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Jerónimos Monastery

The Jerónimos Monastery or Hieronymites Monastery, is a former monastery of the Order of Saint Jerome near the Tagus river in the parish of Belém, in the Lisbon Municipality, Portugal. The monastery is one of the most prominent examples of the Portuguese Late Gothic Manueline style of architecture in Lisbon, it was classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the nearby Tower of Belém, in 1983. The Jerónimos Monastery replaced the church existing in the same place, dedicated to Santa Maria de Belém and where the monks of the military-religious Order of Christ provided assistance to seafarers in transit; the harbour of Praia do Restelo was an advantageous spot for mariners, with a safe anchorage and protection from the winds, sought after by ships entering the mouth of the Tagus. The existing structure was inaugurated on the orders of Manuel I at the courts of Montemor o Velho in 1495, as a final resting-place for members of the House of Aviz, in his belief that an Iberian dynastic kingdom would rule after his death.

In 1496, King Manuel petitioned the Holy See for permission to construct a monastery at the site. The Hermitage of Restelo, as the church was known, was in disrepair when Vasco da Gama and his men spent the night in prayer there before departing on their expedition to the Orient in 1497; the construction of the monastery and church began on 6 January 1501, was completed 100 years later. King Manuel funded the project with money obtained from the Vintena da Pimenta, a 5 percent tax on commerce from Africa and the Orient, equivalent to 70 kilograms of gold per year, with the exception of those taxes collected on the importation of pepper and cloves, which went directly to the Crown. With the influx of such riches, the architects were not limited to small-scale plans, resources prescribed for the Monastery of Batalha, including the Aviz pantheon, were redirected to the project in Belém. Manuel I selected the religious order of Hieronymite monks to occupy the monastery, whose role it was to pray for the King's eternal soul and to provide spiritual assistance to navigators and sailors who departed from the port of Restelo to discover lands around the world.

This the monks did for over four centuries until 1833, when the religious orders were dissolved and the monastery was abandoned. The monastery was designed in a manner that became known as Manueline: a richly ornate architectural style with complex sculptural themes incorporating maritime elements and objects discovered during naval expeditions, carved in limestone. Diogo de Boitaca, the architect, pioneered this style in the Monastery of Jesus in Setúbal. Boitaca was responsible for drawing the plans and contracting work on the monastery, the sacristy, the refectory. For its construction he used calcário de lioz, a gold-coloured limestone quarried from Ajuda, the valley of Alcántara, Rio Seco and Tercena. Boitaca was succeeded by the Spaniard Juan de Castilho, who took charge of construction around 1517. Castilho moved from the Manueline to the Spanish Plateresque style, an ornamentation that included lavish decorations suggesting the decorative features of silverware; the construction came to a halt when King Manuel I died in 1521.

Several sculptors left their mark on this building: Nicolau Chanterene added depth with his Renaissance themes, while the architect Diogo de Torralva resumed construction of the monastery in 1550, adding the main chapel, the choir, completing the two stories of the monastery, using only Renaissance motifs. Diogo de Torralva's work was continued in 1571 by Jérôme de Rouen; the construction stopped in 1580 with the union of Spain and Portugal, as the building of the Escorial in Spain was now draining away all the allocated funds. On 16 July 1604, Philip of Spain made the monastery a royal funerary monument, prohibiting anyone but the royal family and the Hieronymite monks from entering the building. A new portal was constructed in 1625, as well as the cloister door, the house of the doorkeepers, a staircase and a hall, the entrance to the upper choir designed by the royal architect Teodósio Frias and executed by the mason Diogo Vaz. In 1640, the prior Bento de Siqueira ordered construction of the monastery's library, where books owned by the Infante Luís and others linked to the religious order were deposited.

