Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a British Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second-closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.

Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey was within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey was not part of the European Union but had a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak or understand Jèrriais, the local form of the Norman language, place names with French or Norman origins abound.

Additional British cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.

Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came formally under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.

The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the America

Gay Star and Upstart

Gay Star and upstart were influential gay magazines published in Northern Ireland between the period 1969 and 2001. The first gay publication was Burnt Offering published as Gay Forum, both in 1974, more of a manifesto-cum-pamphlet than a journal. Brian Gilmore produced a GLS Information Sheet on a weekly basis for years. A formal ‘official’ publication was felt necessary, Brian Gilmore became editor of NIGRA News, a member of the Collective that produced Northern Gay. Others in the Collective were: Jeff Dudgeon, a regular contributor to all of Northern Ireland’s gay magazines, John Lyttle, Stella Mahon of Sappho a short story writer, employee of the Open University, Richard Kennedy then-President of NIGRA, Michael Workman, who became a BBC journalist; these two journals were information sheets, but carried in-depth articles, Northern Gay tended to have thematic editions on, for example, ‘coming out’, the law, women’s issues. Due to out-migration, a factor in gay and general Ulster life for decades, the Collective dissolved.

Gay Star succeeded Northern Gay, the first four editions were edited by Peter Brooke by Seán McGouran and Terry McFarlane. Gay Star was a magazine for a new period, after the extension of the relevant sections "insulting and discriminatory", as NIGRA called it, Sexual Offences Act 1967 Gay Star became less news-oriented, carried articles, verse and other art-work by a large number of local, people, it was an attempt to produce a journal at a high level to let those who lived outside of a troubled area learn that our community had a great deal to offer our own and Great Britain’s, the world’s gay community. There were articles by Jeff Dudgeon, John Donaghy, Bob St Cyr, Jay Jones. There were learned articles by Douglas Sobey, Robert Walsh of the University of Ulster, Graham Walker, Vincent Geoghegan, Norman Stevenson, John W. Cairns, QUB. Other major contributors were Stephen Birkett and Gabriel Burns. Verse was published on a regular basis, by Kate O’Donnell, Sylvia Sands, Anthony Weir, Peter Brooke, Kenneth Pobo, George Gott, Ivor C Treby, others.

There were stories by John Gallas, Rod Dungate, Ralph Berlin. Graphics and art work, including front covers of Gay Star were contributed by Rose Ann McGreevy, Malcolm Ryan, Damian McCourt, Paul Diver, Kevin Maxwell, others. Articles on different aspects of music, by Martin Hewson, Alistair Kerr and Richard Lyttle were published). There were regular reviews of books and cinema, by the editors, persons with particular expertise, as well as Jo-Dan and Aelfric. Gay Star was sold, in independent bookshops all over and Ireland and Great Britain, had subscribers in mainland Europe and Australia. Upstart grew out of the news sheet Update, started in 1985, the latter produced because of police harassment, the fact that the management of the Europa hotel were purging its gay clientele, most the realisation that Northern Ireland was not immune to the HI virus. Gay Star was ‘privatised’ in 1989, lasted until 1991, being replaced by an enlarged version of upstart; the union Unison printed it for most of the 1990s, but this situation came to an end, the publication – which in most ways took up where Gay Star had left off – was last produced in 2001.

Upstart is shortly to be resurrected as an electronic magazine. About - Upstart Publishing Upstart Publishing

Roselands, New South Wales

Roselands is a suburb in south-western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Roselands is located 16 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district in the Canterbury-Bankstown Council. Roselands lies in the Cooks River watershed; the soil is clay, based on Wianamatta shale and is on the eastern edge of the great Cumberland Plain which extends westward to the Hawkesbury River and into the Blue Mountains. The topography is low rolling hills. Before settlement, the vegetation was open eucalypt woodland; the first inhabitants of surrounding areas were Australian Aboriginals who arrived about 40,000 years ago. At the time of British settlement in 1788 the inhabitants were Aborigines of the Darug language group and they called themselves Kuri or Koori. Land grants by the new colonial government began in about 1810; this area was part of the suburb of Punchbowl and still shares its postcode of 2196. H. R. Morgan was granted land in the area in 1842. John Fenwick bought 100 acres in about 1880 from Matthew Norman in the area between Canterbury and Bonds Roads.

He built Belmore House on this land, demolished for the construction of Roselands Shopping Centre. The closest railway line was built to the neighbouring suburb of Belmore in 1895 and extended to Bankstown in 1909; the suburb takes its name from the plant nursery that occupied the land. A golf course was built with same name, taken over to build the shopping centre, it became a suburb on 9 February 1987, after some years of agitation by local residents and members of parliament. Roselands Shopping Centre was the third enclosed shopping precinct in Australia, opened in October 1965. Older open-air shopping precincts in Australia included Chermside Drive-in Shopping Centre in Brisbane, Top Ryde Drive-in Shopping Centre in Sydney, Chadstone Shopping Centre in Melbourne and Warringah Mall in Sydney. Roselands was built on the site of a golf course, it boasted a large Grace Bros Department Store, a single movie cinema, an indoor rainfall water feature, tennis courts and the first food court in Australia.

Many local bus services were diverted to service the new shopping centre upon its opening, but the centre was designed for the age of the automobile with plenty of parking as it was distant from any railway stations. It has since had many upgrades. King Georges Road is the main road through Roselands, it is a ring road which connects the northern suburbs of Sydney and the north coast motorways of New South Wales to the southern beaches of Sydney and the south coast motorways of New South Wales. King Georges Road connects Roselands to the M5 South Western Motorway which links to Sydney's International Airport and west to Canberra and Melbourne; the Lantern Club is located in Roselands Avenue. Roselands Aquatic Centre is located opposite the shopping centre. Roselands soccer club is located at Bennett Park. According to the 2016 Census, 44.5 per cent of Roselands residents stated they had been born overseas. Lebanon was the birthplace of the most foreign-born residents in Roselands at 5 per cent, followed by those born in People's Republic of China at 3.8 per cent.

In terms of ethnicity, the largest group in 2016 were those claiming Greek ancestry with 12.4 per cent of the responses, followed by those claiming Lebanese background at 12.3 per cent, thirdly by those claiming Australian descent with 11.3 per cent. English only is the most common home language in Roselands, used by a plurality of 35.9 per cent of residents, followed by Arabic — the home language of 16.6 per cent — and Greek spoken by 12.2 per cent at home. According to the census, Christianity was the most followed faith in Roselands with 60.5 per cent of residents reporting that they were Christian. However, Christians in the area belong to many denominations, with the largest proportions being Catholic at 24.3 per cent, Orthodox with 17.3 per cent. Islam is accounting for 18.8 per cent of residents. Roselands is in the state electorates of Lakemba and Canterbury, both of which are safe Labor seats