The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
UPI College Basketball Player of the Year
The UPI College Basketball Player of the Year was an annual basketball award given to the best men's basketball player in NCAA Division I competition. The award was first given following the 1954–55 season and was discontinued following the 1995–96 season, it was given by United Press International, a news agency in the United States that rivaled the Associated Press but began to decline with the advent of television news. Five players—Oscar Robertson, Jerry Lucas, Lew Alcindor, Bill Walton and Ralph Sampson—won the award multiple times. Of these five, only Robertson and Sampson were three-time UPI Players of the Year. UCLA had the most all-time winners with six. Ohio State was second with four winners, while Cincinnati and Virginia were tied for third with three winners apiece. Five other schools had two winners and sixteen schools had only one UPI Player of the Year. Eight of the winners were sophomores, seven were juniors, the remaining 27 were seniors. No freshman was presented the award. A Lew Alcindor changed his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar in 1971 after converting to Islam.
General"United Press International Player of the Year". AmericasBestOnline.com. Retrieved 12 April 2010. "Men's College Basketball: Player of the Year Awards → United Press International". HickokSports.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2010. Specific
Lou Henson Award
The Lou Henson Award is an award given annually by CollegeInsider.com to the most outstanding mid-major men's college basketball player in NCAA Division I competition. The award, established in 2010, is named for legendary Illinois Fighting Illini head coach Lou Henson. Henson, who coached at Hardin–Simmons and New Mexico State, compiled 779 all-time wins, he is in the top 10 of NCAA coaching wins in men's basketball history. At the same time the Henson Award was established, CollegeInsider.com created the Lou Henson All-America Team, consisting of the 30 players that its selection committee deems to be the top Division I mid-major players. Unlike most other All-America teams in basketball and other sports, the Henson All-America Team is not divided into different grades —all players are treated as All-Americans. Starting with the 2011–12 season, the number of Henson All-Americans was reduced to 25; this coincided with the decision of CollegeInsider.com to establish a Lute Olson All-America Team in conjunction with its Lute Olson Award for the top player who has played at least two years at his current school.
The Olson All-America Team has 25 members. The number of Henson All-Americans returned to 30 for the 2013–14 season and has remained at that number since. From 2011–12 through 2015–16, players on the Olson All-America team if they came from mid-major schools, were not eligible for the Henson Award; the above policy was modified for 2016–17, although CollegeInsider.com did not publicly announce all details. For the first time since the establishment of the Olson All-America team, members of that team were eligible for selection as Henson All-Americans. In that season, three players from Henson-eligible conferences—Alec Peters of Valparaiso, Justin Robinson of Monmouth, Nigel Williams-Goss of Gonzaga—were selected to the Olson team; when the Henson team was announced and Robinson were on that team, but Williams-Goss was missing—despite the Henson team including another player from Gonzaga's home of the West Coast Conference. It should be noted that Williams-Goss was a consensus second-team All-American that season.
Definitions of the term "mid-major" in the context of college basketball vary widely. For purposes of both the Henson All-America Team and Henson Award, CollegeInsider.com has established its own definition of the term, which includes members of the following conferences, as well as any basketball independents: America East Conference Atlantic Sun Conference Big Sky Conference Big South Conference Big West Conference Colonial Athletic Association Horizon League Ivy League Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Mid-American Conference Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Missouri Valley Conference Northeast Conference Ohio Valley Conference Patriot League Southern Conference Southland Conference Southwestern Athletic Conference The Summit League Sun Belt Conference West Coast Conference Western Athletic ConferenceThe list of eligible conferences has always excluded all conferences that sponsor FBS football except for the MAC and the Sun Belt. The Atlantic 10 Conference, which has not sponsored football at all since 2006, has been excluded throughout the award's history.