With the restoration of Portuguese Independence in 1640, the monastery regained much of its former importance, becoming the burial place for the royal pantheon. In 1682 the body of Cardinal Henrique in the transept chapels was buried. On 29 September 1855, the body of King Afonso VI was transported to the royal pantheon of the House of Braganza in the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, along with his three brothers and sister. In 1663, the Brotherhood of the Senhor dos Passos occupied the old Chapel of Santo António, redecorated with a gold tiled ceiling in 1669, while the staircase frescos with the heraldry of Saint Jerome were completed in 1770; the retables were completed in 1709 and 1711, valuable alfaias were presented to the religious order, the sacristy was redecorated in 1713. The painter Henrique Ferreira was commissioned in 1720 to paint the Kings of Portugal: the reg

Stadtkirche Darmstadt

The Stadtkirche Darmstadt is the main Protestant church of the city of Darmstadt and one of its parish churches, but no longer the bishopric seat of the local Evangelische Kirche in Hessen und Nassau, the Pauluskirche in Darmstadt. It is the oldest church in the original city. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the actual view is the one after reconstruction following WW II; the church is located about 200 m south of the grand-ducal palace in Darmstadt. The Fürstengruft in the crypt contains the graves of the reigning family of Hessen-Darmstadt. Additional graves can be seen inside the church. A graveyard around the church however is no longer existent; the tower is one of the tallest buildings in Darmstadt. A tunnel may have connected the crypt and the palace. However, only a small tunnel remains; the church was first mentioned in the 12th century. However all parts remaining date from the 17th century or later; until 1929 it contained a princely seat dated 1844, removed that year. Air raids in 1943 and 1944 damaged the church considerably.

It was reconstructed 1946-1952. The church contains various monuments to the ruling family dated 1576 1972; these include: Landgraf Georg I. und Landgräfin Magdalena zur Lippe Erbprince Philipp Wilhelm - from 1576 Princess Maria von Braunschweig Landgräfin Eleonore von Hessen-Darmstadt Prince Georg Wilhelm von Hessen-Darmstadt Luise von Preußen - from 1931 Ludwig von Hessen und bei Rhein - from 1972. He was the last male member of the family Manfred Knodt: Evangelische Stadtkirche in Darmstadt, Zürich, 1980 Manfred Knodt: Rundblick vom Stadtkirchturm, Darmstadt, 1993 The "Live! Jazz in der Stadtkirche!" Series began with the "Round Midnight" series in the summer of 2005, followed by regular spring and autumn jazz concerts and festivals in the church. The church sees jazz performances as part of its old function as a cultural mediator. Jazz opens the church to an audience beyond the parish. In the summer of 2013 the "Round Midnight – Jazz und Gedanken für Nachschwärmer" series in the church included pianist Rainer Böhm and guitarist Norbert Scholly.

In spring of 2014 the "Live! Jazz in der Stadtkirche!" Series included the "Live! Ladies of Jazz" program in January–February with performers such as pianist Anke Helfrich. Between September and December 2014 performers in this series included the drummer Billy Hart, pianist Michael Wollny and accordionist Vincent Peirani

Oatlands, New South Wales

Oatlands is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 23 kilometres north-west of the Sydney CBD in the local government area of the City of Parramatta, it is considered part of Northern Suburbs and Greater Western Sydney. The suburb extends from the south-east of Kissing Point Road and Vineyard Creek to the north-west bordering Pennant Hills Road and the North Rocks area. Oatlands has seen a transformation in its popularity as a prestige suburb with the construction of many modern multi-million dollar architecturally designed mansions. Evidence of this can be seen on streets such as Wyoming Ave, Ellis St, Lind Ave, York St, Bettington Rd and Gardenvale Rd; the name comes from Oatlands House, one of the earliest homes in the Parramatta district, being built in the 1830s by Percy Simpson. While it has been suggested that name reflects the first sowing of oats in Australia, this can't be confirmed. Instead, the name appears to be taken from Oatlands Park in England, close to the lands of Lord Dundas, for whom the neighbouring suburb was named.

In 1840, the land was sold to James Bettington. Oatlands House is now used as function centre, with the surrounding land forming the Oatlands Golf Course, opened in 1931. Oatlands was defined as a new suburb in 1991. Prior to this, the area had been known as Dundas West. Dundas West Post Office opened on 3 July 1967, it was renamed Oatlands in 1993. Oatlands is home to the historic Oatlands House, located within the grounds of the Oatlands Golf Club. Annual events include the New South Wales Women's Open, attracting professional golf athletes and media attention to the area. Winners of this event include Laura Davies, Lydia Ko in 2012, Swede Caroline Hedwall, in 2013 and Joanna Klatten of France in 2014; the Club is well renowned in the Sydney area, is nominated as Australia's best par 70 course by former touring professional golfer and now media personality Brett Ogle. In addition, touring professional and multiple Australian Open and Australian PGA winner Peter Lonard is a product of the cadet program at the club.

