18 years running 107 series was a 500 SL painted Signal red, built on August 4, 1989. North America was the key market for this Personal luxury car, 2/3 of R107 and C107 production was sold there.
The R107/C107 for the North American market sported four round low-output sealed beam headlights, due to unique U. S. regulations. From 1974, the front and rear bumpers were lengthened, by 8 inches on each end, to comply with the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations, that mandated no damage at an impact of 5-mile-per-hour. R107 and C107 cars were exported to the US with low compression 4.5 liter V8 engines to meet stringent US emissions requirements, yet still provide adequate power. The faster 450SLC 5.0, 500SL, 500SLC were never sold. The 450 SL was produced until 1980. Starting in 1980, US cars were equipped with lambda control, which varied the air/fuel mixture based on feedback from an oxygen sensor; the smaller engined 380 SL replaced the 450SL from 1981 to 1985. The 380 SL was the least powerful of the US imported R107 roadsters; the more powerful 500 SL with 5.0 liter engine, produced from 1980–1989, was not available in the US. This drove many customers to obtain the car in the "gray market."
A grand tourer is a car, designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement; the term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s. The grand touring car concept originated in Europe in the early 1950s with the 1951 introduction of the Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, features notable luminaries of Italian automotive history such as Vittorio Jano, Enzo Ferrari and Johnny Lurani. Motorsports became important in the evolution of the grand touring concept, grand touring entries are important in endurance sports-car racing; the grand touring definition implies material differences in performance, speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In the post-war United States, manufacturers were less inclined to adopt the "ethos of the GT car", preferring to build automobiles "suited to their long, smooth roads and labor-saving lifestyles" with wide availability of powerful straight-six and V8 engines in all price-ranges of automobile.
Despite this, the United States, enjoying early post-war economic expansion, became the largest market for European grand-touring cars, supplying transportation for movie stars and the jet set. Classic grand-touring cars from the post-war era have since become valuable automobiles among wealthy collectors. Within ten years, grand touring cars found success penetrating the new American personal luxury car market; the terms "grand tourer", "grand turismo", "grande routière", "GT" are among the most misused terms in motoring. The grand touring designation "means motoring at speed, in style and comfort." "Purists define "gran turismo" as the enjoyment and comfort of open-road touring."According to one author, "the ideal is of a car with the ability to cross a continent at speed and in comfort yet provide driving thrills when demanded" and it should exhibit the following: The engines "should be able to cope with cruising comfortably at the upper limits on all continental roads without drawbacks or loss of usable power."
"Ideally, the GT car should have been devised by its progenitors as a Grand Tourer, with all associated considerations in mind." "It should be able to transport at least two in comfort with their luggage and have room to spare — in the form of a two plus two seating arrangement." The design, both "inside and out, should be geared toward complete control by the driver." Its "chassis and suspension provide suitable roadholding on all routes" during travels. Grand tourers emphasize comfort and handling over straight-out high performance or ascetic, spartan accommodations. In comparison, sports cars are more "crude" compared to "sophisticated Grand Touring machinery." However, the popularity of using GT for marketing purposes has meant that it has become a "much misused term signifying no more than a tuned version of a family car with trendy wheels and a go-faster stripe on the side."Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts.
Softer suspensions, greater storage, more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. The GT abbreviation— and variations thereof— are used as model names. However, some cars with GT in the model name are not Grand Touring cars. Among the many variations of GT are: GTA: "Gran Turismo Alleggerita"- the Italian word for lightweight. "GTAm" indicates a modified version. GTA is sometimes used for automatic transmission models. GTB: "Gran Turismo Berlinetta" GTC: Various uses including "Gran Turismo Compressore" for supercharged engines, "Gran Turismo Cabriolet, "Gran Turismo Compact", "Gran Turismo Crossover" and "Gran Turismo Corsa"- the Italian word for "racing". GTD: Gran Turismo Diesel GT/E:"Gran Turismo Einspritzung"- the German word for fuel injection GTE: "Grand Touring Estate" GTi or GTI: "Grand Touring Injection used for hot hatches following the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf GTi GTO: "Gran Turismo Omologata"- the Italian word for homologation GTR or GT-R: "Gran Turismo Racing" GTS: sometimes "Gran Turismo Spider" for convertible models.
