The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its home games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, which opened for the 2009 season. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season; the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The team's national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs; the Cowboys' streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. The franchise has made it to the Super Bowl eight times, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Denver Broncos for second most Super Bowl appearances in history, just behind the New England Patriots record eleven Super Bowl appearances; this has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC. The Cowboys have won five of those Super Bowl appearances, tying them with their NFC rivals, the San Francisco 49ers.
The Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they missed the playoffs only twice. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable sports team in the world, according to Forbes; the Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team. In 2018 they became the first NFL franchise to be valued at $5 billion and making Forbes' list as the most valued NFL team for the 12th straight year. Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, but George Preston Marshall, owner of the Washington Redskins, had a monopoly in the South. Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized, Marshall called for a change in terms.
This infuriated. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas. Since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshall's position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had a falling out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" and Marshall's wife had penned the lyrics. Breeskin was aware of Murchison's plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchison's attorney to sell him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased "Hail to the Redskins" for $2,500. Before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games. After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to "Hail to the Redskins" to Marshall for his vote, the lone one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time, a rivalry was born.
From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, more than any other NFL franchise during that span. In addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons. Danny White became the Cowboys' starting quarterback in 1980 after quarterback Roger Staubach retired. Despite going to 12–4 in 1980, the Cowboys came into the playoffs as a Wild Card team. In the opening round of the 1980–81 NFL playoffs they avenged their elimination from the prior year's playoffs by defeating the Rams. In the Divisional Round they squeaked by the Atlanta Falcons 30–27. For the NFC Championship they were pitted against division rival Philadelphia, the team that won the division during the regular season; the Eagles captured their first conference championship and Super Bowl berth by winning 20–7. 1981 brought another division championship for the Cowboys. They entered the 1981-82 NFL playoffs as the number 2 seed, their first game of the postseason saw them blowout and shutout Tampa Bay 38–0.
For the Conference Title game they were pitted against the number 1 seed. Despite having a late 4th quarter 27–21 lead, they would lose to the 49ers 28–27. 49ers quarterback Joe Montana led his team to an 89-yard game-winning touchdown drive connecting to Dwight Clark in a play known as The Catch. The 1982 season was shortened after a player strike. With a 6–3 record Dallas made it to the playoffs for the 8th consecutive season; as the number 2 seed for the 1982–83 NFL playoffs they eliminated the Buccaneers 30–17 in the Wild Card round and dispatched the Packers 37–26 in the Divisional round to advance to their 3rd consecutive Conference championship game. 3 times was not a charm for the Cowboys as they fell 31–17 to division rival and eventual Super Bowl XVII champions, the Redskins. For the 1983 season the Cowboys went 12–4 and made it once again to the playoffs but were defeated at home in the Wild Card by the Rams 24–17. Prior to the 1984 season, H. R. "Bum" Bright purchased the Dallas Cowboys from Clint Murchison, Jr. Dallas posted a 9–7 record that season but missed the playoffs for the first time in 10 seasons.
After going 10–6 in 1985 and winning a division title, the Cowboys were blown out in the Divisional round at home to the Rams 20–0. Hard times came for the organization as they went 7–9 in 1986, 7–8 in 1987, 3–13 in 1988. During this time period Bright became disenchanted with the team. During the savings and loan crisis, the team and Mr. Bright's saving
A wide receiver referred to as wideouts or receivers, is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, is a key player. They get their name because they are split out "wide". Wide receivers are among the fastest players on the field; the wide receiver functions as the pass-catching specialist. The wide receiver's principal role is to catch passes from the quarterback. On passing plays, the receiver attempts to avoid, outmaneuver, or outrun defenders in the area of his pass route. If the receiver becomes open, or has an unobstructed path to the destination of a catch, he may become the quarterback's target. Once a pass is thrown in his direction, the receiver's goal is to first catch the ball and attempt to run downfield; some receivers are perceived as a deep threat because of their flat-out speed, while others may be possession receivers known for not dropping passes, running crossing routes across the middle of the field, converting third down situations. A receiver's height contributes to their expected role.
