Brasstown Bald is the highest point in the U. S. state of Georgia. Located in northeast Georgia, the mountain is known to the native Cherokee people as Enotah, it is the highest ground for 15.86 miles. The name in English is derived from a mistaken translation of the term for the nearby Cherokee village of Brasstown, located along the upper Brasstown Creek feeding the Hiawassee River. Across the North Carolina state line north of the mountain, are other places named in that error of English settlers: Brasstown, a community in the Brasstown township of Clay County, North Carolina. Brasstown Bald is in both Towns and Union counties, the peak being divided by the county line; the mountain is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, within the borders of the Blue Ridge Ranger District of the Chattahoochee National Forest. The mountain consists of soapstone and dunite. On a clear day, it is possible to see the tall buildings of Atlanta from the summit; the U. S. Forest Service has webcams atop the observation tower, a RAWS weather station further down the mountain.
The public can drive to the top via Georgia State Route 180 Spur. According to the two Georgia historical markers, the area surrounding Brasstown Bald was settled by the Cherokee people. English-speaking settlers derived the word "Brasstown" from a translation error of the Cherokee word for its village place. Settlers confused the word Itse'yĭ, which the Cherokee used for their village, with Ûňtsaiyĭ, referred to the settlement as Brasstown; the Cherokee gave the locative name, Itse'yĭ, to several distinct areas in their territory, including an area nearby in what is considered present-day North Carolina. According to Cherokee legend about Itse'yĭ, a great flood swept over the land. All the people died except a few Cherokee families; the canoe ran aground at the summit of a forested mountain. As there was no wild game for the people to hunt and no place for them to plant crops, the Great Spirit killed all the trees on the top of the mountain so that the surviving people could plant crops, they lived from their crops until the water subsided.
Other transliterated spellings of the Cherokee name for the mountain include Echia, Echoee and Enotah. The term "Bald" is common terminology in the southern Appalachians describing mountaintops that have 360-degree unobstructed views. Former Georgia Supreme Court Judge Thomas S. Candler is memorialized with a stone monument at Brasstown Bald, it was erected in 1971 three months before he died in recognition of his efforts to support getting more visitors to the mountain and establishing a visitors center there for them. From the northeast, starting at the intersection of Owl Creek Road and the concurrent Georgia 17 and Georgia 75 near Mountain Scene, the climb is 13.5 kilometers long, gaining 828 meters. From the southeast, starting at the intersection of Georgia 180 and Georgia 17/75 near Sooky Gap, the climb is 13.1 kilometers long, gaining 790 meters, an average of 6.0% grade. From the west, starting at the intersection of Georgia 180 and Georgia 348 near Choestoe, the climb is 14.9 kilometers, gaining 856 meters, an average of 5.7% grade.
From the intersection of Route 180 and Route 180 Spur at Jacks Gap the climb is 4.9 kilometers at an average gradient of 11.2%. An additional route to the summit is the Wagon Train Trail, starting at Young Harris College; the trail is traditionally hiked by graduating students and their families on the evening before graduation. In the 2005 through 2008 editions of the Tour de Georgia, a long-distance bicycle race, Brasstown Bald was the site of an hors categorie "King of the Mountains stage" finish. NOAA Weather Radio station KXI22 transmits from atop the mountain, simulcasting with KXI75 from Blue Ridge, Georgia; the programming originates from NWSFO Peachtree City. Georgia Public Broadcasting had or has construction permits from the Federal Communications Commission for two low-power broadcast translator stations at the summit; the digital TV station on channel 12 is the direct replacement for analog TV station W04BJ in nearby Young Harris, covers for W50AB in nearby Hiawassee. New station WBTB FM 90.3 will transmit at just 97 watts, equivalent to several hundred watts because of the height above average terrain of over 700 meters, or more than 2,300 feet.
Both stations will have Young Harris as the city of license. Brasstown Valley Resort Brasstown Wilderness List of U. S. states by elevation List of mountains in Georgia Media related to Brasstown Bald at Wikimedia Commons
Mount Katahdin is the highest mountain in the U. S. state of Maine at 5,267 feet. Named Katahdin by the Penobscot Native Americans, which means "The Greatest Mountain", it is located within Northeast Piscataquis, Piscataquis County, is the centerpiece of Baxter State Park, it is a tall masiff formed from a granite intrusion weathered to the surface. The flora and fauna on the mountain are typical of those found in northern New England. Katahdin was known to the Native Americans in the region, was known to Europeans at least since 1689, it has inspired hikes, journal narratives, a piano sonata. The area around the peak was protected by Governor Percival Baxter starting in the 1930s. Katahdin is the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, is located near a stretch known as the Hundred-Mile Wilderness. In 1967, Mount Katahdin was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; the mountain is called just "Katahdin", though the official name is "Mount Katahdin" as decided by the US Board on Geographic Names in 1893.
Katahdin is in Baxter State Park, in east central Piscataquis County, about 25 mi northwest of Millinocket. It is on the drainage divide between the West branches of the Penobscot River; the mountain massif. Baxter Peak is the tallest, is the official northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail. South Peak and Pamola Peak are southeast and east of Baxter Peak along the Knife Edge ridgeline, while Hamlin Peak lies to the north; the third highest mountain in Maine, Sugarloaf Mountain at 1,295 m, is over one hundred miles to the southwest. There is low lake country to the south and west of Katahdin, lowlands extending east to the Atlantic and north to the Saint Lawrence River in Canada, it is thought that Katahdin is the first place in the United States mainland to receive sunlight in the morning, but this is incorrect. Other mountains, lower in elevation but farther to the east or southeast, depending on the season, see the first sunrise of the day. Katahdin is part of a laccolith that formed in the Acadian orogeny, when an island arc collided with eastern North America 400 million years ago.
On the sides of Katahdin are four glacial cirques carved into the granite by alpine glaciers and in these cirques behind moraines and eskers are several ponds. In Baxter State Park, many outcrops of sedimentary rocks have striations, whereas Katahdin Granite and Traveler Rhyolite lava have weathered surfaces on which striations are not preserved. Bedrock surfaces of igneous rocks which have been buried by glacial sediments and only exposed have well preserved striations, as in the vicinity of Ripogenus Dam. Several outcrops of sedimentary rocks along the Patten Road show striations on the north side of the road at Hurricane Deck. A few outcrops near the Pattern Road just north of Horse Mountain are striated, as are several outcrops of sedimentary rocks along the road from Trout Brook Farm northward to Second Lake Matagamon. Fauna include black bear and moose as well as black flies and mosquitos in the spring. A subspecies of Arctic butterfly, known as the Katahdin Arctic is specific to the area, is listed as endangered.
Among the birds are Bicknell's thrush and various songbirds and raptors. A study of the animal communities was published by Irving H. Blake in 1926; the flora includes pine, fir, beech, birch and Diapensia lapponica. Katahdin is referred to 60 years after Field's climb of Agiokochuk in the writings of John Gyles, a teenage colonist, captured near Portland, Maine in 1689 by the Abenaki. While in the company of Abenaki hunting parties, he traveled up and down several Maine rivers including both branches of the Penobscot, passing close to "Teddon", he remarked. Among some Native Americans, Katahdin was believed to be the home of the storm god Pamola, thus an area to be avoided; the first recorded climb of "Catahrdin" was by Massachusetts surveyors Zackery Adley and Charles Turner, Jr. in August 1804. In the 1840s Henry David Thoreau climbed Katahdin, which he spelled "Ktaadn". A few years Theodore Winthrop wrote about his visit in Life in the Open Air. Painters Frederic Edwin Church and Marsden Hartley are well-known artists who created landscapes of Katahdin.
On 30 November 2011, Christie's auctioned Church's 1860 painting Twilight for $3.1 million. In the 1930s Governor Percival Baxter began to acquire land and deeded more than 200,000 acres to the State of Maine for a park, named Baxter State Park after him; the summit was recognized by the US Board on Geographic Names as "Baxter Peak" in 1931. As the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail and southern terminus of the International Appalachian Trail, Katahdin is a popular hiking and backpacking destination and the centerpiece of Baxter State Park. Baxter State Park is open year-round, though regulated in winter; the overnight camping season is from May 15 to October 15 each year. Capacity limits have been placed on day use parking at the trailheads to minimize the overuse of trails. Mt. Katahdin has several trails leading up to either Baxter Peak. There are two trails and Abol, accessible from the south side of the mountain, each with its own separate parking lot; these trails start right up the mountain, but each trail on the mountain ends up taking eight to ten hours round-trip depending on ability.
The rest of the trails go up the north side or west side of the mo
Mount Arvon, elevation 1,979 feet, located in L'Anse Township, Baraga County, is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Michigan. Like nearby Arvon Township, Mount Arvon takes its name from the deposits of slate in the area which were reminiscent of those around Caernarfon in Wales. Mount Arvon is part of the Huron Mountains, it rises about eight miles south of Lake Superior. On the list of highest natural points in each U. S. state, Mount Arvon ranks 38th. Mount Arvon is a few miles from Mount Curwood, which for years had been designated as Michigan's highest spot until a resurvey in 1982 with modern technology determined that Mount Arvon is 1 foot taller than Mount Curwood. Mount Arvon is about 12 miles east of L'Anse, although it is about a 26-mile drive from the city as much of it lies on winding logging roads; the property is owned by the MeadWestvaco paper company but public access is allowed. Michigan portal Mountains portal List of U. S. states by elevation "Mt. Arvon". Baraga County Tourism.
Archived from the original on July 25, 2011
Foster, Rhode Island
Foster is a town in Providence County, Rhode Island, in the United States. The population was 4,606 at the 2010 census. Foster was settled in the 17th century by British colonists as a farming community. In the year 1662, William Vaughan, Zachariah Rhodes, Robert Wescott, purchased of the Indians a large tract of land called West Quanaug, bordering on Providence. The'West Quanaug purchase', consisted of nearly the whole southern half of the town of Foster; the first settler was Ezekiel Hopkins. Many settlers from Newport were active in the town in the 18th century. Shortly before the incorporation of the town, Foster's first church, a Calvinist Baptist congregation was founded. Shortly afterwards, Six Principle Baptist and Free Will Baptist congregations were founded. Foster was incorporated with Scituate, Rhode Island in 1730, forming the western section of that township, remained part of Scituate until 1781, when it was split off as a distinct and separate township. Foster derived its name, from U.
S. Senator Theodore Foster. Mr. Foster presented the town with a library; some of the library's original books and town records are still preserved. U. S. Senator Nelson Aldrich was born in Foster in 1841. Senator Aldrich was instrumental in starting the U. S. Federal Reserve Board. In the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan was active in the area, one of the largest Klan rallies in the state was held in Foster on the Old Home Day grounds in 1924 with 8,000 in attendance and U. S. Senator J. Thomas Heflin of Alabama speaking. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 51.9 square miles, of which, 51.1 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Foster contains Rhode Island's highest point, Jerimoth Hill, with an elevation of 248 m. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Foster has a Oceanic climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. Foster's Capt.
Isaac Paine Elementary School, has the top spot for reading proficiency according to the New England Common Assessment Program, or NECAP, exams. 82 percent of its students attained proficiency, the state leader in that testing category. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,274 people, 1,535 households, 1,198 families residing in the town; the population density was 83.6 people per square mile. There were 1,578 housing units at an average density of 30.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.26% White, 0.21% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. Foster's zip code, 02825, has a larger population than the town of Foster; this is because the zip code extends into parts of the more populated town of Scituate, Rhode Island. There were 1,535 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families.
17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $59,673, the median income for a family was $63,657. Males had a median income of $39,808 versus $30,632 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,148. About 1.5% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. Foster is home to the Foster Town House. Built in 1796 and in use to this day, the Foster Town House is the oldest government meeting house of its type in the United States.
Foster contains both of Rhode Island's only two covered bridges, known as the Swamp Meadow Covered Bridge. Built in 1994 by Jed Dixon, a Foster resident, it is a reproduction of an early-19th-century specimen, it is the only covered bridge in Rhode Island located on a public road. Jerimoth Hill, the highest point of elevation in Rhode Island, is located in Foster. Foster is home to the most scenic part of the North-South Trail. Along the trail you can see the remnants of the Thomas O' Wagon Wheel Shop, converted to a shingle mill in 1919. Nelson Aldrich, US senator from Rhode Island.
Humphreys Peak is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Arizona, with an elevation of 12,633 feet and is located within the Kachina Peaks Wilderness in the Coconino National Forest, about 11 miles north of Flagstaff, Arizona. Humphreys Peak is the highest of a group of dormant volcanic peaks known as the San Francisco Peaks; the summit can be most reached by hiking the 4.8 miles long Humphreys Summit Trail that begins at the Arizona Snowbowl ski resort in the Coconino National Forest. Humphreys Peak was named in about 1870 for General Andrew A. Humphreys, a U. S. Army officer, a Union general during the American Civil War, who became Chief of Engineers of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. However, a General Land Office map from 1903 showed the name San Francisco Peak applied to this feature, thus the United States Board on Geographic Names approved the variant name in 1911. In 1933, the application of the names was rectified. List of U. S. states by elevation List of Ultras of the United States List of mountains and hills of Arizona by height San Francisco Peaks "Humphreys Peak".
SummitPost.org. "The peaks cam project". U. S. Forest Service. "Kachina Trail #150". U. S. Forest Service. "Humphreys Peak Trail #151." HikeArizona.com. "Kachina Peaks Wilderness." U. S. Forest Service
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii. Its peak is 4,207.3 m above sea level. Most of the mountain is under water, when measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world measuring over 10,000 m. Mauna Kea is about a million years old, has thus passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago. In its current post-shield state, its lava is more viscous. Late volcanism has given it a much rougher appearance than its neighboring volcanoes due to construction of cinder cones, decentralization of its rift zones, glaciation on its peak, weathering by the prevailing trade winds. Mauna Kea last is now considered dormant; the peak is about 38 m higher than its more massive neighbor. In Hawaiian mythology, the peaks of the island of Hawaii are sacred. An ancient law allowed only high-ranking aliʻi to visit its peak. Ancient Hawaiians living on the slopes of Mauna Kea relied on its extensive forests for food, quarried the dense volcano-glacial basalts on its flanks for tool production.
When Europeans arrived in the late 18th century, settlers introduced cattle and game animals, many of which became feral and began to damage the mountain's ecological balance. Mauna Kea can be ecologically divided into three sections: an alpine climate at its summit, a Sophora chrysophylla–Myoporum sandwicense forest on its flanks, an Acacia koa–Metrosideros polymorpha forest, now cleared by the former sugar industry, at its base. In recent years, concern over the vulnerability of the native species has led to court cases that have forced the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources to eradicate all feral species on the mountain. With its high elevation, dry environment, stable airflow, Mauna Kea's summit is one of the best sites in the world for astronomical observation. Since the creation of an access road in 1964, thirteen telescopes funded by eleven countries have been constructed at the summit; the Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum and comprise the largest such facility in the world.
Their construction on a landscape considered sacred by Native Hawaiians continues to be a topic of debate. Mauna Kea is one of five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaii, the largest and youngest island of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Of these five hotspot volcanoes, Mauna Kea is the fourth oldest and fourth most active, it began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaii hotspot around one million years ago, became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago. Mauna Kea entered its quieter post-shield stage 250,000 to 200,000 years ago, is dormant. Mauna Kea does not have a visible summit caldera, but contains a number of small cinder and pumice cones near its summit. A former summit caldera may have been filled and buried by summit eruption deposits. Mauna Kea is over 32,000 km3 in volume, so massive that it and its neighbor, Mauna Loa, depress the ocean crust beneath it by 6 km; the volcano continues to slip and flatten under its own weight at a rate of less than 0.2 mm per year.
Much of its mass lies east of its present summit. Mauna Kea stands 4,207.3 m above sea level, about 38 m higher than its neighbor Mauna Loa, is the highest point in the state of Hawaii. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 10,000 m greater than the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Kea has been created as the Pacific tectonic plate has moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle; the Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, over 70 million years, has created the 6,000 km -long Hawaiian Ridge–Emperor seamount chain. The prevailing, though not settled, view is that the hotspot has been stationary within the planet's mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. However, while Hawaiian volcanism is well understood and extensively studied, there remains no definite explanation of the mechanism that causes the hotspot effect. Lava flows from Mauna Kea overlapped in complex layers with those of its neighbors during its growth.
Most prominently, Mauna Kea is built upon older flows from Kohala to the northwest, intersects the base of Mauna Loa to the south. The original eruptive fissures in the flanks of Mauna Kea were buried by its post-shield volcanism. Hilo Ridge, a prominent underwater rift zone structure east of Mauna Kea, was once believed to be a part of the volcano; the shield-stage lavas that built the enormous main mass of the mountain are tholeiitic basalts, like those of Mauna Loa, created through the mixing of primary magma and subducted oceanic crust. They are covered by the oldest exposed rock strata on Mauna Kea, the post-shield alkali basalts of the Hāmākua Volcanics, which erupted between 250,000 and 70–65,000 years ago; the most recent volcanic flows are hawaiites and mugearites: they are the post-shield Laupāhoehoe Volcanics, erupted between 65,000 and 4,000 years ago. These changes in lava composition accompanied the slow reduction of the supply of magma to the summit, which led to weaker eruptions that gave way to isolated episodes associated with volcanic dormancy.
The Laupāhoehoe lavas are more viscous and contain more volatiles than the earlier tholeiitic basalts.