Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, painter and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century, a prolific writer, he published widely over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy Plymouth Brethren family in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire and he was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British intelligence agency, in 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House by Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. Announcing the start of the Æon of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should Do what thou wilt, in 1907, he and George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated the religion.
Thelemite groups were established in Britain and North America, in 1920 he established the Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers. His libertine lifestyle led to denunciations in the British press, and he divided the following two decades between France and England, and continued to promote Thelema until his death. Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and he was denounced in the popular press as the wickedest man in the world and a Satanist. Crowley has remained an influential figure over Western esotericism and the counter-culture. In 2002, a BBC poll ranked him as the seventy-third greatest Briton of all time, Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875. His father, Edward Crowley, was trained as an engineer and his mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, came from a Devonshire-Somerset family and had a strained relationship with her son, she described him as the Beast, a name that he revelled in.
The couple had married at Londons Kensington Registry Office in November 1874. Crowleys father was particularly devout, spending his time as a preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife. Following the death of their daughter in 1880, in 1881 the Crowleys moved to Redhill. At the age of 8, Crowley was sent to H. T, habershons evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, and to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge, run by the Reverend Henry dArcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a sadist. In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer, Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, and he always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as his hero and his friend. Inheriting a third of his fathers wealth, he began misbehaving at school and was punished by Champney
A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and mens clothing. The term refers to a set of hand and machine sewing and pressing techniques that are unique to the construction of traditional jackets. Retailers of tailored suits often take their services internationally, traveling to various cities, traditional tailoring is called bespoke tailoring in the United Kingdom, where the heart of the trade is Londons Savile Row tailoring, and custom tailoring in the United States and Hong Kong. This is unlike made to measure which uses pre-existing patterns, a bespoke garment or suit is completely original and unique to each customer. Famous fictional tailors include the tailor in The Tailor of Gloucester, The Emperors New Clothes, a more recent example is John le Carrés The Tailor of Panama. As the tailoring profession has evolved, so too have the methods of tailoring, there are a number of distinctive business models of which modern tailors may practice.
While some may practice many, there are others who will only one or two. Local tailoring is as the name implies, typically the tailor is met locally and the garment produced locally. This method enables the tailor to take measurements, assess posture. Local tailors will typically have a showroom or shopfront allowing clients to choose fabrics from samples or return the garment easily should it require further modification and this is the most traditional form of tailoring. Hong Kong and London are the most famous for high quality bespoke tailoring, distance tailoring involves ordering a garment from an out-of-town tailor enabling cheaper labour to be used. In practice this can now be done on a global scale via e-commerce websites, unlike local tailoring, customers must take their own measurements, fabric selection must be made from a photo, and if further alterations are required the garment must be shipped. Today, the most common platform for distance tailoring is via online tailors, online tailors sometimes offer to pay for needed alterations at a local tailor.
Another new option is the concept where a free test suit is made to the provided measurements, the test suit can be tried on and worn to see where any adjustments are wanted. The final suit is tailored to the new specifications provided by the test suit fitting. Traveling tailors travel between cities and station in a luxury hotel for a short period of time to meet. In the hotel, the customer will be able to select the fabric from samples, the order will be shipped to the customer within three to four weeks time. Unlike local tailoring, if further alterations are required the garment must be shipped, most traveling tailors are from Hong Kong, traveling to the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Japan
DAKS is a British luxury fashion house, founded in 1894 by Simeon Simpson. DAKS holds royal warrants granted from three members of the Royal Family, one of 15 firms to do so. Officially granted to DAKS’ Simpson Piccadilly store in 1956 was the warrant of HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, followed by that of HM The Queen in 1962. Worldwide, DAKS is exported to 30 countries and sold in over 2,000 specialty shops, major stores, the name is a combination of the initials of Alexander Simpson and an initial and final letter of his business associate Dudley Beck. In 1894 Simeon Simpson, aged 16, rented a room on Middlesex Street, East London, with the intention of setting up a business in bespoke tailoring, focused on high standard craftsmanship. Simpson’s methods proved successful in speeding up the process and he set up several factories within London and he went about to invent a way to support his trousers that wouldn’t need braces as these interrupted his swing whilst playing golf and caused his shirt to become untucked.
