Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Alex Zahara is a Canadian actor and voice artist. Born in Grande Prairie, Alberta, he was involved with theatre while still in school, performing in a stage version of MASH, he taught the "Acting for Teens" class at the Vancouver Film School. Zahara graduated with a BFA after studying at the universities of British Columbia. Stargate SG-1 as Alien Leader & Alien #1, Iron Shirt, Shy One, Warrick The Sentinel as Gabe Dead Man's Gun as Tommy The Net as Marshall Roberts The Outer Limits as Karl Rademacher First Wave as Gregory Andromeda as Hanno The Immortal as Demon Assistant Dark Angel as Johanssen Jeremiah as Ezekiel The Dead Zone as Major Reg Granowitz Kingdom Hospital as Sol Tarus Cold Squad as Steve Baker Tru Calling as Peter Young Blades as the Duke de Faure Blood Ties as Magnus Psych as Alan Zenuk The Man in the High Castle as SS Officer Oliver Diels The 13th Warrior as Norseman Kill Me Later as Officer Larry Walking Shadow as Lou Montana Babylon 5: The Legend of the Rangers as Dulann Open Range as Chet Hustle The Keeper as Derrick Ogre as Lawrence Ice Twisters as Damon Jarwell 2012 as Mr. Anton Horns as Dr. Renald A Daughter's Nightmare as Dr. Shwarzstein Dead Rising 2 as Theodore "Ted" Smith Dynasty Warriors: Gundam 3 as Lockon Stratos Gintama° as Shinsuke Takasugi Mobile Suit Gundam 00 as Lockon Stratos My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic as Jack Pot NANA as Mr. Mizuki Roswell Conspiracies as James Rinaker The Girl Who Leapt Through Time as Kousuke Tsuda Alex Zahara on IMDb Official site
The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show is an American television sitcom co-created and starring Bill Cosby, which aired for eight seasons on NBC from September 20, 1984, until April 30, 1992. The show focuses on the Huxtable family, an upper middle-class African-American family living in Brooklyn, New York; the Cosby Show spent five consecutive seasons as the number-one rated show on television. The Cosby Show and All in the Family are the only sitcoms in the history of the Nielsen ratings to be the number-one show for five seasons, it spent all eight of its seasons in the top 20. According to TV Guide, the show "was TV's biggest hit in the 1980s, single-handedly revived the sitcom genre and NBC's ratings fortunes." TV Guide ranked it 28th on their list of 50 Greatest Shows. In addition, Cliff Huxtable was named as the "Greatest Television Dad". In May 1992, Entertainment Weekly stated that The Cosby Show helped to make possible a larger variety of shows with a predominantly African-American cast, from In Living Color to The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air.
The Cosby Show was based on comedy routines in Cosby's stand-up act, which in turn were based on his family life. The show led to the spinoff A Different World, which ran for six seasons from 1987 to 1993; the show focuses on the Huxtable family, an upper middle-class African-American family, living in a brownstone in Brooklyn Heights, New York, at 10 Stigwood Avenue. The patriarch is an obstetrician and son of a prominent jazz trombonist; the matriarch is attorney Clair Huxtable. They have four daughters and one son: Sondra, Theo and Rudy. Despite its comedic tone, the show sometimes involves serious subjects, like Theo's experiences dealing with dyslexia, inspired by Cosby's dyslexic son, Ennis; the show deals with teen pregnancy when Denise's friend, becomes pregnant. The Cosby Show pilot episode uses the same title sequence as the rest of the first season, is regarded as the first episode. However, it is notable for a number of differences from the remainder of the series. In the pilot, the Huxtables have only four children.
Following the pilot, the Huxtables have five children, with the addition of their eldest daughter, mentioned in episode four and appears first in episode 11. The character was created when Bill Cosby wanted the show to express the accomplishment of raising a child. Bill Cosby wanted Vanessa L. Williams to play the part of "Sondra" due to her college education and background in theater arts. However, Williams was crowned the first black Miss America and pageant officials would not permit her to play, the Cosby Show role, while she was representing the Miss America pageant. Whitney Houston was considered for the role of Sondra Huxtable. Houston, was unable to commit to the full-time television production schedule in the NBC contract, as she was intending to be a full-time music recording artist. Most of the story in the pilot presentation is taken from Bill Cosby's classic comedy film Bill Cosby: Himself. Cosby's character is called "Clifford" in the early episodes of the first season, his name was switched to "Heathcliff".
Although, in one episode, Clair calls him "Heathclifford". Additionally, Vanessa refers to Theo as "Teddy" twice in the dining room scene; the interior of the Huxtables' home features an different living room from subsequent episodes, different color schemes in the dining room and the master bedroom. Throughout the remainder of the series, the dining room is reserved for more formal occasions. In the early 1980s, Marcy Carsey and Tom Werner, two former executives at ABC, left the network to start their own production company. At ABC, they had overseen sitcoms such as Mork & Mindy, Three's Company, Welcome Back, Kotter; the two decided that to get a sitcom to sell for their fledgling company, they needed a big name behind it. Bill Cosby, who starred in two failed sitcoms during the 1970s, produced award-winning stand-up comedy albums, had roles in several different films, was quiet during the early 1980s. According to a Chicago Tribune article from July, 1985, despite Carsey and Werner's connection to the network, Lewis Erlicht, president of ABC Entertainment, passed on the show, prompting a pitch to rival network, NBC.
Outside of his work on his cartoon series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids, Cosby was doing little in film or television, but Carsey and Werner were fans of Cosby's stand-up comedy and thought it would be the perfect material for a family sitcom. Cosby proposed that the couple should both have blue-collar jobs, with the father a limousine driver, who owned his own car, the mother an electrician. With advice from his wife Camille Cosby, the concept was changed so that the family was well-off financially, with the mother a lawyer and the father a physician. Cosby wanted the program to be educational, he insisted that the program be taped in New York City instead of Los Angeles, where most television programs were taped. The Huxtable home exterior was filmed at 10 St. Luke's Place near 7th Avenue in Manhattan's Greenwich Village; the earliest episodes of the series were videotaped at NBC's Brooklyn studios. The network sold that building, production moved to the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens. Though the show was set to take place in Brooklyn, the exterior façade was of a brownstone townhouse located in Manhattan's Greenwich Village at 10 Leroy Street/ 10 St. Luke's Place.
The pilot was filmed in May 1984, with seas
Hermann Huppen is a Belgian comic book artist. He is better known under his pen-name Hermann, he is most famous for his post-apocalyptic comic Jeremiah, made into a television series. Hermann was born in 1938 in Bévercé in Liège Province. After studying to become a furniture maker and working as interior architect, Hermann made his debut as comic book artist in 1964 in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Spirou with a four-page story. Greg offered him to work for his studio. In 1966, he began illustrating the Bernard Prince series written by Greg, published in Tintin magazine. In 1969 in collaboration with Greg, he began the western series Comanche; this appeared at the same time as other western series such as Blueberry. Hermann began writing his own stories in 1977, starting the post-apocalyptic Jeremiah series, still produced today. In the same period, he made three albums of Nick, inspired by Little Nemo in Slumberland, for Spirou. In 1983 he began a new series, Les Tours de Bois-Maury, set in the Middle Ages and is less focused on action than his other works.
Hermann has created many non-series graphic novels sometimes together with his son Yves H. One of them, Lune de Guerre, with a story by Jean Van Hamme, was filmed as The Wedding Party by Dominique Deruddere. Hermann is characterized by a realistic style and stories that are both somber and angry, with a sense of disillusion with regards to the human character in general, current society more specifically. 1973: Prix Saint-Michel, Belgium 1980: Prix Saint-Michel 1992: Best Long Comic Strip at the Haxtur Awards, Spain- nominated for Best Drawing at the Haxtur Awards1999: nominated for Best Drawing and Best Cover at the Haxtur Awards 2001: Best Drawing at the Haxtur Awards- nominated for Best Short Comic Strip and Best Script at the Haxtur Awards2002: Grand Prix Saint-Michel- nominated for Best Short Comic Strip and Best Drawing at the Haxtur Awards2003: nominated for the Audience Award and the Artwork Award at the Angoulême International Comics Festival, France 2005: nominated for the Audience Award at the Angoulême International Comics Festival 2006: nominated for Best Comic at the Prix Saint-Michel 2010: nominated for Best Artwork at the Prix Saint-Michel All of these comics have been published in French and German: other translations are noted in the "remarks" column.