A wide receiver has two potential roles during running plays. In the case of draw plays and other trick plays, he may run a pass route with the intent of drawing off defenders. Alternatively, he may block for the running back. Well-rounded receivers are noted for blocking defensive backs in support of teammates in addition to their pass-catching abilities. Sometimes wide receivers are used to run the ball in some form of an end-around or reverse; this can be effective because the defense does not expect them to be the ball carrier on running plays. For example, wide receiver Jerry Rice rushed the ball 87 times for 645 yards and 10 touchdowns in his 20 NFL seasons. In rarer cases, receivers may pass the ball as part of a trick play. A receiver can pass the ball so long as they receive the ball behind the line of scrimmage, in the form of a handoff or backwards lateral; this sort of trick play is employed with a receiver who has past experience playing quarterback at a lower level, such as high school, or sometimes, college.
Antwaan Randle El threw a touchdown pass at the wide receiver position in Super Bowl XL playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers against the Seattle Seahawks. Antwaan Randle El played quarterback for four years at Indiana University. Wide receivers also serve on special teams as kick returners or punt returners, as gunners on kick coverage teams, or as part of the hands team during onside kicks. On errant passes, receivers must play a defensive role by attempting to prevent an interception. If a pass is intercepted, receivers must use their speed to chase down and tackle the ball carrier to prevent him from returning the ball for a long gain or a touchdown. In the NFL, wide receivers can use the numbers 10–19 and 80–89; the wide receiver grew out of a position known as the end. The ends played on the offensive line next to the tackles. By the rules governing the forward pass and backs are eligible receivers. Most early football teams used the ends as receivers sparingly, as their position left them in heavy traffic with many defenders around.
By the 1930s, some teams were experimenting with moving one end far out near the sideline, to make them more open to receive passes. These split ends became the prototype for the modern wide receiver. Don Hutson, who played college football at Alabama and professionally with the Green Bay Packers, was the first player to exploit the potentials of the split end position, is credited as inventing the wide receiver position; as the passing game evolved, a second wide receiver position was added. While it is possible to move the opposite end out wide for a second split end position most teams preferred to leave that end in close to provide extra blocking protection on the quarterback's blind side; that player was playing the modern day tight end position. Instead of moving the blind side end out, one of the three running backs was split wide instead, creating the flanker position; the flanker lined up off the line of scrimmage like a running back or quarterback, but split outside like a split end.
Lining up behind the line of scrimmage gave flankers some advantages. Flankers have more "space" between themselves and a pressing defensive back, so cornerbacks can not as "jam" them at the line of scrimmage; this is in addition to being eligible for motion plays, allowing for the flanker to move laterally before and during the snap. Elroy "Crazy Legs" Hirsch is one of the earliest players to exploit the potentials of the flanker position as a member of the Los Angeles Rams during the 1950s. While some teams did experiment with more than two wide receivers as a gimmick or trick play, most teams used the pro set as the standard set of offensive personnel. An early innovator, coach Sid Gillman used 3+ wide receiver sets as early as the 1960s. In sets that have three, four, or five wide receivers, extra receivers are called slot receivers, as they play in the "slot" between the furthest receiver and the offensive line. In most situations, the slot receiver lines
Harriman is a city located in Roane County, with a small extension into Morgan County. The population of Harriman was 6,350 at the 2010 census. Harriman is included in Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area. Harriman is located at 35°55′43″N 84°33′21″W; the city is situated along the physiographic boundary between the Tennessee Valley region and the Cumberland Plateau region, with the Plateau—namely its Walden Ridge escarpment—rising several hundred feet above the city to the west. The Emory River enters the Tennessee Valley just west of Harriman at a pass known as Emory Gap, forms an oxbow bend that surrounds the original section of Harriman. U. S. Route 27, known as Roane Street in Harriman, runs north-to-south through the city along the base of Walden Ridge. Interstate 40 runs east-to-west through the city's southern section. Harriman's southwestern boundary, which it shares with Rockwood, is located along US-27 about a half-mile south of the road's intersection with I-40; the city's southeastern boundary runs along Pine Ridge.
Harriman's northern boundary is near US-27's split with State Highway 61. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.6 square miles, of which 10.4 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 1.86%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,744 people, 2,907 households, 1,802 families residing in the city; the population density was 671.5 people per square mile. There were 3,309 housing units at an average density of 329.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.11% White, 7.43% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 2,907 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,736, the median income for a family was $31,190. Males had a median income of $26,616 versus $20,278 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,763. About 18.6% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.1% of those under age 18 and 18.7% of those age 65 or over. Harriman was founded as a Temperance Town in 1889 by temperance movement activists led by New York-born minister and plant manager Frederick Gates. Seeking a land venture that could attract industrial and economic development while avoiding the vice-driven pitfalls of late 19th century company towns and fellow prohibitionists chartered the East Tennessee Land Company in May 1889.