The DAKS trouser was invented – it had a channel within the waistband at the back wherein an elasticated strip was attached at the sides with tabs attached to one of two buttons for adjustment. On the inside of the waistband were sewn-on rubber pads that gripped the shirt and stopped it from becoming loose. This happened in a world where to buy a pair of trousers of high quality one would have to have a pair made by a tailor. Simpson was so sure of his new design that he had 100,000 pairs made before being introduced to the public at a price of 30 shillings in a time when a whole bespoke suit would cost 50 shillings. The trousers were available in colours and fabrics that weren’t generally associated with menswear. They became so popular that the trousers were incorporated into suits and soon after a DAKS womenswear line was released, at the turn of the 21st century when the company was acquired by Japanese group Sankyo Seiko Co. Limited in 1991, the S Simpson name was dropped and DAKS became the new brand name, Simeon Simpson’s son Alexander Simpson, who was owner of the company, decided he wanted to find a ‘window’ for Simpson clothes in the heart of London.
He founded Simpsons of Piccadilly when the Geological Museum had closed, the outstanding feature of the shop’s interior was the travertine staircase that ran up through the centre of the store lit by a continuous window up the height of the building. The current lighting structure suspended through the centre is the original from the 1930s as the building has since become a listed building. The store opened in April 1936 by Sir Malcolm Campbell, the world-famous motor-racing driver, and was famed for its visual merchandising and window displays by László Moholy-Nagy, a former director from the Bauhaus school. Opening the store was a highlight of Alexander Simpson’s vision, he died the year of leukaemia aged just 34. The original store was sold to bookseller Waterstone’s and now serves as their flagship store, in 2007, British designer Giles Deacon was appointed Creative Director for the brand, showing for three womenswear seasons at London Fashion Week
Sarah Siddons was a Welsh-born actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. She was the sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton and Elizabeth Whitlock. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own, the Sarah Siddons Society continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award in Chicago every year to a prominent actress. Acting was only just becoming a profession for a woman. In 1774, Siddons won her first success as Belvidera in Thomas Otways Venice Preservd and she was, in her own words, banished from Drury Lane as a worthless candidate for fame and fortune In 1777, she went on the circuit in the provinces. For the next six years she worked in companies, in particular York. Her first appearance at Baths Old Orchard Street Theatre was in autumn 1778 at a salary of £3 per week and she lived with her husband and children at number 33 The Paragon until her final performance in May 1782. Having gradually built up a reputation, her next Drury Lane appearance, on 10 October 1782 and she was an immediate sensation playing the title role in Garricks adaptation of a play by Thomas Southerne, Isabella, or, The Fatal Marriage.
Her most famous role was that of Lady Macbeth, it was the grandeur of her emotions as she expressed Lady Macbeths murderous passions that held her audiences spellbound, in Lady Macbeth she found the highest and best scope for her acting abilities. She was tall and had a figure, brilliant beauty, powerfully expressive eyes. She once told Samuel Johnson that Catherine was her favourite role and it was the beginning of twenty years in which she was the undisputed queen of Drury Lane. Her celebrity status has been called mythical and monumental, and by the mid-1780s Siddons was established as an icon, along with Hannah Murphy. She mixed with the literary and social elites of London society, and her acquaintances included Samuel Johnson, Edmund Burke, Hester Thrale Piozzi and she nevertheless continued to act in the provinces, appearing at The Theatre, Leeds in 1786 and on several other occasions. In a 1785 visit to her earliest friend the Hon and her approbation and unremitting kindness, when we were both very young indeed, kindled the latest sparks of genius to a flame, which she now gazes on with wonder and delight.
