Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
J. Michael Straczynski
Joseph Michael Straczynski is an American television and film screenwriter and director, comic book writer. He is the founder of Studio JMS, is best known as the creator of the science fiction television series Babylon 5 and its spinoff Crusade, as well as the series Jeremiah, Sense8. Straczynski wrote the psychological drama film Changeling and was co-writer on the martial arts thriller Ninja Assassin, horror film Underworld: Awakening, apocalyptic horror film World War Z. From 2001 to 2007, Straczynski wrote Marvel Comics' The Amazing Spider-Man, followed by runs on Thor and Fantastic Four, he is the author of the Superman: Earth One trilogy of graphic novels, has written Superman, Wonder Woman, Before Watchmen for DC Comics. Straczynski is the creator and writer of several original comic book series such as Rising Stars, Midnight Nation, Dream Police, Ten Grand through Joe's Comics. A prolific writer across a variety of media and former journalist, Straczynski is the author of the novels Demon Night and Tribulations, the short fiction collection Straczynski Unplugged, the nonfiction book The Complete Book of Scriptwriting.
Straczynski is a long-time participant in Usenet and other early computer networks, interacting with fans through various online forums since 1984. He is credited as being the first TV producer to directly engage with fans on the Internet, allow their viewpoints to influence the look and feel of his show. Two prominent areas where he had a presence were GEnie and the newsgroup rec.arts.sf.tv.babylon5.moderated. Straczynski was born in Paterson, New Jersey, is the son of Charles Straczynski, a manual laborer, Evelyn Straczynski, he was raised in New Jersey. Straczynski's family religion was Catholic, he has Polish ancestry, his grandparents lived in the area which today belongs to Belarus, fled to America from the Russian Revolution. Straczynski is a graduate of San Diego State University, having earned a BA with a double major in psychology and sociology. While at SDSU, he wrote for the student newspaper, The Daily Aztec at times penning so many articles that the paper was jokingly referred to as the "Daily Joe".
Straczynski met Kathryn M. Drennan while they were both at SDSU, they moved to Los Angeles in 1981, married in 1984, separated in 2002, were divorced in 2003. Straczynski began writing plays, having several produced at Southwestern College and San Diego State University before publishing his adaptation of "Snow White" with Performance Publishing. Several other plays were produced around San Diego, including "The Apprenticeship" for the Marquis Public Theater. During the late 1970s, Straczynski became the on-air entertainment reviewer for KSDO-FM and wrote several radio plays before being hired as a scriptwriter for the radio drama Alien Worlds, he produced his first television project in San Diego, "Marty Sprinkle" for KPBS-TV as well as worked on the XETV-TV project Disasterpiece Theatre. He worked as a journalist for the Los Angeles Times as a special San Diego correspondent and worked for San Diego Magazine and The San Diego Reader, wrote for the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, the Los Angeles Reader, TV-Cable Week, People magazine.
Straczynski wrote The Complete Book of Scriptwriting for Writer's Digest. Published in 1982, the book is used as a text in introductory screenwriting courses, is now in its third edition, he and Kathryn M. Drennan, whom he met at San Diego State, moved to Los Angeles on April 1, 1981, they would marry in 1983, separate in 2002. He spent five years from 1987 to 1992 co-hosting the Hour 25 radio talk show on KPFK-FM Los Angeles with Larry DiTillio. During his tenure, he interviewed such luminaries as John Carpenter, Neil Gaiman, Ray Bradbury, Harlan Ellison and other writers, producers and directors. In 2000, Straczynski returned to radio drama with The City of Dreams for scifi.com. Straczynski is the author of three horror novels—Demon Night and Tribulations—and nearly twenty short stories, many of which are collected in two compilations—Tales from the New Twilight Zone and Straczynski Unplugged. Straczynski was the Masters of the Universe, he sent it directly to Filmation. They purchased his script, bought several others, hired him on staff.