In subsequent months, the company acquired several hundred thousand acres of land around what is now Harriman, including the plantation of Union Army colonel and state senator, Robert K. Byrd; the company's early investors included 1888 Prohibition Party presidential candidate General Clinton B. Fisk, who served as the company's first president, Quaker Oats co-founder Ferdinand Schumacher, publishers Isaac K. Funk and A. W. Wagnalls; the East Tennessee Land Company's plan was to purchase land, build a town based on prohibitionist and other reform movement principles, establish subsidiary companies to attract industry. After a successful land auction in Harriman in 1890, the company established three subsidiaries: the East Tennessee Mining Company to administer the region's coal and iron extraction operations, the Harriman Coal & Iron Railroad Company to develop the local railroad system, the Harriman Manufacturing Company to attract industries by providing start-up capital. To project its prosperity and advertise Harriman, the company built an imposing brick headquarters, with its four picturesque Norman towers, at the corner of Walden Avenue and Roane Street near the center of the new town.
By 1892, several rolling mills and other businesses had relocated to Harriman. To help finance its early operations, the East Tennessee Land Company borrowed just over one million dollars from the Central Trust Company of New York. In late 1891, capital markets in the U. S. began to freeze, leading to the Panic of 1893. The East Tennessee Land Company, unable to pay the interest on its million-dollar loan, attempted a last-ditch stock sale to raise money to pay off the loan, but the sale failed. In November 1893, the company was forced into bankruptcy. Harriman is named for Walter Harriman, a governor of New Hampshire whose son, Walter C. Harriman, was managing director of the East Tennessee Land Company; as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War, he had traveled on foot through the area with his 11th New Hampshire Regiment and camped for several days on the Emory River near the future site of the city. An elderly local told the directors that Harriman had said that the site would be the perfect place for a town, based on this conversation, the directors chose the name of "Harriman".
The site of Harriman was chosen for its proximity to Emory Gap, where the Cincinnati Southern Railway joined the East Tennessee, Virginia
High school football
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries, it is popular amongst American High school teams in Europe. High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many college and high school teams played against one another. Today, the oldest high school football rivalry dates back to 1875 in Connecticut, between the Norwich Free Academy Wildcats and the New London High School Whalers. High school football traditions such as pep rallies, marching bands and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Therefore, high school football is considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition, it is the first level of play in which a player will accumulate statistics, which will determine his chances of competing at the college level, the professional level if he is talented enough.
In the 2000s and beyond, there has been growing concern about safety and long-term brain health, both regarding the occasional concussion as well as the steady diet of lesser hits to the head. The National Federation of State High School Associations establishes the rules of high school football in the United States; as of the next high school season of 2019, Texas is the only state that does not base its football rules on the NFHS rule set, instead using NCAA rules with certain exceptions shown below. Through the 2018 season, Massachusetts based its rules on those of the NCAA, but it adopted NFHS rules for 2019 and beyond. With their common ancestry, the NFHS rules of high school football are similar to the college game, though with some important differences: The four quarters are each 12 minutes in length, as opposed to 15 minutes in college and professional football. Kickoffs take place at the kicking team's 40-yard line, as opposed to the 35 in college and the NFL. If an attempted field goal is missed it is treated as a punt it would be a touchback and the opposing team will start at the 20-yard line.
However, if it does not enter the end zone, it can be returned as a normal punt. Any kick crossing the goal line is automatically a touchback; the spot of placement after all touchbacks—including those resulting from kickoffs and free kicks following a safety—is the 20-yard line of the team receiving possession. Contrast with NCAA and NFL rules, which call for the ball to be placed on the receiving team's 25-yard line if a kickoff or free kick after a safety results in a touchback. All fair catches result in the placement of the ball at the spot of the fair catch. Under NCAA rules, a kickoff or free kick after a safety that ends in a fair catch inside the receiving team's 25-yard line is treated as a touchback, with the ball spotted on the 25. Pass interference by the defense results in a 15-yard penalty, but no automatic first down. Pass interference by the offense results in a 15-yard penalty, from the previous spot, no loss of down; the defense cannot return an extra-point attempt for a score.