Hermann Huppen official site Hermann biography on Lambiek Comiclopedia Hermann fan site
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Television is an American television production/distribution studio launched on June 30, 1956 as "MGM-TV" as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. From 2005 to 2006, MGM television programs were distributed by Sony Pictures Television. Since May 31, 2006, MGM Television has resumed sole production and distribution of its programs on television. MGM Television has rejoined the first-run syndication market for the first time in many years with Paternity Court. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer first used TV for promotional purposes having a tie in with The Ed Sullivan Show in the early 1950s; when The Ed Sullivan Show switched to 20th Century Fox, however, MGM attempted to arrange a promotional agreement with NBC, but could not come to terms on the specifics. The 30-minute show, The MGM Parade, one of MGM's first TV programs, was produced by MGM's trailer department as one of the compilation and promotional shows that imitated Disneyland, on ABC. However, this program was canceled by ABC in mid-1956.
MGM took bids for its movie library in 1956 from PRM, Inc. owner and others. Chesler had offered $50 million for the film library. MGM offered three year term leases of film series, Andy Hardys Maisies and Dr. Kildares to TV film distributors, but decided on entering the TV market itself. MGM-TV was started with the hiring of Bud Barry to head up the operation in June 1956. MGM-TV was to distribute its 770 films to TV production and purchasing TV stations. TV production was expect to start with the 1957–58 season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures. Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks. On August 6, 1956, C. Pete Jaeger was appointed as the general sales executive of MGM-TV; the same day, Monroe Mendelsohn was hired. Both of them were executives of Guild Films. MGM acquired 25% of KTTV in Los Angeles on August 20, 1956 in cash along with a $4 million film lease contract. MGM-TV began producing commercials by April 1957 creating ads for Knickerbocker and Standard Oil of Indiana.
By April 1957, MGM-TV was sued by the United States Department of Justice for Block booking to TV stations for selling its movie library as a whole. MGM-TV denied the charges as the stations have the options of 3. Substitute of a film in another package for an equal value movie were allowed, as each film is individual prices based on several factors including its age and its stars. A discount is applied, 50% for the full library, 37.5% on the 350 packages and 25% on the 100 groups. In December 1957, the division had 10 TV series deal under consideration with plans for 8 to be in production with two outright owned and produced by MGM and the other six co-productions with independent producers. MGM-TV was in negotiation with California National Productions, NBC's syndicated distribution subsidiary, for a deal to place two series into syndication. MGM TV started its own Television network, MGM Family Network, or MGM Television Network, on September 9, 1973 on 145 stations. Due to mounting financial difficulties and decreased output, MGM closed its distribution offices in October 1973 and outsourced distribution for its film library for a ten year period along with selling its music publishing arm to United Artists.
In 1982, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Television was renamed MGM/UA Television Distribution after the merger with United Artists the previous year. In 1984, MGM/UA TV again launched MGM/UA Premiere Network, with movies. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM/UA from Kirk Kerkorian, including all of the movies and television shows by MGM/UA. Due to a crushing debt, Turner was forced to return Kerkorian all of United Artists and the MGM trademark 74 days on June 8. Turner kept the pre-May 1986 MGM television shows. Thus, when Time Warner acquired Turner Broadcasting System in October 1996, the pre-May 1986 MGM/UA TV shows became part of Warner Bros.. After Turner's sale, the television division was renamed MGM/UA Television Productions. In 1987, the TV distribution arm MGM/UA Telecommunications Group was launched under the new company MGM/UA Communications Co. MGM/UA Television still kept producing the television series Fame until 1987, the 1980s version of The Twilight Zone until 1989, Kids Incorporated until 1993.
In 1992, MGM/UA Television Productions was reverted to MGM Television. The television company was reformed as MGM Worldwide Television Group and its distributor MGM Telecommunications Group. With Credit Lyonnais' taking control of MGM Studios in Mid-1993 and bring in new chief executive Frank Mancuso, Mancuso soon started up a TV production division. In 1996, the company was reformed for the television brand labels MGM Television Entertainment, MGM Domestic Television Distribution and MGM International Television Distribution when Kerkorian returned to MGM. MGM Global Holdings, Inc. and MGM Television Entertainment, Inc. In 1997, MGM bought Orion Pictures Corporation, The Samuel Goldwyn Company, Motion Picture Corporation of America from Metromedia; the purchase brought a number of TV series with them. As of the present time, MGM Television owns nearly all of the films and television programs
Coy Luther "Luke" Perry III was an American actor. He became a teen idol for playing Dylan McKay on the TV series Beverly Hills, 90210 from 1990 to 1995, again from 1998 to 2000, he starred as Fred Andrews on the CW series Riverdale, had guest roles on notable shows such as Criminal Minds, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, The Simpsons, Will & Grace. He starred in several films, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, The Fifth Element and The Griddle House. Luke Perry was born on October 11, 1966, in Mansfield, the second of three children of Ann Perry, a homemaker, Coy Luther Perry Jr. a steelworker. Their parents divorced in 1972, his mother married Steve Bennett, a construction worker, they had another child, while his biological father died of a heart attack in 1980. Perry was raised in Fredericktown and played Freddie Bird, the school mascot for Fredericktown High School. In 1984, Perry moved to Los Angeles shortly after high school to pursue acting, he worked odd jobs, including in a doorknob factory.
He appeared in the 1985 music video of "Be Chrool to Your Scuel" for the band Twisted Sister, by 1988, Perry had auditioned for 256 acting jobs before receiving his first acceptance. After moving to New York, Perry's earliest roles were on daytime soap operas: one episode of Loving and ten episodes of Another World. In 1989, Perry won the role of the brooding millionaire's son Dylan McKay on Fox's teen drama, Beverly Hills, 90210, he had auditioned for the role of Steve Sanders, but lost to actor Ian Ziering. Perry became a popular teen idol. While starring on 90210, Perry won a supporting role in the original film version of Joss Whedon's Buffy The Vampire Slayer, he starred in Terminal Bliss in 1992, as Lane Frost in 8 Seconds in 1994. In an attempt to find more mature roles, he decided to leave Beverly Hills, 90210 in 1995. In the same year, he took a part in the Italian film Vacanze di Natale' 95. Although he announced that 90210 was behind him, his absence lasted only three years. During that time, Perry starred in the independent film Normal Life opposite Ashley Judd, starred in the TV science fiction movie Invasion, Riot, a drama about the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
He had a small role in Luc Besson's science fiction adventure film The Fifth Element. In 1998 he returned to 90210, where he remained as a permanent special guest star through the show's final season in 2000. In 1999, he starred in the film Storm, he said of his role on Beverly Hills, 90210 as Dylan McKay: "I'm going to be linked with him until I die, but that's just fine. I created Dylan McKay. He's mine." However, he did not reprise his role on the spin-off. He stated: "When you're in the professional acting business, you have to look into all these offers, I don't mean anything bad about it but creatively it's something I have done before and I don't know how it will benefit me if I do it again." Perry said the fact that the show's longtime producer Aaron Spelling was not involved in the revival was critical: "The difference between CW bringing something back and Aaron Spelling doing something is significant. And I cannot do it without Aaron." However, Shannen Doherty, Jennie Garth, Tori Spelling reprised their roles in the 2008 revival of the series.
From 2001 to 2002, he starred as the Reverend Jeremiah Cloutier. From 2002 to 2004 he starred in the post-apocalyptic television series Jeremiah. Perry went on to star in a 2002 television movie called The Triangle. In 2006, Perry co-starred in the ensemble drama series Windfall, about a group of friends who win the lottery; the series ran for 13 episodes during the summer of 2006 on NBC. In 2007, he landed the role of Tommy "Santa" Santorelli on the film The Sandlot: Heading Home, he appeared in the 2008 western A Gunfighter's Pledge. Perry appeared in the 2007 HBO series John from Cincinnati, he starred in the Swedish film Äntligen Midsommar, released in the summer of 2009. Perry did considerable voice-over work for various animated series playing himself, he played himself in "Krusty Gets Kancelled", an episode of The Simpsons. He voiced himself in an episode of Johnny Bravo, giving Johnny dating advice after Johnny saved him from a stampede of fan girls. Perry parodied himself in "The Story on Page One", an episode of Family Guy, in which he sues Peter Griffin for calling him gay in a newspaper article.
His other voice work includes The Incredible Hulk, Biker Mice from Mars, Mortal Kombat: Defenders of the Realm, The Night of the Headless Horseman. Perry guest-starred as gay characters in Will & Grace. In 2005, Perry was reunited with former 90210 co-star Jennie Garth when he guest-starred on What I Like About You in a loose parody of their 90210 characters' relationship. In 2008, Perry guest-starred as rapist Noah Sibert in the season premiere of the television series Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, he guest-starred as cult leader Benjamin Cyrus in an episode of Criminal Minds. In late 2009, Perry starred in The Killers' music video for their fourth annual Christmas single, "¡Happy Birthday Guadalupe!". The same year, Perry participated in the Thomas Nelson's audio Bible production known as The Word of
Cheyenne Mountain Complex
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, next to the city of Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units. Located in Colorado Springs is Peterson Air Force Base, where the North American Aerospace Defense Command and United States Northern Command headquarters are located; the center for the United States Space Command and NORAD, the Complex monitored the air space of Canada and the United States for missiles, space systems, foreign aircraft through its worldwide early-warning system. Since 2008, NORAD and the United States Space Command have been based at Peterson Air Force Base and the complex, re-designated as an air force station, is used for flight crew training and as a back-up command center if required; the military complex has included, in the past, many units of NORAD, U. S. Space Command, Aerospace Defense Command, Air Force Systems Command, Air Weather Service, Federal Emergency Management.
The complex's communication center is used by the nearby U. S. Civil Defense Warning Center; the complex was built under 2,000 feet of granite on 2 hectares. Fifteen three-story buildings are protected from movement, e.g. earthquake or explosion, by a system of giant springs that the buildings sit on and flexible pipe connectors to limit the operational effect of movement. A total of more than 1,000 springs are designed to prevent any of the 15 buildings from shifting more than one inch; the complex is the only high-altitude Department of Defense facility certified to be able to sustain an electromagnetic pulse. There is a large quantity of cots for most of the personnel, including suites for high-ranking officers within the bunker. Amenities include a medical facility, store and fitness centers inside and outside the mountain; the bunker is built to deflect a 30 megaton nuclear explosion as close as 2 kilometers. Within a mountain tunnel are sets of 25-ton blast doors and another for the civil engineering department.
The doors were built. Should a nuclear blast hit the building, they are designed to withstand a blast wave. There is a network of blast valves with unique filters to capture airborne chemical, biological and nuclear contaminants. Outside of the military complex are the parking lots, a heliport, a fire station, outdoor recreational facilities; the recreational amenities include Mountain Man Park, picnic areas, a racquetball facility, softball field, sand volleyball court, basketball court, a putting green, horseshoe area. A military gate limits NORAD Road usage from the State Highway 115 interchange; the complex has its own power plant and cooling system, water supply and it is the job of the 21st Mission Support Group to ensure that there is a 99.999% degree of reliability of its electricity, air conditioning and other support systems. The threats, in descending order of likelihood, that the complex may face are "medical emergencies, natural disasters, civil disorder, a conventional attack, an electromagnetic pulse attack, a cyber or information attack, chemical or biological or radiological attack, an improvised nuclear attack, a limited nuclear attack, a general nuclear attack."
The least events are the most hazardous. There is more water produced by mountain springs than the base needs, a 1.5-million-gallon reservoir ensures that in event of fire, there is enough water to meet the facility's needs. A reservoir of 4.5 million gallons of water is used as a heat sink. There is a "massive" reservoir for diesel fuel and a "huge" battery bank with redundant power generators; the North American Air Defense Command was established and activated at the Ent Air Force Base on September 12, 1957. This command is a bi-national organization, of Canadian and United States Air Defense Command units, in accordance with NORAD Agreements first made on May 12, 1958. In the late 1950s, a plan was developed to construct a command and control center in a hardened facility as a Cold War defensive strategy against long-range Soviet bombers, ballistic missiles, a nuclear attack. In 1957, the Strategic Air Command began construction in New England inside Bare Mountain for a hardened bunker to contain the command post for the 8th Air Force, located at nearby Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
This underground facility was nicknamed "The Notch" and was hardened to protect it from the effects of a nearby nuclear blast and designed so that the senior military staff could facilitate further military operations. Four years construction at Cheyenne Mountain was started to create a similar protection for the NORAD command post. Cheyenne Mountain was excavated under the supervision of the Army Corps of Engineers for the construction of the NORAD Combat Operations Center beginning on May 18, 1961, by Utah Construction & Mining Company; the Space Defense Center and the Combat Operations Center achieved full operational capability on February 6, 1967. The total cost was $142.4 million. Its systems included a control system developed by Burroughs Corporation; the electronics and communications system centralized and automated the instantaneous evaluation of aerospace surveillance data. The Space Defense Center moved from Ent AFB to the complex in 1965; the NORAD Combat Operations Center was operational April 20, 1966 and The Space Defense Command's 1st Aerospace Control Squadron moved to Cheyenne Mountain that month.
The following systems or commands became operat