During this time he became friends with Larry DiTillio, when Filmation produced the He-Man spinoff She-Ra: Princess of Power, they both worked as story editors on the show. However, when Filmation refused to give them credit on-screen, both left, finding work with DIC on Jayce and the Wheeled Warriors. Straczynski and DiTillio worked to create an animated version of Elfquest, but that project fell through when CBS attempted to retool the show to appeal to younger audiences. While working on Jayce, Straczynski was hired to come aboard the Len Janson and Chuck Menville project to adapt the movie Ghostbusters to an animated version called The Real Ghostbusters; when Janson and Menville learned that there was not only a 13-episode order but a 65-episode syndication order as well, they decided that the workload was too much and that they would only work on their own scripts. DIC head Jean Chalopin asked Straczynski to take on the task of story editing the entire 7
Babylon 5 is an American space opera television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd. and Warner Bros. Domestic Television. After the successful airing of a test pilot movie on February 22, 1993, Babylon 5: The Gathering, in May 1993 Warner Bros. commissioned the series for production as part of its Prime Time Entertainment Network. The first season premiered in the US on January 26, 1994, the series ran for the intended five seasons, costing an estimated $90 million for 110 episodes. Unlike most television shows at the time, Babylon 5 was conceived as a "novel for television", with a defined beginning and end; the series consists of a coherent five-year story arc unfolding over five seasons of 22 episodes each. Tie-in novels, comic books, short stories were developed to play a significant canonical part in the overall story; the series follows the human military staff and alien diplomats stationed on a space station, Babylon 5, built in the aftermath of several major inter-species wars as a neutral focal point for galactic diplomacy and trade.
Babylon 5 was an early example of a television series featuring story arcs which spanned episodes or whole seasons. Whereas contemporary television shows tended to confine conflicts to individual episodes, maintaining the overall status quo, each season of Babylon 5 contains plot elements which permanently change the series universe. Babylon 5 utilized multiple episodes to address the repercussions of some plot events or character decisions, episode plots would at times reference or be influenced by events from prior episodes or seasons, unusual at the time. Many races of sentient creatures are seen frequenting the station, with most episodes drawing from a core of a dozen or so species. Major plotlines included Babylon 5's embroilment in a millennia-long cyclical conflict between ancient, powerful races, inter-race wars and their aftermaths, intrigue or upheaval within particular races, including the human characters who fight to resist Earth's descent into totalitarianism. Many episodes focus on the effect of wider events on individual characters, with episodes containing themes such as personal change, subjugation, corruption and redemption.
Babylon 5, set between the years 2257 and 2262, depicts a future where Earth has a unifying Earth government and has gained the technology for faster-than-light travel. Colonies within the solar system, beyond, make up the Earth Alliance, which has established contact with other spacefaring species. Ten years before the series is set, Earth itself was nearly defeated in a war with the intellectual Minbari, only to escape destruction when the Minbari unexpectedly surrendered at the brink of victory. Among the other species are the imperialist Centauri. Several dozen less powerful species from the League of Non-Aligned Worlds have diplomatic contact with the major races, including the Drazi, Vree and pak'ma'ra. An ancient and secretive race, the Shadows, unknown to humans but documented in many other races' religious texts, malevolently influence events to bring chaos and war among the known species; the Babylon 5 space station is located in the Epsilon Eridani system, at the fifth Lagrangian point between the fictional planet Epsilon III and its moon.
It is 0.5 -- 1.0 mile in diameter. The station is the last of its line, it contains living areas which accommodate various alien species, providing differing atmospheres and gravities. Human visitors to the alien sectors are shown using breathing equipment and other measures to tolerate the conditions. Babylon 5 featured an ensemble cast which changed over the course of the show's run: Michael O'Hare as Commander Jeffrey Sinclair: The first commander of Babylon 5 assigned to be Earth's ambassador to Minbar. Bruce Boxleitner as Captain John Sheridan: Sinclair's replacement on Babylon 5 after his reassignment, a central figure of several prophecies within the Shadow war. Claudia Christian as Lt. Commander Susan Ivanova: Second in command to Babylon 5. Jerry Doyle as Michael Garibaldi: Babylon 5's Chief of Station Security. Mira Furlan as Delenn: The Minbari ambassador to Babylon 5. Born Minbari, she uses a special artifact at the start of the 2nd season to become a Minbari-human hybrid. Richard Biggs as Doctor Stephen Franklin: Babylon 5's chief medical officer.
Andrea Thompson as Talia Winters: A commercial Psi-Corps telepath that works aboard the station. Stephen Furst as Vir Cotto: Diplomatic aide to Centauri Ambassador Londo Mollari. Bill Mumy as Lennier: Diplomatic aide to Minbari Ambassador Delenn. Tracy Scoggins as Captain Elizabeth Lochley: Babylon 5's station commander following Ivanova's departure. Jason Carter as Marcus Cole: A Ranger, one of a group of covert agents who fight against the Shadows. Caitlin Brown and Mary Kay Adams as Na'Toth: Diplomatic aide to Narn Ambassador G'Kar. Robert Rusler as Warren Keffer: Commander of the Zeta Wing, one of Babylon 5's small fighter fleets. Jeff Conaway as Zack Allan (guest season 2, main
Hombre is a Spanish comics series written by Antonio Segura and drawn by José Ortiz, first published in 1981 in the magazine Cimoc. Created during the resurgence of Spanish comics in the years after the fall of Franco, Segura wrote Bogey and Orka in the same period, though it was Hombre in collaboration with Ortiz that would prove the most successful. After its initial run in Cimoc and Ortiz brought Hombre to the magazine KO Comics, one of the three magazines the artists' publishing cooperative Metropol produced during its short existence in 1984. After Metropol ceased business, Hombre relocated to the pages of Cimoc for a second run; the Spanish album releases were published by Norma Editorial. Enjoying popularity in France, the series was printed in albums by publishers Kesselring, Magic Strip and Soleil Productions. English language translations of the series appeared in Heavy Metal during the 1990s. In Italy, it appeared starting from 1982 in the magazine Lanciostory. A post-apocalyptic series, Hombre is set on Earth after the collapse of the technological civilization.
The protagonist moves through the scenery as a disillusioned solitary survivor, with lingering traces of humanity despite the widespread debased nature of most people he encounters. He always has a ragged cigarette in the corner of his mouth, is accompanied by a young woman who came of age after the collapse and thus is accommodated to the life of a naked savage. Though the plot is compared with that of Jeremiah, Hombre does not share the underlying motif of hope and survival of mankind of the former. Hombre albums Bedetheque
Politikin Zabavnik is a popular magazine in Serbia, published by Politika Newspapers and Magazines. The first issue came out on 28 February 1939. In the beginning it was printed in the form of newspaper, issued biweekly, on Tuesdays and Fridays. Nowadays it comes out weekly on Fridays. One part of the magazine is comics, while the other parts contain articles about science, history, interesting events, written to appeal to the broadest audiences; the magazine's famous slogan labels it as "Za sve od 7 do 107". The slogan once said "For everyone from 7 to 77", but was changed, after the editor received a letter from a reader, saying how he turned 78 and asking if he was still fit to read it. First editorship consisted of journalists from Politika, headed by Vladislav Ribnikar, Dušan Timotijević and Živojin Vukadinović, they were among the enthusiasts who were gathering Serbian intellectual left wing during the late 1930s. They had the idea about making an amusing newspaper containing novels, short stories and comic strips.
On 31 December 1938 Politika came out with an open competition for the name of new edition. Between 34,998 coupons that arrived, one fifth voted for the name Politikin Zabavnik among other suggestions; the magazine's first issue was published on 28 February 1939. It was issued in the form of Berliner newspaper, it had 12 pages printed in white. Four of them were printed with addition of its undertones; the concept of Politikin Zabavnik was balanced relation between comics and texts, such as novels and interesting facts. As comics editor Duda Timotijević was in charge of translation of American comic strips and Sunday strips, he gave Serbian names to many Disney's characters to reflect their characteristics. Beside Disney's comic strips Politikin Zabavnik published comics such as: Jungle Jim, Ming Foo, Little Annie Rooney, The Lone Ranger, Red Ryder, Thimble Theatre, Curley Harper, Brick Bradford, King of the Royal Mounted. Domestic comic authors had significant space: Đorđe Lobačev, Moma Marković, Konstantin Kuznjecov, Sergej Solovjev.