Any defensive player that encroaches the neutral zone, regardless of whether the ball was snapped or not, commits a "dead ball" foul for encroachment. 5-yard penalty from the previous spot. Prior to 2013, offensive pass interference resulted in a loss of down; the loss of down provision was deleted from the rules starting in 2013. In college and the NFL, offensive pass interference is only 10 yards; the use of overtime, the type of overtime used, is up to the individual state association. The NFHS offers a suggested overtime procedure based on the Kansas Playoff, but does not make its provisions mandatory. Intentional grounding may be called if the quarterback is outside the tackle box; the home team must wear dark-colored jerseys, the visiting team must wear white jerseys. In the NFL, as well as conference games in the Southeastern Conference, the home team has choice of jersey color. Under general NCAA rules, the home team may wear white with approval of the visiting team. NFHS rules prohibit the use of replay review if the venue has the facilities to support it.
In Texas, the public-school sanctioning body, the University Interscholastic League, only allows replay review in state championship games, while the main body governing non-public schools, the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools, follows the NFHS in banning replay review. At least one unique high school rule has been adopted by college football. In 1996, the overtime rules utilized by Kansas high school teams were adopted by the NCAA, although the NCAA has made two major modifications: starting each possession from the 25-yard line, starting with the third overtime period, requiring teams to attempt a two-point conversion following a touchdown. Thirty-four states have a mercy rule that comes into play during one-sided games after a prescribed scoring margin is surpassed at halftime or any point thereafter; the type of mercy rule varies from state to state, with many using a "continuous clock" after the scoring margin is reached, while other states end the game once the margin is reached or passed.
For example, Texas uses a 45-point mercy rule only in six-man football.
The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a professional Canadian football team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. The Roughriders play in the West Division of the Canadian Football League; the Roughriders were founded in 1910 as the Regina Rugby Club. Although they were not the first team to play football in Western Canada, the club has maintained an unbroken organizational continuity since their founding; the Roughriders are the third-oldest professional gridiron football team in existence today, one of the oldest professional sports teams still in existence in North America. Of these teams, the Roughriders are both the oldest still in existence that continuously has been based in Western Canada as well as the oldest in North America to continuously have been based west of St. Louis, Missouri, they are the continent's oldest community-owned professional sports franchise, older than every American professional sports team outside baseball other than the aforementioned Cardinals and older than every Canadian sports team outside football except the Montreal Canadiens, who were founded about nine months prior to the Roughriders.
The team changed their name to the Regina Roughriders from the Regina Rugby Club in 1924 and to the current moniker in 1946. The Roughriders played their home games at historic Taylor Field from 1936 to 2016; the team draws fans from across Saskatchewan and Canada who are affectionately known as the Rider Nation. The Roughriders play in the smallest market in the CFL, the second-smallest major-league market in North America, they have finished first in the Western Division seven times and have won the Western championship a record 28 times. They won four Grey Cups; the team has had 20 players inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. The Riders' biggest rival is the Winnipeg Blue Bombers; the Roughriders Football Club and the city of Regina have hosted the Grey Cup three times, including a Roughrider win in the 101st Grey Cup. Known as: Regina Rugby Club 1910–1923, Regina Roughriders 1924–1947 Past uniform colours: Old gold and purple and white, red and black Fight Song: "Green Is The Colour", "On Roughriders" and "Rider Pride" Main rivals: Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Edmonton Eskimos, Calgary Stampeders.
Western Division 1st Place: 7—1951, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1976, 2009 Western Division Championships: 19—1923, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1951, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1972, 1976, 1989, 1997, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2013 Grey Cup Championships: 4—1966, 1989, 2007, 2013 2018 regular season record: 12 wins, 6 losses The team was founded as the Regina Rugby Club on Tuesday, September 13, 1910, adopting the colours of old gold and purple. They played most of their home games at Park Hughes on 10th Avenue in Regina's north central section, where they would remain based for over a century; the team was a founding member of the Saskatchewan Rugby Football Union as it was organized on September 22 of that year. Regina played their first game against the Moose Jaw Tigers on October 1, 1910, at the Moose Jaw Baseball Grounds where they were defeated 16–6. For the 1911 season, the team changed their colours to blue and white to match the Regina Amateur Athletic Association and won their first SRFU championship, but lost in the first season of the Western Canada Rugby Football Union playoffs.
