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Jerome, Arizona

Jerome is a town in the Black Hills of Yavapai County in the U. S. state of Arizona. Founded in the late 19th century on Cleopatra Hill overlooking the Verde Valley, it is more than 5,000 feet above sea level, it is about 100 miles north of Phoenix along State Route 89A between Prescott. Supported in its heyday by rich copper mines, it was home to more than 10,000 people in the 1920s; as of the 2010 census, its population was 444. The town owes its existence to two ore bodies that formed about 1.75 billion years ago along a ring fault in the caldera of an undersea volcano. Tectonic plate movements, plate collisions, deposition and other geologic processes exposed the tip of one of the ore bodies and pushed the other close to the surface, both near Jerome. In the late 19th century, the United Verde Mine, developed by William A. Clark, extracted ore bearing copper, gold and other metals from the larger of the two; the United Verde Extension UVX Mine, owned by James Douglas, Jr. depended on the other huge deposit.

In total, the copper deposits discovered in the vicinity of Jerome were among the richest found. Jerome made news in 1917, when strikes involving the Industrial Workers of the World led to the expulsion at gunpoint of about 60 IWW members, who were loaded on a cattle car and shipped west. Production at the mines, always subject to fluctuations, boomed during World War I, fell thereafter, rose again fell again during and after the Great Depression; as the ore deposits ran out, the mines closed, the population dwindled to fewer than 100 by the mid-1950s. Efforts to save the town from oblivion succeeded. Jerome became a National Historic Landmark in 1967. By the early 21st century, Jerome had art galleries, coffee houses, restaurants, a state park, a local museum devoted to mining history. Jerome is about 100 miles north of Phoenix and 45 miles southwest of Flagstaff along Arizona State Route 89A between Sedona to the east and Prescott to the west; the town is in Arizona's Black Hills. The town lies within the Prescott National Forest at an elevation of more than 5,000 feet.

Woodchute Wilderness is about 3 miles west of Jerome, Mingus Mountain, at 7,726 feet above sea level, is about 4 miles south of town. Jerome State Historic Park is in the town itself. Bitter Creek, a tributary of the Verde River, flows intermittently through Jerome. East of Jerome at the base of the hills are the Verde Valley and the communities of Clarkdale and Cottonwood, site of the nearest airport. Most of Cleopatra Hill, the rock formation upon which Jerome was built, is 1.75 billion years old. Created by a massive caldera eruption in Precambrian—elsewhere more narrowly identified as Proterozoic—seas south of what became northern Arizona, the Cleopatra tuff was part of a small tectonic plate, moving toward the proto-North American continent. After the eruption, cold sea water entered Earth's crust through cracks caused by the eruption. Heated by rising magma to 660 °F or more, the water was forced upward again, chemically altering the rocks it encountered and becoming rich in dissolved minerals.

When the hot solution emerged from a hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the ocean, its dissolved minerals solidified and fell to the sea floor. The accumulating sulfide deposits from two such vents formed the ore bodies, the United Verde and the UVX, most important to Jerome 1.75 billion years later. These ore bodies formed in different places along a ring fault in the caldera. About 50 million years after they were deposited, the tectonic plate of which they were a part collided with another small plate and with the proto-North American continent; the collisions, which welded the plates to the continent, folded the Cleopatra tuff in such a way that the two ore bodies ended up on opposite sides of a fold called the Jerome anticline. No record exists for the next 1.2 billion years of Jerome's geologic history. Evidence from the Grand Canyon, further north in Arizona, suggests that thick layers of sediment may have been laid down atop the ore bodies and eroded away; the gap in the rock record has been called the Great Unconformity.

About 525 million years ago, when northern Arizona was at the bottom of a shallow sea, a thin layer of sediment called the Tapeats Sandstone was deposited over the Cleopatra tuff. Limestones and other sediments accumulated above the sandstone until about 70 million years ago when the Laramide Orogeny created new mountains and new faults in the region. One of these faults, the Verde Fault, runs directly under Jerome along the Jerome anticline. Crustal stretching beginning about 15 million years ago created Basin and Range topography in central and southern Arizona, caused volcanic activity near Jerome, induced movement along the Verde Fault; this movement exposed the tip of the United Verde ore body at one place on Cleopatra Hill and moved the UVX ore body to 1,000 feet below the surface. Basalt, laid down between 15 and 10 million years ago, covers the surface beneath the UVX headframes and Jerome State Historic Park; the basalt, the top layer of the Hickey Formation, caps layers of sedimentary rock.

