Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
Blade Runner is a 1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young. It is a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. The film is set in a dystopian future Los Angeles of 2019, in which synthetic humans known as replicants are bio-engineered by the powerful Tyrell Corporation to work on off-world colonies; when a fugitive group of Nexus-6 replicants led by Roy Batty escapes back to Earth, burnt-out cop Rick Deckard reluctantly agrees to hunt them down. Blade Runner underperformed in North American theaters and polarized critics, it became an acclaimed cult film regarded as one of the all-time best science fiction films. Hailed for its production design depicting a "retrofitted" future, Blade Runner is a leading example of neo-noir cinema; the soundtrack, composed by Vangelis, was nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and a Golden Globe as best original score. The film has influenced many science fiction films, video games and television series.
It brought the work of Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood, several big-budget films were based on his work. In the year after its release, Blade Runner won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, in 1993 it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant". A sequel, Blade Runner 2049, was released in October 2017. Seven versions of Blade Runner exist as a result of controversial changes requested by studio executives. A director's cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to test screenings of a workprint. This, in conjunction with the film's popularity as a video rental, made it one of the earliest movies to be released on DVD. In 2007, Warner Bros. released a 25th-anniversary digitally remastered version. In 2019 Los Angeles, former police officer Rick Deckard is detained by officer Gaff, brought to his former supervisor, Bryant. Deckard, whose job as a "blade runner" was to track down bioengineered beings known as replicants and "retire" them, is informed that four are on Earth illegally.
Deckard starts to leave, but Bryant ambiguously threatens him, he stays. The two watch a video of a blade runner named Holden administering the "Voigt-Kampff" test, designed to distinguish replicants from humans based on their emotional response to questions; the test subject, shoots Holden on the second question. Bryant wants Deckard to retire Leon and the other three Tyrell Corporation Nexus-6 replicants: Roy Batty and Pris. Bryant has Deckard meet with Eldon Tyrell so he can administer the test on a Nexus-6 to see if it works. Tyrell expresses his interest in seeing the test fail first and asks him to administer it on his assistant Rachael. After a much longer than standard test, Deckard concludes that Rachael is a replicant who believes she is human. Tyrell explains that she is an experiment, given false memories to provide an emotional "cushion". Searching Leon's hotel room, Deckard finds a synthetic snake scale. Roy and Leon investigate a replicant eye-manufacturing laboratory and learn of J. F. Sebastian, a gifted genetic designer who works with Tyrell.
Deckard returns to his apartment. She tries to prove her humanity by showing him a family photo, but after Deckard reveals that her memories are implants from Tyrell's niece, she leaves his apartment. Meanwhile, Pris manipulates him to gain his trust. A photograph from Leon's apartment and the snake scale lead Deckard to a strip club, where Zhora works. After a confrontation and chase, Deckard kills Zhora. Bryant orders him to retire Rachael, who has disappeared from the Tyrell Corporation. After Deckard spots Rachael in a crowd, he is attacked by Leon, who knocks Deckard's pistol out of his hand, attempts to kill Deckard, but Rachael uses Deckard's pistol to kill Leon, they return to Deckard's apartment, during an intimate discussion, he promises not to track her down. Arriving at Sebastian's apartment, Roy tells Pris. Sympathetic to their plight, Sebastian reveals that because of "Methuselah Syndrome", a genetic premature aging disorder, his life will be cut short. Sebastian and Roy gain entrance into Tyrell's secure penthouse, where Roy demands more life from his maker.
Tyrell tells him. Roy confesses that he has done "questionable things", but Tyrell dismisses this, praising Roy's advanced design and accomplishments in his short life. Roy kisses Tyrell kills him. Sebastian runs for the elevator, followed by Roy. Deckard is told by Bryant that Sebastian was found dead. At Sebastian's apartment, Deckard is ambushed by Pris. Roy's body begins to fail, he chases Deckard through the building. Deckard is left hanging between buildings. Roy makes the jump with ease, as Deckard's grip loosens, Roy hoists him onto the roof, saving him. Before Roy dies, he delivers a monologue about how his memories "will be lost in time, like tears in rain". Gaff arrives and shouts to Deckard about Rachael: "It's too bad she won't live, but again, who does?" Deckard finds Rachael asleep in his bed. As they leave, Deckard notices an origami unicorn
All in the Family
All in the Family is an American sitcom TV-series, broadcast on the CBS television network for nine seasons, from January 12, 1971 to April 8, 1979. The following September, it was continued with the spin-off series Archie Bunker's Place, which picked up where All in the Family had ended and ran for four more seasons. All in the Family was produced by Bud Yorkin, it starred Carroll O'Connor, Jean Stapleton, Sally Struthers, Rob Reiner. The show revolves around the life of his family; the show broke ground in its depiction of issues considered unsuitable for a U. S. network television comedy, such as racism, infidelity, women's liberation, religion, abortion, breast cancer, the Vietnam War and impotence. Through depicting these controversial issues, the series became arguably one of television's most influential comedic programs, as it injected the sitcom format with more dramatic moments and realistic, topical conflicts; the show was an American version of an earlier British show, the BBC sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, with Archie Bunker modeled after his British counterpart, Alf Garnett.