Let this not appear like vanity, recollect what I am, and you will find it proceeds from a better source. In 1802 she left Drury Lane and subsequently appeared from time to time on the stage of the establishment, Covent Garden. It was there, on 29 June 1812, that she gave perhaps the most extraordinary farewell performance in theatre history and she was playing her most famous role, Lady Macbeth, and the audience refused to allow the play to continue after the end of the sleepwalking scene. Mrs. Siddons formally retired from the stage in 1812, and her last appearance was on 9 June 1819 as Lady Randolph in John Homes Douglas
The Piccadilly Arcade runs between Piccadilly and Jermyn Street in central London. It was opened in 1909, having been designed by Thrale Jell, the main entrance is on the south side of Piccadilly between Fortnum & Mason and The Ritz, directly opposite The Royal Academy. The Piccadilly Arcade contains sixteen high class shops, Piccadilly Vaults, other beautiful shops line the Arcade, many of which are tailors, being close to the historic shirt makers on Jermyn Street. Once there was a showroom for Waterford Crystal and Wedgwood chinaware, another unusual shop is The Armoury of St James a seller of World Orders and toy soldiers. There is yet another arcade on the side of Piccadilly. It is to the east of the Piccadilly Arcade, adjacent to St Jamess Church, media related to Piccadilly Arcade at Wikimedia Commons
George Bryan Beau Brummell was an iconic figure in Regency England, the arbiter of mens fashion, and a friend of the Prince Regent, the future King George IV. He established the mode of dress for men that rejected overly ornate fashions for one of understated and this look was based on dark coats, full-length trousers rather than knee breeches and stockings, and above all immaculate shirt linen and an elaborately knotted cravat. Beau Brummell is credited with introducing, and establishing as fashion and he claimed he took five hours a day to dress, and recommended that boots be polished with champagne. The style of dress was referred to as dandyism, Brummell was born in London, the younger son of William Brummell, a politician, of Donnington Grove in Berkshire. The family was middle class, but the elder Brummell was ambitious for his son to become a gentleman, and young George was raised with that understanding. Brummell was educated at Eton and made his precocious mark on fashion when he not only modernised the white stock, or cravat, that was the mark of the Eton boy, but added a gold buckle to it.
He progressed to Oxford University, where, by his own example, he made cotton stockings and dingy cravats a thing of the past. While an undergraduate at Oriel College in 1793, he competed for the Chancellors Prize for Latin Verse, coming second to Edward Copleston and he left the university after only a year at the age of sixteen. In June 1794 Brummell joined the illustrious Tenth Royal Hussars as a cornet, the lowest rank of commissioned officer and his father died in 1795, by which time George had been promoted to lieutenant. His father had left an inheritance of £65,000, of which Brummell was entitled to a third, ordinarily a considerable sum, it was inadequate for the expenses of an aspiring officer in the personal regiment of the Prince of Wales. The officers, many of whom were heirs to noble titles and lands, for such a junior officer, Brummell took the regiment by storm, fascinating the prince, the first gentleman of England, by the force of his personality. He was allowed to parade, shirk his duties and, in essence.
Within three years, by 1796, he was made a captain, to the envy and disgust of older officers who felt that our general’s friend was now the general. When his regiment was sent from London to Manchester he immediately resigned his commission, citing the poor reputation, undistinguished ambience and want of culture. Although he was now a civilian, Brummells friendship with, and influence over and his simple yet elegant and understated manner of dress, coupled with his natural wit, gained him entry to the Princes society. Brummell took a house on Chesterfield Street in Mayfair and for a managed to avoid the nightly gaming. That amount is approximately £103,000 in 2012 currency, the wage for a craftsman at that time was £52 a year. Brummell put into practice the principles of harmony of shape and contrast of colours with such a result that men of superior rank sought his opinion on their dress
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton made contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newtons Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists view of the universe for the next three centuries. Newtons work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks. He formulated a law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint and his father, named Isaac Newton, had died three months before.
Born prematurely, he was a child, his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Newtons mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham which taught Latin and Greek. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Henry Stokes, master at the Kings School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a bully, he became the top-ranked student. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge and he started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valets duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, which guaranteed him four more years until he would get his M. A.