Following major conference realignment that peaked in 2013, the WAC, which dropped football after the 2012 season, was added to the eligible list, while both offshoots of the original Big East Conference—the FBS American Athletic Conference and the current non-football Big East—were excluded from eligibility. From the 2011–12 season, when the Olson All-America Team was established, through the 2015–16 season, players named to that team were ineligible for the Henson Award if they played at eligible schools; the following players were ineligible for the Henson Award due to being named to the Olson All-America Team. Individuals in bold were consensus first- or second-team All-Americans in the same season. 2011–12Isaiah Canaan, Murray State D. J. Cooper, Ohio Michael Glover, Iona Orlando Johnson, UC Santa Barbara Damian Lillard, Weber State Scott Machado, Iona C. J. McCollum, Lehigh Doug McDermott, Creighton2012–13Ian Clark, Belmont Ray McCallum, Detroit Doug McDermott, Creighton Mike Muscala, Bucknell Kelly Olynyk, Gonzaga Nate Wolters, South Dakota State2013–14Ron Baker, Wichita State Billy Baron, Canisius Cleanthony Early, Wichita State2014–15Ron Baker, Wichita State Kyle Collinsworth, BYU Kevin Pangos, Gonzaga Cameron Payne, Murray State Seth Tuttle, Northern Iowa Fred VanVleet, Wichita State Kyle Wiltjer, Gonzaga2015–16Kay Felder, Oakland Justin Robinson, Monmouth Domantas Sabonis, Gonzaga Fred VanVleet, Wichita State General"Lou Henson National Player of the Year Award".
CollegeInsider.com. 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2010. Specific Official site
Adolph Rupp Trophy
The Adolph F. Rupp Trophy was an award given annually to the top player in men's Division I NCAA basketball until 2015; the recipient of the award was selected by an independent panel consisting of national sportswriters and sports administrators. The trophy was presented each year at the site of the Final Four of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship; the Adolph F. Rupp Trophy was administered by the Commonwealth Athletic Club of Kentucky, a non-profit organization with a primary mission of honoring the legacy of University of Kentucky coach Adolph Rupp. Three winners of the award have been freshmen: Kevin Durant of Texas in 2007, John Wall of Kentucky in 2010 and Anthony Davis of Kentucky in 2012. List of U. S. men's college basketball national player of the year awards Official site
Helms Foundation College Basketball Player of the Year
The Helms Foundation College Basketball Player of the Year was an annual basketball award given to the most outstanding intercollegiate men's basketball player in the United States. The award was first given following the 1904–05 season and ceased being awarded after the 1978–79 season, it was the first major most valuable player award for men's basketball in the United States, the Helms Athletic Foundation was considered within the basketball community to be the authority on men's college basketball for that era. Thus, the award was viewed as the premier player of the year award one could receive up until the 1960s, at which point the Naismith College Player of the Year and John R. Wooden Award took over as the national season MVP awards. "Helms Foundation Player of the Year Winners". Sports-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. 2010. Archived from the original on June 19, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2010. Bjarkman, Peter. Hoopla: A Century of College Basketball. Masters Press. ISBN 1-57028-039-8
Oscar Robertson Trophy
The Oscar Robertson Trophy is given out annually to the outstanding men's college basketball player by the United States Basketball Writers Association. The trophy is considered to be the oldest of its kind and has been given out since 1959. USBWA College Player of the Year was started in 1959, which makes it the oldest running trophy for the college player of the year; the USBWA annually selects a player of the year and All-America teams for both men and women in college basketball. The USBWA men's player of the year award is now called the Oscar Robertson Trophy; the USBWA selects a national coach of the year for men and women, with the men's award named after legendary coach Henry Iba. It was renamed after the college and professional legend Oscar Robertson in 1998. Five nominees are presented and the individual with the most votes receives the award during the NCAA Final Four; the Oscar Robertson Trophy known as the Player of the Year Award, was renamed in 1998 because of Robertson’s outstanding career and his continuing efforts to promote the game of basketball.
He averaged 32.6 points per game in his sophomore year at Cincinnati. List of U. S. men's college basketball national player of the year awards "Oscar Robertson Trophy". Sportswriters.net. United States Basketball Writers Association. Retrieved March 12, 2011
Lute Olson Award
The Lute Olson Award is an award given annually to the most outstanding non-freshman men's college basketball player in NCAA Division I competition. The award is named for former Arizona Wildcats head coach Lute Olson. Only players who have completed at least two seasons at their current school are eligible for the award; as such and first-year transfers are not eligible. The recipient is chosen by a committee including current and former coaches, NBA players, media members, Lute Olson himself, others involved in the basketball community. General"Lute Olson National Player of the Year Award". CollegeInsider.com. Retrieved 9 April 2010. Specific Official site