The main difference between Politikin Zabavnik and concurrent comic publishers, such as Mika Miš and Mikijevo carstvo, was textual parts containing crosswords, Ripley's Believe It or Not!, news from science to sport, numerous short and edifying texts. Beside, it had exclusive rights on, in that time in Serbia popular, Walt Disney comics. Editor of textual parts was Bata Vukadinović. Politikin zabavnik featured novels of Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain, H. G. Wells and many other famous writers. Average magazine circulation came to 41,000 per issue, at the time a great number. But, World War II stopped the publishing of the magazine; the last of the pre-war editions came out on 4 April 1941, two days before the bombing of Belgrade. After the war was over, the new communist regime banned comics, their explanation was. However, after the end of Soviet influence in Yugoslavia, after the Informbiro period, cultural bondages started to loose. First it started with caricatures and animated movies, some comics acquiescently started to be published in different editions.
Seven years after World War II, Vladislav Ribnikar decided to re-establish the magazine. The first post-war issue came out on 5 January 1952. Editor in chief was Kosta Stepanović, his first assistant Bogdan Popović, it was prearranged by a visit of Athens' representative of Walt Disney Company. He suggested to president Josip Broz Tito to re-establish comic publishing in Yugoslavia. Tito's reputed answer was: "Why not, I like Donald Duck"; the fact is. The first day of 1968 was a historical date for the magazine. Nikola Lekić, chief editor in that time, changed its form from newspaper to magazine format, it was now published in color. Another significant addition was a comic in the middle of the magazine. Before that Politikin Zabavnik published only comic strips; the magazine now contained a complete episode of a comic separated on 2-3 sequels. Starting from 1971, Politikin Zabavnik was printed in Latin alphabet and Slovenian language, at its peak it reached a number of 330,000 copies per issue. Printing of Slovenian Language edition stopped in 1989 after 843 numbers when sold circulation felt to 8000 copies, soon after that Latin alphabet version stopped.
In January 1988, Zabavnik changed the format again. Although it has been redesigned several times since, it is still published in that format. In 2019 Slovenian language version was resurrected by the new publisher. Politikin Zabavnik logo features Donald Duck as a newspaper seller. At the beginning of 1993, due to embargo against FR Yugoslavia imposed by United Nations, Politikin Zabavnik had to stop publishing Disney's comic strips, instead of Donald Duck just a silhouette of him appeared in the logo. After the end of Yugoslav wars Disney's characters returned to the magazine; every issue consists of constant and periodical sections, other texts related to magazine content. Constant sections: Веровали или не! Јесте ли већ чули да... — Interesting facts Хогар Страшни — Co
American comic book
An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remain the dominant character archetype in the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books. An American comic book is known as a floppy comic.
It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades trending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. In recent decades, standard comics have been about 6.625 inches × 10.25 inches, 32 pages long. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of making them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comic books, the art may be divided between: a writer, who creates the stories. A penciller, who lays out the artwork in pencil. An inker, who finishes the artwork in ink. A colorist, who adds color to the comics a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons; the process begins with the creator coming up with an idea or concept working it into a plot and story, finalizing the preliminary writing with a script.
After the art production, letters are placed on the page and an editor may have the final say before the comic is sent to the printer. The creative team, the writers and artists, may work with a comic book publisher for help with marketing and other logistics. A distributor like Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. helps to distribute the finished product to retailers. Another part of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book until the early 21st century when various Internet forms started to replace them. Comic specialty stores did help encourage several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s; some of the early example of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist.
The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their books to more resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses; the development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer; the G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896 to January 10, 1897 sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid.
The 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neologism "comic book" appears on the back cover. Despite the publication of a series of related Hearst comics soon afterward, the first monthly proto-comic book, Embee Distributing Company's Comic Monthly, did not appear until 1922. Produced in an 8½-by-9-inch format, it reprinted black-and-white newspaper comic strips and lasted a year. In 1929, Dell Publishing published The Funnies, described by the Library of Congress as "a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert" and not to be confused with Dell's 1936 comic-book series of the same name. Historian Ron Goulart describes the 16-page, four-color periodical as "more a Sunday comic section without the rest of the newspaper than a true comic book, but it did offer all original material and was sold on newsstands". The Funnies ran for 36 issues, published Saturdays through October 16, 1930. In 1933, salesperson Maxwell Gaines, sales manager Harry I.
Wildenberg, owner George Janosik of the Waterbury, Connecticut company Eastern Color Printing—which printed, among other things, Sunday-paper comic-strip sections – produced Funnies on Parade as a way to keep their presses running. Like The Funnies, but only eight pages, this appeared as a newsprint magazine