All in the Family is regarded in the United States as one of the greatest television series of all time. Following a lackluster first season, the show soon became the most watched show in the United States during summer reruns and afterwards ranked number one in the yearly Nielsen ratings from 1971 to 1976, it became the first television series to reach the milestone of having topped the Nielsen ratings for five consecutive years. The episode "Sammy's Visit" was ranked number 13 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time ranked All in the Family as number four. Bravo named the show's protagonist, Archie Bunker, TV's greatest character of all time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked All in the Family the fourth-best written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth-greatest show of all time. All in the Family is about a typical working-class Caucasian family living in New York, its patriarch is Archie Bunker, an outspoken, narrow-minded man prejudiced against everyone, not like him or his idea of how people should be.
Archie's wife Edith is understanding, though somewhat naïve and uneducated. Their one child, Gloria, is kind and good-natured like her mother, but displays traces of her father's stubbornness and temper. Gloria is married to college student Michael Stivic – referred to as "Meathead" by Archie – whose values are influenced and shaped by the counterculture of the 1960s; the two couples represent the real-life clash of values between the Greatest Generation and Baby Boomers. For much of the series, the Stivics live in the Bunkers' home to save money, providing abundant opportunity for them to irritate each other; the show is set in the Astoria section of Queens, with the vast majority of scenes taking place in the Bunkers' home at 704 Hauser Street. Occasional scenes take place in other locations during seasons, such as Kelsey's Bar, a neighborhood tavern where Archie spends a good deal of time and purchases, the Stivics' home after Mike and Gloria move to the house next door; the house seen in the opening is at 89-70 Cooper Avenue near the junction of the Glendale, Forest Hills, Rego Park sections of Queens.
Supporting characters represent the demographics of the neighborhood the Jeffersons, a black family, who live in the house next door in the early seasons. Carroll O'Connor as Archie Bunker: Frequently called a "lovable bigot", Archie was an assertively prejudiced blue-collar worker. A World War II veteran, Archie longs for better times when people sharing his viewpoint were in charge, as evidenced by the nostalgic theme song "Those Were the Days". Despite his bigotry, he is portrayed as loving and decent, as well as a man, struggling to adapt to the changing world, rather than someone motivated by hateful racism or prejudice, his ignorance and stubbornness seem to cause his malapropism-filled arguments to self-destruct. He rejects uncomfortable truths by blowing a raspberry. Former child actor Mickey Rooney was Lear's first choice to play Archie, but Rooney declined the offer because of the strong potential for controversy, in Rooney's opinion, a poor chance for success. Scott Brady of the Western series Shotgun Slade declined the role of Archie Bunker, but appeared four times on the series in 1976 in the role of Joe Foley.
O'Connor appears in all but seven episodes of the series' run. Jean Stapleton as Edith Bunker, née Baines: Edith is Archie's kind-hearted wife. Archie tells her to "stifle" herself and calls her a "dingbat", although Edith defers to her husband's authority and endures his insults, on the rare occasions when Edith takes a stand, she proves to have a simple but profound wisdom. Despite their different personalities, they love each other deeply. Stapleton developed Edith's distinctive voice. Stapleton decided to leave at that time. During the first season of Archie Bunker's Place, Edith was seen in five of the first 14 episodes in guest appearances. After that point, Edith was written out as having suffered a stroke and died off-camera, leaving Archie to deal with the death of his beloved "dingbat". Stapleton appeared in all but four episodes of All in the Family. In the series' first episode, Edith is portrayed as being less of a ding
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
The Beverly Hillbillies
The Beverly Hillbillies is an American sitcom television series broadcast on CBS from 1962 to 1971. The show had an ensemble cast featuring Buddy Ebsen, Irene Ryan, Donna Douglas, Max Baer Jr. as the Clampetts, a poor backwoods family from the Ozarks region who move to posh Beverly Hills, after striking oil on their land. The show was created by writer Paul Henning, it was followed by two other Henning-inspired "country cousin" series on CBS: Petticoat Junction, its spin-off Green Acres, which reversed the rags-to-riches, country-to-city model of The Beverly Hillbillies. The Beverly Hillbillies ranked among the top 20 most-watched programs on television for eight of its nine seasons, twice ranking as the number one series of the year, with a number of episodes that remain among the most-watched television episodes in history, it accumulated seven Emmy nominations during its run. The series remains in syndicated reruns, its ongoing popularity spawned a 1993 film remake by 20th Century Fox; the series starts as Jed Clampett, an impoverished and widowed mountaineer, is living alongside an oil-rich swamp with his daughter and mother-in-law.