However, GTS has been used for sedans and other body styles. GT-T: "Gran Turismo Turbo" GTV: Gran Turismo Veloce"- the Italian word for "fast" GTX: "Grand Tourisme Xtreme" HGT: "High Gran Turismo" Several past and present motor racing series have used "GT" in their name; these include: LM GTE 1999-present: A set of regulations for modified road cars, used for the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and several related racing series. LM GTE was called'GT class' and was known as GT2 class from 2005-2010. FIA GT Series 2013-present: A racing series for Group GT3 cars; the FIA GT Series replaced the FIA GT1 World Championship. GT4 European Series 2007-present: A European amateur racing series with the least powerful class of GT cars. IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge 2005-present: A North American racing series for Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. FIA GT3 European Championship 2006-2012: A European amateur racing series for Group GT3 cars. There have been several classes of racing cars called GT; the Group GT3 regulations for modified road cars have been used for various racing series worldwide since 2006.
The trunk, dickie or compartment of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment. The trunk or luggage compartment is most located at the rear of the vehicle. Early designs included an exterior rack mounted on the rear of the vehicle to which it was possible to attach a real luggage trunk. Designs integrated the storage area into the vehicle's body and evolved to provide a streamlined appearance; the main storage compartment is provided at the end of the vehicle opposite to which the engine is located. Some mid-engined or electric cars have luggage compartments both in the front and in the rear of the vehicle. Examples include the Volkswagen Type 3, Porsche 914, Porsche Boxster, Toyota MR2, Tesla Model S; the mid-engined Fiat X1/9 has two storage compartments, although the rear one is small accessible, cuboid in shape. Rear-engined cars have the trunk situated in front of the passenger compartment. Sometimes during the design life of the vehicle the lid may be restyled to increase the size or improve the practicality and usefulness of the trunk's shape.
Examples of this include the Beetle redesign to the 1970s'Super Beetle' and the pre-war and 1950s post war Citroën Traction Avant. The door or opening of a cargo area may be hinged at side, or bottom. If the door is hinged at the bottom it is termed a tailgate in the United States, they are used on station wagons and pickup trucks, as well as on some sport utility vehicles. Traditional drop-down station wagon and pickup tailgates can serve as a mount for a workbench. Traditional U. S. station wagons included a roll down window retracting into the tailgate to load small items or to allow the tailgate to be opened down on its bottom mounted hinges. Because of the potential for carbon-monoxide fumes, the tailgate window on station wagons should be closed whenever the engine is running. Two-way station wagon tailgates may be hinged at the side and the bottom so they can be opened sideways like a regular door, or drop downwards as load platform extenders, they are designed with special handle for opening in the selected direction on special hinges after the window is lowered.
A three-way design, used by Ford allows for the tailgate to be opened like a door with the window up. General Motors developed a clam shell style "disappearing" design where the rear window rolls up into the roof and the tailgate slides down and beneath the load floor. If the door is hinged at the top it is termed a hatch, is used on a hatchback. A bottom opening door is now common on sport utility vehicles; the trunk lid is the cover that allows access to the main luggage compartment. Hinges allow the lid to be raised. Devices such as a manually positioned prop rod can keep the panel up in the open position. Counterbalancing torsion or other spring can be used to help elevate and hold open the trunk lid. On cars with their trunk in the rear, lids sometimes incorporate. A rear lid may have a decorative air spoiler. On many modern cars, the trunk lids can be unlocked with the car's key fob. In 1950, Ford introduced a trigger catch to allow for one-handed lifting until the trunk lid was automatically caught in the open position.
In 1952, Buick marketed its counterbalanced trunk lid that "practically raises itself" and the automatic locking mechanism. In 1956, the Packard "Predictor" show car designed by Richard A. Teague debuted at the Chicago Auto Show featuring innovations such as a power operated trunk lid. In 1958, the remote activated electric trunk release was introduced by U. S. automakers in production vehicles. The 1965 AMC Cavalier concept car featured a trunk lid with dual-action, scissor-type hinges allowing the panel to be opened like a normal trunk lid, or to be horizontally elevated to the height of the car's roof line for greater utility when hauling large and bulky items. Both the hood and trunk lid were made from identical stampings and interchangeable; the locking of the trunk may be achieved together with the passenger compartment. Some cars include a function to remotely open the trunk; this may be achieved through a variety of means: release of the latch whereby the doorseals push the decklid away from the lock, the trunk is open, the lid may not have revealed the opening.
Release of the latch whereby a spring pushes the decklid away from the lock and open, the trunk is open, the lid reveals the opening. Release of the latch and actuation of a drive, whether hydraulic or electric, which pushes the decklid away from the lock; this may be electrically closed again. The usage of the word "trunk" comes from it being the word for a large travelling chest, as such trunks were attached to the back of the vehicle before the development of integrated storage compartments in the 1930s; the usage of the word "dickie" comes from the British word for a rumble seat, as such seats were used for luggage before cars had integrated storage. In France, from 1900 onwards, the luggage maker Moynat became the indisputable market leader in automobile luggage, for which the house developed a number of patented products including the rear-attached limousine trunk with custom fitted suitcases. In 1928 came the side or lateral slidi
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera is an Italian automobile coachbuilder. Established in Milan in 1925, Carrozzeria Touring became well known for both the beauty of its designs and patented superleggera construction methods; the business folded in 1966. In 2006 its brands and trademarks were purchased and a new firm established nearby to provide automotive design, coachbuilding, homologation services, non-automotive industrial design, restoration of historic vehicles. Carrozzeria Touring was established on 25 March 1926 by Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Gaetano Ponzoni. After achieving success through the middle of the 20th century, the business began to decline as automobile manufacturers replaced body-on-frame automobile construction with monocoque design and took coachbuilding in-house. After the original firm ceased production in 1966, Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Carrozzeria Marazzi preserved the "Touring Superleggera" trademark and used it on several occasions to support the company's heritage.
The trademark was acquired by the current owner, a family business, which began conducting its activities in 2006 under the name Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera S.r.l.. Carrozzeria Touring traces its roots to the 1926 purchase of a controlling interest in the Milan-based coachbuilder, Carrozzeria Falco, by Milanese lawyers Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Gaetano Ponzoni from Carrozeria Falco's founder, Vittorio Ascari; the new owners changed the name of the firm to Carrozzeria Touring. Bianchi Anderloni, a former test driver for Isotta Fraschini and Peugeot Italia employee, assumed styling and engineering duties while Ponzoni assumed responsibility for administration of the firms business activities. Carrozzeria Touring's location at Via Ludovico da Breme 65 placed the coachbuilder in close proximity to automobile manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Citroën and Isotta Fraschini. Predictably, Touring's first bodywork assignments were for chassis produced by these companies. Bianchi Anderloni came to Touring more as an automobile designer than a car constructor, learned the mechanics of the trade as the company progressed.
The company licensed Charles Weymann's system of fabric-covered lightweight frames, a predecessor of their own Superleggera construction system. Touring hired Giuseppe Seregni, who collaborated with Bianchi Anderloni on the 1927 Isotta Fraschini'Flying Star', as Carrozzeria Touring's first professional designer. Touring's skills with light alloy and fabric-covered tubing forms brought commercial success in aircraft production in the 1930s, leading Bianchi Anderloni to develop the Superleggera construction system, patented in 1936; this "super lightweight" system consists of a structure of small diameter tubes to form the body's shape with thin alloy panels attached to cover and strengthen the framework. Aside from light weight, the Superleggera construction system gave great flexibility, allowing Touring to construct innovative body shapes. In 1937 at Mille Miglia, Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B was the first appearance of a Touring car built with the Superleggera system. Prior to World War II, Touring gained fame for their Superleggera bodies those made for the Alfa Romes 8C 2900 and the BMW 328 chassis.
The company re-energized after the war, with the Superleggera system licensed and copied. Felice Bianchi Anderloni died in 1948 and his son, Carlo Felice "Cici" Bianchi Anderloni, took over management of the firm under the guidance of Ponzoni; the two would remain in charge of the firm until the company discontinued production in 1966. Cici's first major project was to create a body for the Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia Touring barchetta, which debuted in 1948. Automotive design critic Robert Cumberford has referred to the body design for the 166 as "One of the most charismatic shapes ever." The egg-crate grill of the 166 became a signature Ferrari design element and is still in use by Ferrari today. Touring was active late in the late 50s, with design and body production for the Pegaso Z-102, Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Sprint, Alfa Romeo 2600, Aston Martin DB4, Lancia Flaminia GT, Lamborghini 350, Lamborghini 400 GT and Maserati 3500 GT; the Aston Martin DB4, the DB5 and the DB6 were named after David Brown’s initials.
He entrusted Touring Superleggera to design their next generation GT after the introduction of the successful DB2. The license agreement enabled Aston Martin to use the design and the Superleggera construction method at Newton Pagnell plant against a licence fee of £9 for each of the first 500 bodies and £ 5 for each further unit. Touring's fortunes began to decline as automobile manufacturers replaced body-on-frame construction with monocoque construction; the carmakers began to build their own bodies in their production lines. However, they were not able to produce less than a few thousand units yearly. Therefore, they decided to assign the body production to coachbuilders; this led coachbuilders to invest in additional manufacturing capacity. Once Touring Superleggera had the new plant in Nova Milanese completed, market fluctuation caused the loss of contractors; the company had to wind-up in 1966. During the winding up the 80% of Touring Superleggera’s archives caught fire. Seeking to reestablish a record of the firm's production, Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni got in touch with every owner, creating the Touring Superleggera registry and leading it from 1995 on.
In 1995, he contributed to the revival of Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este, serving as President of the Jury until his death in 2003. In his honor the show began to award the "Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni Memorial Trophy" to th