Sir Michael Philip Jagger is an English singer, songwriter and film producer who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll", his distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, was portrayed as a countercultural figure. Jagger grew up in Dartford, Kent, he studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to a mixed reception, he began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009.
Relationships with the Stones' members Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects. In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones; as member of the Stones, as solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music. Jagger has been married once, has had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women, he has five grandchildren, became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million. Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Kent, his father, Basil Fanshawe "Joe" Jagger, grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers. His mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party.
Jagger's younger brother, Chris, is a musician. The two have performed together. Although brought up to follow his father's career path, Jagger "was always a singer" as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. "I always sang as a child. I was one of those kids; some kids sing in choirs. I was in the church choir and I loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies."In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, Dartford. In 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre, named after its most famous alumnus, installed within the school's site. Jagger and Richards lost contact with each other when they went to different schools, but after a chance encounter on platform two at Dartford railway station in July 1960, resumed their friendship and discovered their shared love of rhythm and blues, which for Jagger had begun with Little Richard.
Jagger left school in 1961 after passing three A-levels. With Richards, he moved into a flat in Edith Grove, London, with guitarist Brian Jones. While Richards and Jones planned to start their own rhythm and blues group, Blues Incorporated, Jagger continued to study business on a government grant as an undergraduate student at the London School of Economics, had considered becoming either a journalist or a politician, comparing the latter to a pop star. Brian Jones, using the name Elmo Lewis, began working at the Ealing Club — where a "loosely knit version" of Blues Incorporated began with Richards. Jagger began to jam with the group becoming featured singer. Soon, Richards and Jagger began to practise on their own, laying the foundation for what would become The Rolling Stones. In their earliest days, the Rolling Stones played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korner's gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station. At the time, the group had little equipment and needed to borrow Korner's gear to play.
The group's first appearance, under the name the Rollin' Stones, was at the Marquee Club, a jazz club, in London on 12 July 1962. They would change their name to "the Rolling Stones" as it seemed more formal. Victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in his memoir Life that "The drummer that night was Mick Avory−not Tony Chapman, as history has mysteriously handed it down..." By autumn 1963, Jagger had left the London School of Economics in favour of his promising musical career with the Rolling Stones. The group continued to play songs by American rhythm and blues artists such as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, but with the strong encouragement of manager Andrew Loog Oldham and Richards soon began to write their own songs; this core songwriting partnership took some time to develop. For the Rolling Stones, the duo would write "The Last Time", the group's third No. 1 single in the UK (their first two UK No. 1
Gonzales is a city in Gonzales County, United States. The population was 7,237 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat. Gonzales is one of the earliest Anglo-American settlements in Texas, the first west of the Colorado River, it was established by Empresario Green DeWitt as the capital of his colony in August 1825. DeWitt named the community for Rafael Gonzáles, governor of Coahuila y Tejas. Informally, the community was known as the DeWitt Colony; the original settlement was abandoned in 1826 after two Indian attacks. It was rebuilt nearby in 1827; the town remains today as it was surveyed. Gonzales is referred to as the "Lexington of Texas" because it was the site of the first skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In 1831, the Mexican government had granted Green DeWitt's request for a small cannon for protection against Indian attacks. At the outbreak of disputes between the Anglo settlers and the Mexican authorities in 1835, a contingent of more than 100 Mexican soldiers was sent from San Antonio to retrieve the cannon.
When the soldiers arrived, there were only 18 men in Gonzales, but they refused to return the cannon, soon men from the surrounding area joined them. Texians under the command of John Henry Moore confronted them. Sarah DeWitt and her daughter sewed a flag bearing the likeness of the cannon and the words "Come and Take It", flown when the first shots of Texan independence were fired on October 2, 1835; the Texians resisted the Mexican troops in what became known as the Battle of Gonzales. Gonzales contributed 32 men from the Gonzales Ranging Company to the defense of the Alamo, it was the only city to send aid to the Alamo, all 32 men lost their lives defending the site. It was to Gonzales that Susanna Dickinson, widow of one of the Alamo defenders, Joe, the slave of William B. Travis, fled with news of the Alamo massacre. General Sam Houston was there organizing the Texas forces, he anticipated the town would be the next target of General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army. Gathering the Texians at Peach Creek east of town, under the Sam Houston Oak, Houston ordered Gonzales burned, to deny it to the enemy.
He began a retreat toward the U. S. border. The widows and orphans of Gonzales and their neighbors were forced to flee, thus precipitating the Runaway Scrape; the town was derelict after the Texas Revolution, but was rebuilt on the original site in the early 1840s. By 1850, the town had a population of 300; the population rose to 1,703 by time of the 1860 census, 2,900 by the mid-1880s, 4,297 in 1900. Part of the growth of the late 19th century can be attributed to the arrival of various immigrants, among them Jews, many of whom became peddlers and merchants. Gonzales is located in central Gonzales County at 29°30′32″N 97°26′52″W, on the northeast side of the Guadalupe River, just east of the mouth of the San Marcos River. U. S. Route 183 passes through the west side of the city, leading south 32 miles to Cuero and northwest 18 miles to Luling. U. S. Route 90 Alternate passes through the northern side of the city, leading east 18 miles to Shiner and west 33 miles to Seguin. San Antonio is 69 miles to the west, Houston is 136 miles to the east.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Gonzales has a total area of 6.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,243 households in the city; the population density was 1,412.8 people per square mile. There were 2,869 housing units at an average density of 562.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.5% White, 7.40% African American, 1.00% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 21.15% from other races, 2.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47.2% of the population. There were 2,571 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,226, the median income for a family was $34,663. Males had a median income of $22,804 versus $18,217 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,866. About 14.8% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 23.0% of those age 65 or over. During the 19th century, the town was a center for higher education in Texas. Construction began in 1851 and the college opened in 1853, with 50 students. An 1855 addition for the men's program was torn down during the Civil War. By 1857, the school granted bachelor of arts degrees to females, making it one of the earliest colleges in Texas to do so; the college was purchased in 1891, its building converted into a private residence by W. M. Atkinson; the city of Gonzales is served by the Gonzales Independent School District and is home to the Gonzales High School Apaches.