A surveyor for the OK Oil Company realizes the size of the oil field, the company pays him a fortune for the right to drill on his land. Patriarch Jed's cousin Pearl Bodine prods him to move to California after being told his modest property could yield $25 million, pressures him into taking her son Jethro along; the family moves into a mansion in wealthy Beverly Hills, next door to Jed's banker, Milburn Drysdale. The Clampetts bring a moral and minimalistic lifestyle to the swanky, sometimes self-obsessed and superficial community. Double entendres and cultural misconceptions are the core of the sitcom's humor. Plots involve the outlandish efforts Drysdale makes to keep the Clampetts' money in his bank and his wife's efforts to rid the neighborhood of those hillbillies; the family's periodic attempts to return to the mountains are prompted by Granny's perceiving a slight from one of the "city folk". Buddy Ebsen as J. D. "Jed" Clampett, the widowed patriarch and head of the household. Irene Ryan as Daisy May Moses, Jed's mother-in-law and Elly May's maternal Grandmother.
Donna Douglas as Elly May Clampett, Jed's beautiful tomboy daughter Max Baer Jr. as Jethro Bodine, the brawny, half-witted son of Jed's cousin Pearl. Raymond Bailey as Milburn Drysdale, Jed's greedy, unscrupulous banker Nancy Kulp as Miss Jane Hathaway, Drysdale's scholarly, "plain Jane" secretary Harriet E. MacGibbon as Margaret Drysdale, Mr. Drysdale's ostentatious wife Bea Benaderet as Jed's cousin Pearl Although he has little formal education, Jed Clampett has a good deal of common sense, he is the son of Luke Clampett and his wife, has a sister called Myrtle. Jed is the head of the family; the huge oil pool in the swamp he owned was the beginning of his rags-to-riches journey to Beverly Hills. He is the straight man to Granny and Jethro's antics, his catchphrase is, "Welllllll, doggies!" Jed was one of the three characters to appear in all 274 episodes of the series. Daisy May Moses, called "Granny" by all, is Jed's mother-in-law. In the first season she implies she is 72 years old when she says she has not slept in so late in 72 years.
Paul Henning, the show's creator/producer discarded the idea of making Granny Jed's mother, which would have changed the show's dynamics, making Granny the matriarch and Jed subordinate to her. Granny can be aggressive, but is overruled by Jed, she is a Confederate to the core, defending President Jefferson Davis and the Stars and Bars, though she erroneously believes it was the North that fought to preserve slavery. Short-fused and angered, Granny fancies herself a Baptist Christian with forgiveness in her heart. A self-styled "M. D." — "mountain doctor" — she claims to be better than expensive trained physicians. In lieu of conventional anesthesia, Granny uses her "white lightning" brew before commencing painful treatments such as leech bleeding and yanking teeth with pliers, she defends the simple life. Granny's full name, Daisy Moses, is an homage to the popular and dearly loved folk artist Anna Mary Robertson, known to the world as Grandma Moses, who died in 1961, a year before The Beverly Hillbillies made its television debut.
Granny is referred to as "Granny Clampett" in a number of episodes, but technically she is a Moses. Granny appears in all 274 episodes. Elly May, the only child of Jed and Rose Ellen Clampett, is a mountain beauty with the body of a pinup girl and the soul of a tomboy, she can throw a fastball as well as "rassle" most men to a fall, she can be as tender with her friends and family as she is tough with anyone she rassles. She says once that animals can be better companions than people, but as she grows older, she allows that, "fellas kin be more fun than critters." In addition to the family dog, Duke, a number of pets live on the Clampett estate thanks to animal-lover Elly. In the 1981 TV movie, Elly May is the head of a zoo. Elly is a terrible cook. Family members cringe. Jethro is the son of Pearl Bodine, he drives the Clampett family to their new home in California and stays on with them to further his education. The others boast of Jethro's "sixth-grade education", but he is ignorant about nearly every aspect of modern California life.