He served his PGA traineeship there, was the club professional for some years before rejoining the tour after recovering from Ross River Fever. Oatlands includes the area known as Burnside, the site of Burnside Homes, the children's homes established by Sir James Burns in 1911. Although not used for children's homes any more, the area is still the site of the headquarters of Uniting Care Burnside, an agency of the Uniting Church in Australia; the name is used by Burnside Public School, built on land belonging to the trust. The area contains new housing developments such as Burnside Gardens Estate. There is a small shopping area featuring a post office, fruit shop, liquor store, chicken shop, butcher, real estate, doctors' surgery and newsagency. Oatlands Public School is located on Belmore Street. Burnside Public School At the 2016 census, Oatlands recorded a population of 5,660. Of these: The age distribution was quite similar to the country in general; the median age was 40 years, similar to the national median of 38 years.

Children aged 0–14 years made up 19.1% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 15.3% of the population. 59.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were China 7.3%, South Korea 5.4%, Lebanon 3.2%, India 2.5% and Hong Kong 1.9%. 53.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Arabic 8.4%, Mandarin 7.5%, Korean 6.7%, Cantonese 5.7% and Hindi 1.9%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 33.2%, No Religion 19.4% and Anglican 10.3%. Of all households,80.4% were family households and 17.6% were single person households. "Oatlands House History". Oatlands House site. Archived from the original on 15 June 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2005. "Oatlands History". Oatlands Golf Course site. Archived from the original on 15 June 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2005. "Burnside Public School history". Burnside Public School site. Retrieved 13 September 2005

2011 University of Cambridge Chancellor election

The University of Cambridge Chancellor election, 2011 refers to a rare instance of a contested election for this position of Chancellor that occurred in October 2011, resulting in the choice of Lord Sainsbury of Turville to succeed the retiring incumbent Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The Duke had retired on 30 June 2011, shortly after his 90th birthday, having been Chancellor since December 1976. Three other candidates were nominated to oppose the candidate proposed by the university's Nomination Board. Contesting the post were actor Brian Blessed, who finished second with 25% of the votes cast, barrister Michael Mansfield, QC with 17%, local grocery-owner Abdul Arain with 6%; the election was the first time the Chancellorship had been contested since 1950, the first fought contest since 1847. Although the election was conducted by the single transferable vote system, no transfers of votes were needed as Sainsbury secured a majority of first preference votes. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh retired on 30 June 2011, creating the opening which led to the October 2011 election.

The Duke, consort of Queen Elizabeth II, had served as Chancellor since December 1976, announced departure of the post as he reached his 90th birthday, after more than 30 years in the post. Prince Philip was quoted by The New York Times as saying "he wanted a life with'less frantic rushing about' to ceremonial occasions and'less trying to think of something to say.'" The 2011 election for Chancellorship was the first time the post had been contested since 1950, the first fought contest since 1847. The electorate consisted of the Senate: all members of the University holding a higher degree from Cambridge. In effect, this meant that every Cambridge graduate holding a degree other than a bachelor's degree had a vote. Cambridge offers an upgrade of a BA to an MA six years and one term after undergraduates matriculate, so around three and a half years after they first graduate. Additionally, MA degrees are given to some members of staff, to make them a senior member of the university. In addition, all members of the Regent House were entitled to vote as they are automatically members of the Senate if they have no previous Cambridge degree.

Votes were cast in person at the Senate House in Cambridge on two polling days. Although not required to wear full academic dress to vote, voters were required to wear the appropriate gown and the university provided gowns, without charge, to voters who did not have them. By contrast, the University of Oxford dispensed with such dress requirements for its Chancellor election in 2003; the election was the first election for a Cambridge Chancellor to use the single transferable vote system. According to the regulations, one of the candidates is nominated by the university's Nomination Board, anyone else can stand as a candidate if nominated by at least fifty senior members of the University holding higher degrees. Beyond the fifty or more nominators, there are no other requirements for candidates. Four candidates were nominated: Abdul Arain, local grocery-owner Brian Blessed and mountaineer Michael Mansfield, barrister David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, businessman and philanthropist In December 2010, aware that Prince Philip intended to retire at the end of that academic year, the university convened a Nomination Board, composed of the University Council, plus sixteen members appointed by the University Senate.

On 20 May 2011, the Nomination Board put forward Lord Sainsbury as their candidate. As per statutory procedure, if nobody had challenged him, he would have been deemed elected unopposed on 1 July 2011, without the need for a ballot. No election has been opposed since 1950; the announcement on 27 May 2011 by Abdul Arain that he would be standing against Lord Sainsbury triggered the first contested election for the Chancellorship in sixty-one years. In the event of a contested election, a ballot must take place over two days, between 21 and 28 days of full term after the close of nominations. Since the date of the close of nominations - 17 June 2011 - fell on the last full day of Easter Term, this meant that an election could not be held until a month after the end of the summer vacation, in October 2011; the election came as a surprise to some, as it had been assumed that Lord Sainsbury's candidature would be unopposed, an initial press announcement from the university seemed to confirm that preparations were underway to install Sainsbury unopposed.

On 27 May, local grocery-owner Abdul Arain announced that he was standing against Sainsbury, in opposition to an application to build a Sainsbury's Local in Cambridge's Mill Road district, which he claimed would harm the character of the area. He argued that, "once again, the university is called upon to be the vanguard of local communities" adding, "Cambridge should be an institution that nurtures the community as well as world-renowned educational values", that, "I'm standing for the whole Cambridge community." Speaking to The Grocer, Arain commented, "I’m not against Lord Sainsbury but the university should defend the local community. Cambridge is becoming a clone town." He compared his "outsider" status to that of Barack Obama. Despite Arain's early declaration to stand, it took him a while to accumulate the 50 nominations necessary, stating on 3 June that he had 40 signatur

United States House Select Committee to Investigate Alleged Corruptions in Government

The Select Committee to Investigate Alleged Corruptions in Government was a select committee of the United States House of Representatives which operated during the spring and summer of 1860 during the 36th Congress. The committee was charged with a broad investigation of the administration of President James Buchanan, including possible impeachment, it was referred to as the Covode Committee after its chairman, John Covode of Pennsylvania. The committee was established March 5, 1860 when the House adopted a resolution offered by John Covode, adopted by a vote of 115 to 45. Resolved, That a committee of five members be appointed by the Speaker for the purpose of investigating whether the President of the United States, or any other officer of the government, has, by money, patronage, or other improper means, sought to influence the action of Congress, or any committees thereof, for or against the passage of any law appertaining to the rights of any State or Territory. Resolved, That as the President, in his letter to the Pittsburgh centenary celebration of the 25th November, 1858, speaks of "the employment of money to carry elections," said committee shall inquire into and ascertain the amount so used in Pennsylvania, any other State or States, in what districts it was expended, by whom, by whose authority it was done, from what sources the money was derived, report the names of the parties implicated.

While it was for the most part a partisan attempt to embarrass the beleaguered president, the committee was successful at rooting out fearsome amounts of corruption and incompetence. The committee was terminated upon submitting its final report on June 16, 1860. In the end, the committee found that Buchanan had not done anything to warrant impeachment, but that his was the most corrupt administration since the adoption of the US Constitution in 1789. Buchanan sent at least two formal messages to Congress complaining that Covode and company were making vague accusations which were too broad and far-reaching to allow the accused to exercise his Constitutional right to prepare a defense or cross-examine witnesses, but was intended as a secret inquisition and one-sided smear campaign, compiled from a large pool of unsuccessful applicants for coveted government jobs. Buchanan formally objected in writing that this type of committee set a dangerous precedent that threatened to undermine the independence of the office of the president, rendering it answerable not to the people who elected him, but to the Congress.

In one of them he said: I do, therefore... solemnly protest against these proceedings of the House of Representatives, because they are in violation of the rights of the coordinate executive branch of the Government, subversive of its constitutional independence. "Covode Investigation". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "The Covode Investigation", U. S. House Report 648, 36th Congress, 1st session, June 16, 1860

Anton Agreiter

Monsignor Anton Agreiter, MHM was a Roman Catholic priest who served as the Apostolic Prefect of the Falkland Islands and Ecclesiastic Superior of St. Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha since 1986 to 2002. Agreiter was born in St. Leonhard near Brixen in Italian's autonomous province of South Tyrol in a German-speaking peasants family as the youngest, fifteenth son. In the young age he joined a society of apostolic life of Mill Hill Missionaries and was ordained as priest on 13 July 1958. In the beginning he was sent to Uganda before he was appointed Apostolic Prefect of the Falkland Islands and Ecclesiastic Superior of St. Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha by Pope John Paul II on 1 October 1986