According to the University Interscholastic League of Texas, the Gonzales Apaches football team is in the 4A-1 Region IV District 15. The city of Gonzales a
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
George Roger Waters is an English songwriter, singer and composer. In 1965, he co-founded the progressive rock band Pink Floyd. Waters served as the bassist, but following the departure of songwriter Syd Barrett in 1968, he became their lyricist, co-lead vocalist, conceptual leader. Pink Floyd achieved international success with the concept albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here and The Wall. By the early 1980s, they had become one of the most critically acclaimed and commercially successful groups in popular music. Amid creative differences, Waters left in 1985 and began a legal dispute with the remaining members over the use of the band's name and material, they settled out of court in 1987. Waters' solo work includes the studio albums The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking, Radio K. A. O. S. Amused to Death, Is This the Life We Really Want?. In 2005, he released Ça Ira, an opera translated from Étienne and Nadine Roda-Gils' libretto about the French Revolution. In 1990, Waters staged one of the largest rock concerts in history, The Wall – Live in Berlin, with an attendance of 450,000.
As a member of Pink Floyd, he was inducted into the U. S. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005; that year, he reunited with Pink Floyd bandmates Mason and David Gilmour for the Live 8 global awareness event, the group's first appearance with Waters since 1981. He has toured extensively as a solo act since 1999. Waters was born on 6 September 1943, the younger of two boys, to Mary and Eric Fletcher Waters, in Great Bookham, Surrey, his father, the son of a coal miner and Labour Party activist, was a schoolteacher, a devout Christian, a Communist Party member. In the early years of the Second World War, Waters' father was a conscientious objector who drove an ambulance during the Blitz. Waters' father changed his stance on pacifism, joined the Territorial Army and was commissioned into the 8th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers as a Second Lieutenant on 11 September 1943, he was killed five months on 18 February 1944 at Aprilia, during the Battle of Anzio, when Roger was five months old.
He is commemorated at the Cassino War Cemetery. On 18 February 2014, Waters unveiled a monument to his father and other war casualties in Aprilia, was made an honorary citizen of Anzio. Following her husband's death, Mary Waters a teacher, moved with her two sons to Cambridge and raised them there. Waters' earliest memory is of the V-J Day celebrations. Waters attended Morley Memorial Junior School in Cambridge and the Cambridgeshire High School for Boys with Syd Barrett, while future Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour lived nearby on Mill Road and attended the Perse School. At 15, Waters was chairman of the Cambridge Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, having designed its publicity poster and participated in its organisation, he was a keen sportsman and a regarded member of the high school's cricket and rugby teams. Waters was unhappy at school; the regime at school was a oppressive one... the same kids who are susceptible to bullying by other kids are susceptible to bullying by the teachers."Whereas Waters knew Barrett and Gilmour from his childhood in Cambridge, he met future Pink Floyd founder members Nick Mason and Richard Wright in London at the Regent Street Polytechnic school of architecture.
Waters enrolled there in 1962, after a series of aptitude tests indicated he was well-suited to that field. He had considered a career in mechanical engineering. By September 1963, Waters and Mason had lost interest in their studies and moved into the lower flat of Stanhope Gardens, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the Regent Street Polytechnic. Waters and Wright first played music together in late 1963, in a band formed by vocalist Keith Noble and bassist Clive Metcalfe, they called themselves Sigma 6, but used the name the Meggadeaths. Waters played rhythm guitar and Mason played drums, Wright played any keyboard he could arrange to use, Noble's sister Sheilagh provided occasional vocals. In the early years the band performed during private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of Regent Street Polytechnic; when Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own group in September 1963, the remaining members asked Barrett and guitarist Bob Klose to join. Waters switched to the bass and by January 1964, the group became known as the Abdabs, or the Screaming Abdabs.
During late 1964, the band used the names Leonard's Lodgers, Spectrum Five, the Tea Set. Sometime during late 1965, the Tea Set began calling itself the Pink Floyd Sound the Pink Floyd Blues Band and by early 1966, Pink Floyd. By early 1966, Barrett was Pink Floyd's frontman and songwriter, he wrote or co-wrote all but one track of their debut LP The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, released in August 1967. Waters contributed the song "Take Up Thy Walk" to the album. By late 1967, Barrett's deteriorating mental health and erratic behaviour, rendered him "unable or unwilling" to continue in his capacity as Pink Floyd's singer-songwriter and lead guitarist. In early March 1968 Pink Floyd met with managers Peter Jenner and Andrew King of Blackhill Enterprises to discuss the band's future. Barrett agreed to lea
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet