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Jerez de la Frontera

Jerez de la Frontera, or Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains. As of 2015, the city, the largest in the province, had a population of 212,876, it is the fifth largest in Andalusia, has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry. Jerez, with 212,876 inhabitants, is the 25th largest city in Spain, the 5th in Andalusia and 1st in the Province of Cádiz, it belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz, the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain, with over 650,000 inhabitants.

Its municipality covers an area of 1,188.14 km2 and includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park and the Sierra de Gibalbín known as Montes de Propio de Jerez. The city is located 12 km from the Atlantic Ocean, in Campiña de Jerez, a region suitable for cultivating the vineyards that produce famous sherry; some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador. Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world; the same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are the Holy Week in Jerez. Jerez is known as the city of flamenco, sherry and motorcycles. In 2013, Jerez was the European Capital of Wine and 2014, it was the world's first Motorbike Capital.

The name Jerez goes back to the Phoenician Xera, Sèrès Romanized under the name of Ceret. The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, a rural district 11 km from the center of Jerez; the current Castilian name came by way of the Arabic name شريش Sherīsh. In former times, during the Muslim period in Iberia, it was called Xerés; the name of the famous fortified wine, which originated here, represents an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, Sherish. Frontera refers to a Spanish frontier, located on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during the 13th century, a regular host to skirmishes and clashes between the two regions. Over two centuries after the Castilian conquest of Granada in 1492, Xerez definitively lost its status as a frontier city, but did not lose that designation. After the Kingdom of Castile took Jerez on October 9, 1264, following the name given by the Muslims to the city in the period known as the Reconquista, the city was called Xerez in medieval Castilian, transcribing the consonant /ʃ/ with the letter ⟨x⟩, as was the rule at the time.

Thus the name was pronounced "Shereth", similar to the Moorish Arabic "Sherish". In the 16th century, the consonant /ʃ/ changed into the consonant /x/, with the corresponding spelling of Jerez; the old spelling "Xerez" as the name given to the city survived in several foreign languages until recently, today continues to influence the name given to sherry: Portuguese Xerez, Catalan Xerès, English sherry, French Xérès. The city's main football team continues to use Xerez. Traces of human presence in the area date from the upper Neolithic, humans have inhabited Jerez de la Frontera since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear; the first major protohistoric settlement in the area is attributed to the Tartessians. Jerez became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled it until the Arabs conquered the area in 711. In the 11th century it became the seat of an independent taifa.

Some years ` Abdun ibn Muhammad ruled both. In 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez operated as an emirate under dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal; the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of great development, building its defense system and setting the current street layout of the old town. In 1231 the Battle of Jerez took place within the town's vicinity: Christian troops under the command of Álvaro Pérez de Castro, lord of the House of Castro and grandson of Alfonso VII, king of Castile and León, defeated the troops of the Emir Ibn Hud, despite the numerical superiority of the latter. After a month-long siege in 1261, the city surrendered to Castile, but its Muslim population remained, it rebelled and was defeated in 1264. The discovery of the Americas and the conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and through its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cádiz.

Despite the social and political decadence

Silver (song)

For the song by Moist, see Silver. It was the second single to be released from their 1984 album Ocean Rain, it stayed on the UK Singles Chart for five weeks, reaching a peak of number 30. It reached number 14 on the Irish Singles Chart; the b-side to the 7" is "Angels and Devils". The 12" version of the single was extended by one minute and 50 seconds and called "Silver" and the b-side is the 7" version and "Angels and Devils"; the 7" and 12" versions of the title track were recorded at the Studio Des Dames in Paris and the Amazon Studio in Liverpool, while "Angels and Devils" was recorded at The Automat in San Francisco on 18 March 1984. All tracks written by Ian McCulloch, Les Pattinson and Pete de Freitas. 7" release"Silver" – 3:19 "Angels and Devils" – 4:2412" release"Silver" – 5:09 "Silver" – 3:19 "Angels and Devils" – 4:24 Ian McCulloch – vocals, guitar Will Sergeant – lead guitar Les Pattinson – bass Pete de Freitas – drums Adam Peterspiano, cello The Bunnymen – producer, mixed by Gil Norton – producer, mixed by Henri Loustau – producer, engineer David Frazer – engineer Jean-Yves – assistant engineer Adam Peters – orchestral arrangement Lyrics at MTV.com Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Autograph club

Autograph clubs were developed for both the collectors and dealers of autographs to obtain knowledge in the hobby of autograph collecting. Autograph collecting may have started in the 16th century when Germans kept albums of correspondence when they traveled. By the late 18th century in Europe it was popular to collect letters of famous people; until the 20th century, literary and religious autographs were collected. With the creation of the cinema and television autographs from popular culture figures were sought. Since the mid-1970s hobby shops began appearing in the United States; the hobby of collecting autographs took off in the 1980s. By the 1990s the industry skyrocketed. According to Brookes Barnes, the autograph market is worth in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Handwritten letters are most sought after and are valued at three to five times the value of typed letters. A handwritten letter from Beethoven fetched $50,000 and a letter from Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis fetched $10,500. In the early years sports signatures were sought after reaching high prices.

The death of any celebrity resulted in a rise in prices of autograph memorabilia. This made autographs of all types worth collecting. According to an article in the New York Times by Diane Sierpina, there are 1 million autographed document collectors nationwide and there are 5 million autographs collectors in the United States alone. According to Sports Collector Digest, the sports autograph market is worth $500 million; this number is in sports autographs alone. In the late 1990s according to the FBI, 70% of autograph memorabilia on the market was bogus. Due to the large amount of counterfeit autograph memorabilia, autograph clubs were developed to give potential purchasers the confidence to buy, it is a fact that a piece of autograph memorabilia is sold every 15 seconds on eBay or other Internet sites. The Autograph Club was first seen in the 1940s, with the hobby growing different clubs began emerging onto the scene; as the autograph clubs advanced, they began developing many new strategies to help the collector.

Clubs occurred in many different countries. Once people started buying and trading, there was need for people with a common interest to be able to associate with one another despite having no ties other than a common hobby. Autograph clubs were created for enjoyment, along with financial rewards. Involvement in autograph clubs can lead to building advanced skills and experience. Education is the aim of most autograph clubs. Collecting Autographs and Manuscripts by Charles Hamilton, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1961 The Complete Book of Autograph Collecting by George Sullivan, 1971 Collecting Autographs by Herman M. Darvick, Julian Messner/Simon & Schuster, 1981 American Autographs by Charles Hamilton, 2 vols. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1983