The Regina Rugby Club changed their colours again in 1912 to red and black and began an era of western football dominance. For every season of play in the SRFU, Regina won the league championship, exerting their prowess over teams from Moose Jaw and any other clubs in Saskatchewan. Beginning in the 1912 season, Regina won seven straight WCRFU titles, excluding 1917 and 1918 when World War I interrupted league play. In 1921, the western champion was invited to compete for the Grey Cup national championship for the first time, but it was the first time since 1911 that the Regina Rugby Club didn't win the West Championship as the Edmonton Eskimos traveled east to play in the 9th Grey Cup. In 1923, Regina returned to power as they won their eighth western championship over the Winnipeg Victorias and earned the right to compete in the national playoffs; the club was given a bye and advanced straight to the Grey Cup finals for the first time, but were outmatched, losing 54–0 to Queen's University at Varsity Stadium in Toronto.
This was, still is, the most lopsided defeat in Grey Cup history as the defending champion Queen's won their third straight national championship at the expense of the Regina Rugby Club. Following their first Grey Cup loss, the club changed their name to the Regina Roughriders in 1924 while retaining the colours of red and black. Ottawa had a team called the Ottawa Rough Riders, but the spelling was different and the two clubs played in different leagues then; the origin of the name has multiple theories, the most credible of which describes how the North-West Mounted Police were called Roughriders because they broke the wild horse broncos that were used by the force and the moniker was adopted from them. Giving credence to this theory is that during this time, the team played at the RNWMP/RCMP barracks when the then-rudimentary facilities at Park Hughes were
The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing in the namesake championship of professional Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFL's East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian television's largest annual sporting events; the Toronto Argonauts have the most Grey Cup wins since its introduction in 1909, while the Edmonton Eskimos have the most Grey Cup wins since the creation of the professional CFL in 1958. The latest, the 106th Grey Cup, took place in Edmonton, Alberta, on November 25, 2018, when the Calgary Stampeders defeated the Ottawa Redblacks 27–16; the trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey Canada's governor general, who hoped to donate it for the country's senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the "Canadian Dominion Football Championship" of Canadian football.
The trophy has a silver chalice attached to a large base on which the names of all winning teams and executives are engraved. The Grey Cup has been stolen twice and held for ransom, it survived a 1947 fire. The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues. Play was suspended in 1919 due to a rules dispute; the game has been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s. The game was always since 1969 has always been on a Sunday. Held in late November, in outdoor stadiums, the Grey Cup has been played in inclement weather at times, including the 1950 "Mud Bowl", in which a player came close to drowning in a puddle the 1962 "Fog Bowl", when the final minutes of the game had to be postponed to the following day due to a heavy fog, the 1977 "Ice Bowl", contested on the frozen-over artificial turf at Montreal's Olympic Stadium. Most in the 2017 game snow fell, at times throughout the game; the Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cup's longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982.
Competition for the trophy has been between Canadian teams, except for a three-year period from 1993 to 1995, when an expansion of the CFL south into the United States resulted in the Baltimore Stallions winning the 1995 championship and taking the Grey Cup south of the border for the only time in its history. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, professional teams were competing for the trophy by 1907. Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada, planned to donate a new trophy to serve as the senior amateur championship. Grey instead offered an award for the Canadian amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909, he failed to follow through on his offer. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4, 1909, between two Toronto clubs: the University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the Parkdale Canoe Club 26–6 before 3,800 fans; the trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910.
They retained the trophy in the following two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911. The University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, won by the Hamilton Alerts over the Argonauts; the Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game. They kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, who made the trophy available to subsequent champions. Canada's participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as "one of the family heirlooms" of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage; the Grey Cup game was cancelled in 1919 due to a lack of interest from the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the intercollegiate unions, along with rules conflicts between the Canadian Rugby Union and the western union.
Competition resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game, won 16–3 by the Varsity Blues over the Argonauts. It was the University of Toronto's fourth, final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the champions of which petitioned the league body for the right to challenge for the national championship; the Western Canada Rugby Football Union was formed in 1911, but the CRU did not come to a participation agreement with it until 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos of the WCRFU to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team – and the first from outside Toronto or Hamilton – to compete for the trophy; the Argonauts entered the game with an undefeated record, having outscored their opposition 226 to 55 during the season. They dominated Edmonton. Multi-sport star Lionel Conacher was Toronto's top player, scoring 15 of his team's points before leaving the game after the third quarter to join his hockey team for their game.
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The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a professional Canadian football team based in Hamilton, Canada. They are members of the East Division of the Canadian Football League; the Tiger-Cats play their home games at Tim Hortons Field. They were founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Wildcats. Since the 1950 merger, the team has won the Grey Cup championship eight times, most in 1999; the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club recognizes all Grey Cups won by Hamilton-based teams as part of their history, which would bring their win total to 15. However, the CFL does not recognize these wins under one franchise, rather as the individual franchises that won them. If one includes their historical lineage, Hamilton football clubs won league championships in every decade of the 20th century, a feat matched by only one other North American franchise in professional sports, the Triple-A Rochester Red Wings of the International League. Neither of these teams won a championship in the first decade of the 21st century.
In their first forty years of existence, the Tiger-Cats were a model franchise, qualifying for the playoffs in all but three of those years and winning seven Grey Cup championships. They are one of six teams in the modern era to win the Grey Cup at home and were the first to accomplish this when they did it in 1972. However, since 1990, they have missed the playoffs on eleven occasions and have won just one Grey Cup in 1999, their lowest moment came when they lost a CFL record 17 games in one season with just one win during their 2003 season. The franchise has started to return to prominence after qualifying for the post-season in four of the past five seasons, including a loss in the 101st Grey Cup and again in the 102nd Grey Cup; the owner/caretaker of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club is businessman Bob Young, who purchased the club on October 7, 2003. He was born in Hamilton, Ontario and graduated from Victoria College at the University of Toronto, his fortune was earned in the software industry and he is the owner and CEO of Lulu, a self-publishing website.
As of 2011, the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Executive Committee consists of three people: Bob Young, Caretaker. Although the current Hamilton Tiger-Cats were only founded in 1950, football in Hamilton goes back much further than that; the history of Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club can be traced back to November 3, 1869 in a room above George Lee’s Fruit Store, when the Hamilton Football Club was formed. The Hamilton football club played their first game on December 1869 against the 13th Battalion. In 1872, the Hamilton Football club began play at the Hamilton AAA Grounds and they became known as the Tigers in 1873; the Hamilton Tigers began play in the Ontario Rugby Football Union in 1883 and won their first Canadian Dominion Football Championship in 1906 when the Tigers beat McGill University 29–3. The Tigers continued in the ORFU until 1907, when the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union was formed; the IRFU became known as the Big Four and the IRFU became the East division of the modern CFL in the 1950s.
The Tigers faced stiff local competition with the ORFU's Hamilton Alerts who, in 1912, won the City of Hamilton its first Grey Cup, the trophy, now awarded to the Canadian Dominion Football Champions, by beating the Toronto Argonauts 11–4. In the following season, the Tigers won their first of five Grey Cups when they beat the Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club by the lopsided margin of 44–2; the Alerts were refused entry into the ORFU in 1913 with many of its players opting to join the Tigers, while the Alerts faded from existence. The Alerts gave way to a team under the name Hamilton Rowing Club from 1913–1915, who played in the ORFU. 1914 saw the complete amalgamation of the Hamilton Alerts and the Hamilton Tigers and the football club continued playing under the name "Tigers". In 1915, in the final pre-war season, the Hamilton Tigers won their second Grey Cup. After over a decade-long drought, the Hamilton Tigers won the Grey Cup championship game in 1928, 1929 and 1932; the 1941 season saw the Tigers suspend play for the remainder of World War II.
The Hamilton Tigers folded because a number of players had gone into the armed services. It is believed by some that the failure of the Tigers is what caused the IRFU to be dissolved, the Eastern Rugby Football Union to be formed; because of the absence of the Tigers, a new club called the Hamilton Wildcats were formed to play in the ORFU in 1941. The Wildcats were given permission to use players from the Hamilton Tigers, but not the traditional black and yellow colors of the Tigers. In 1943, the Hamilton Flying Wildcats, stocked with Royal Canadian Air Force personnel, won the 31st Grey Cup. Things returned to normal in 1945 when the IRFU and the Hamilton Tigers resumed play while the Wildcats continued on in the ORFU. In 1948 the Hamilton Wildcats joined the IRFU to replace the Tigers who joined the Ontario Rugby Football Union; the Tigers and Wildcats switch of unions only lasted. At this time, the Tigers and Wildcats competed for fans and bragging rights so vehemently that neither team could operate on a sound financial level.
The Tigers and Wildcats amalgamated in 1950 to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats that would compete in the IRFU. Under the guidance of prominent and distinguished local leaders such as Ralph "Super-Duper" Cooper and F. M. Gibson, i