The natural rock features in and around Jerome were altered by mining. The town is underlain by 88 miles of mine shafts; these may have contributed to the subsidence that destroyed some of Jerome's buildings, which slid downhill during the first half of the 20th century. The United Verde open pit, about 300 feet deep, is on the edge of town next to Cleopatra Hill; the side of the pit consists of Precambrian gabbro. Mine shafts beneath the pit extend to 4,200 feet bel

Prussia (disambiguation)

Prussia was a German state that formed the German Empire in 1871. Prussia or Prussian may refer to: Prussia, a historical region on the Baltic that gave its name to the German state State of the Teutonic Order, founded in the Prussian region by the Teutonic Order Prussian Confederation, an alliance of German Hanseatic cities in Prussia who rebelled against the Teutonic Knights Royal Prussia, a province of the Polish Crown, created by the separation of Prussia into two parts Duchy of Prussia, a duchy established in the eastern part of Prussia Brandenburg-Prussia, a state created by the personal union of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg Kingdom of Prussia, a kingdom established in Brandenburg-Prussia Province of Prussia, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created by a union of the Provinces of East and West Prussia Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany after the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia East Prussia, the eastern part of the region of Prussia West Prussia, the western part of the region of Prussia Province of West Prussia, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, annexed from Poland in 1772, re-established 1878 Province of East Prussia, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from former Ducal Prussia and Warmia in 1773, re-established 1878.

Prusia, near Pozuzo, Oxapampa, in the central jungle of Peru Prussia, Iowa, in the United States. King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Preußen Preußisch Borussia Prussian blue

Apocalypse Pompeii

Apocalypse Pompeii is a 2014 American disaster film produced by The Asylum and directed by Ben Demaree. The film stars Jhey Castles, John Rhys-Davies, Dylan Vox, Dan Cade, it was filmed in Sofia and Pompeii, Italy. The film was released direct-to-DVD on 8 February 2014. In the tradition of The Asylum's catalog, Apocalypse Pompeii is a mockbuster of the Paul W. S. Anderson film Pompeii; when a Former Special Ops commando visits Pompeii, his wife and daughter are trapped as Mount Vesuvius erupts with massive force. While his family fights to survive the deadly onslaught of heat and lava, he enlists his former teammates in a daring operation beneath the ruins of Pompeii. Adrian Paul as Jeff Pierce Jhey Castles as Lynne Pierce Georgina Beedle as Mykaela Pierce John Rhys-Davies as Col. Carlo Dillard Dylan Vox as Kal Dan Cade as Cade Constatine Trendafilda as Gianni Assen Vukushev as Naveen Alexandra Petrova-Emisti as Rashida Yordam Yositov as Rosso Harry Anichkin as Italian Colonel Vrunda Patel as Christina Jonas Talkington as Paul Ralitsa Paskaleva as Alita J.

R. Esposito as Smith Michael Straub as Herricane Ivan Panayotov as Soldier Malin Marinov as Police Officer Owen Davis as Pilot Plamen Petkov as Man 1 Deyan Tsuyathov as Man 2 Boris Vashev as Man 3 Lolita Nikolova as Woman Iveta-Luis Contreras as Mother Velislav Pavlov as Little Girl's Father Elayah Roth as Little Girl Ivo Tonchev as Businessman This film marks the directing debut for Ben Demaree, he had been a cinematographer on numerous films, including the Sharknado franchise. Shooting took place for 12 days in Sofia, Bulgaria during the month of Sept. and a few splinter unit days at the real Pompeii in Italy. Most of the crew were local hires, with only a handful of people flown in from the US, including the sound mixer and steadicam operator; the cast was a mix of US, UK, local Bulgarians. There were financial advantages to filming in Bulgaria, allowing the film to do bigger stunts including full body burns, setting cars on fire, using cork bombs for explosions from'flying volcanic rock'.

Reviewer Frank Veenstra gave the film 4 out of 10 stars saying "The writing isn't all that great and to be honest, it's a ridiculous movie but at the same time, it's a pretty creative one."Martin Hafer of Influx gave the film one out of five stars, citing that "the plot is stupid and the characters are shallow—often coming off as caricatures." Official site at The Asylum Apocalypse Pompeii on IMDb Apocalypse Pompeii at Rotten Tomatoes