In one episode, he decides to go to college. He enrolls late in the semester at a local secretarial sch
Maude (TV series)
Maude is an American sitcom, broadcast on the CBS network from September 12, 1972, until April 22, 1978. Maude stars Beatrice Arthur as Maude Findlay, an outspoken, middle-aged, politically liberal woman living in suburban Tuckahoe, Westchester County, New York, with her fourth husband, household appliance store owner Walter Findlay. Maude embraces the tenets of women's liberation, always votes for Democratic Party candidates, advocates for civil rights and racial and gender equality. However, her overbearing and sometimes domineering personality gets her into trouble when speaking about these issues; the show was billed as the first spin-off of All in the Family, on which Beatrice Arthur had made two appearances in the character of Maude, Edith Bunker's cousin. Like All in the Family, Maude was a sitcom with topical storylines created by producers Norman Lear and Bud Yorkin. Unusual for a U. S. sitcom, several episodes featured only the characters of Maude and her husband Walter, in what amounted to half-hour "two-hander" teleplays.
Maude Findlay first appears in two season-two episodes of All in the Family: the first in December 1971 as a visitor to the Bunker home, the second, a backdoor pilot setting up the premise of the Maude series, in March 1972. She is Edith Bunker's cousin, married four times, her first husband, had died shortly after their marriage. Albert was never portrayed on screen, but the episode "Poor Albert" revolved around his death, while second former husband Chester would appear once on the show, her current husband, Walter Findlay, owns. Maude and Walter met just before the 1968 presidential election. Maude sometimes gets in the last word during their many arguments with her hallmark catchphrase, "God'll get you for that, Walter", which came directly from Bea Arthur. Maude's deep, raspy voice is an occasional comic foil whenever she answers the phone and explaining in one episode, "No, this is not Mr. Findlay. Mr. Findlay has a much higher voice." Maude's daughter, Carol Traynor, is divorced and has one child, like Maude.
Carol and her son, live with the Findlays. Though single, Carol maintains her reputation of dating many men, she dates various men throughout early seasons forming a serious relationship with a man named Chris. Like her mother, Carol is an outspoken liberal feminist, not afraid to speak her mind, though they clash. There are conflicting accounts as to whether Carol's father was Maude's second husband; the Findlays' next-door neighbors are Dr. Arthur Harmon, a stuffy, sardonic Republican and foil for Maude played by Conrad Bain and his sweet but scatterbrained second wife Vivian, played by Rue McClanahan, who confirmed in an interview with the Archive of American Television that she was approached by Norman Lear during the taping of the All in the Family episode "The Bunkers and the Swingers" to take on the role as a late replacement for Doris Roberts, intended for the part. Arthur has been Walter's best friend since the two men served together in World War II. Vivian has been Maude's best friend.
At the beginning of the series, Arthur is a widower. Vivian was introduced in a guest appearance, she got involved with Arthur as a divorcée. For the entire run of the show, Maude has a housekeeper. At the beginning of the series, the Findlays hire Florida Evans, a no-nonsense black woman who has the last laugh at Maude's expense. Maude makes a point of conspicuously and awkwardly demonstrating how open-minded and liberal she is. Despite Florida's status as a maid, Maude emphasizes to Florida that they are "equals," and insists she enter and exit the Findlay house via the front door; as portrayed by Esther Rolle, the character of Florida was so popular that, in 1974, she became the star of her own series, entitled Good Times. In the storyline of Maude, Florida's husband Henry receives a promotion at his job, she quits to be a full-time housewife. While Maude took place in New York, the setting for Good Times was Chicago, with numerous other differences in Florida's situation, such as her husband being called James Evans-'Henry' being the name of James's long lost father.
After Florida's departure in 1974, Mrs. Nell Naugatuck, an elderly British woman who drinks excessively and lies compulsively, assumes the role of housekeeper. Unlike Florida, who commuted to work, Mrs. Naugatuck is a live-in maid, she meets and begins dating Bert Beasley in 1975. They move to Ireland to care for Bert's mother. Mrs. Naugatuck's frequent sparring with Maude is, just as comedically popular as Florida's sparring; the difference in the two relationships was that Mrs. Naugatuck seems to despise Maude Findlay, whereas Florida seems only periodically frustrated by her boss. Lear said the last name'Naugatuck' was directly taken from the town of Naugatuck