He set down in his notebook a series of Quaestiones about mechanical philosophy as he found it, in 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his B. A. degree in August 1665, in April 1667, he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was not enforced in the restoration years, however, by 1675 the issue could not be avoided and by his unconventional views stood in the way. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II. A and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672. Newtons work has been said to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics studied and his work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus, seen in a manuscript of October 1666, is now published among Newtons mathematical papers
John Lobb Bootmaker
John Lobb Bootmaker is a company that manufactures and retails a luxury brand of shoes and boots mainly for men, but for women. Leather goods such as wallets and belts are available, founded by John Lobb, John Lobb Bootmaker has been in business since 1866 in London and 1902 in Paris. In 1976, John Lobb Paris shop was acquired by the Hermès Group, Hermès have developed the John Lobb ready-to-wear shoes around the world. The two companies continue to maintain their bespoke shoe-making tradition with the Lobb family workshop in London, in the middle of the 19th century, John Lobb, a farmer’s son, crippled as the result of an accident, made his way on foot from Cornwall to London. He was apprenticed to Tomas, the greatest bootmaker in London, unaware, as yet, that in time he would found the most prestigious dynasty of bootmakers in the world. Once he had finished his apprenticeship, he set off for Australia, at the time of the rush, where he supplied gold prospectors with boots with hollow heels.
He returned to England and opened a shop in London in 1866 and continued to build the legend of bootmaker to the Kings, following the success of the London base, John Lobb opened a shop in Paris in 1902. In 1976, the famous French luxury brand, Hermès, were allowed to use the John Lobb name, the production of each pair of John Lobb ready-to-wear shoes is so time-consuming that only about 100 pairs of shoes are finished per day. The original, family-owned Lobb still handmakes shoes one pair at a time, until the 1980s, John Lobb operated only custom-made activity in London and in Paris. From 1982 onwards, the activity has complemented the made to measure. The London company was the subject of a 1945 British Pathé fillm, Shoes For The Famous, Hermès John Lobb shoes are available in both ready-to-wear and made-to-measure. Its motto is The Bare Maximum for a Man, Hermès John Lobb shoes are sold in its own boutiques or in luxury department stores such as ], Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus, Lane Crawford and Double Monk.
Hermès John Lobb has boutiques in countries around the world, including the United States, Switzerland, South Korea, Taiwan, a pair of bespoke leather shoes costs over £2400. The average price is approximately £2700 if ordering from the St Jamess Street shop, original John Lobb Bootmaker official website John Lobb owned by Hermès official website
Fortnum & Mason
Its headquarters is located at 181 Piccadilly, where it was established in 1707 by William Fortnum and Hugh Mason. Today, it is owned by Wittington Investments Ltd. Founded as a store, Fortnums reputation was built on supplying quality food. Though Fortnums developed into a department store, it continues to focus on stocking a variety of exotic, the store has since opened several other departments, such as the Gentlemens department on the third floor. It is the location of a tea shop and several restaurants. William Fortnum was a footman in the household of Queen Anne. The Royal Family’s insistence on having new candles every night meant a lot of half-used wax which William Fortnum promptly resold for a tidy profit, the enterprising William Fortnum had a sideline business as a grocer. He convinced his landlord, Hugh Mason, to be his associate, in 1761, William Fortnums grandson Charles went into the service of Queen Charlotte and the Royal Court affiliation led to an increase in business. Fortnum & Mason claims to have invented the Scotch egg in 1738, the store began to stock speciality items, namely ready-to-eat luxury meals such as fresh poultry or game served in aspic jelly.
Queen Victoria even sent shipments of Fortnum & Masons concentrated beef tea to Florence Nightingales hospitals during the Crimean War. Charles Drury Edward Fortnum F. S. A. of the family, was an art collector. In 1886, after having bought the stock of five cases of a new product made by H. J. Heinz. In April 1951, Canadian businessman W. Garfield Weston acquired the store, in 1964, he commissioned a four-ton clock to be installed above the main entrance of the store as a tribute to its founders. Every hour, 4-foot-high models of William Fortnum and Hugh Mason emerge and bow to other, with chimes. Since Garfield Westons death in 1978, the store has been run by his granddaughters, Jana Khayat and Kate Weston Hobhouse, the store underwent a £24 million refurbishment in 2007 as part of its tercentenary celebrations. In March 2012, the Queen, Duchess of Cornwall and Catherine, during this visit, they were each presented with their own personalized hampers. The Queen opened the Diamond Jubilee Tea Salon on the fourth floor, in November 2013, an additional store was opened at St Pancras International station - the first new store in the UK.
Fortnum & Mason opened its first standalone store outside Britain in Dubai on 21 March 2014, in November 2010, animal rights group PETA UK began a campaign against Fortnum & Mason’s sale of foie gras citing the cruelty in the production process