SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as Urusalim on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.

In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2016, the population was 882,700, of which Jews comprised 536,600, Muslims 319,800, Christians 15,800, 10,300 unclassified. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.

These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.

The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem", t

Palmer Creek (Turnagain Arm)

Palmer Creek is a waterway in the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, US. It is an affluent of Resurrection Creek, itself a tributary of Turnagain Arm. Palmer Creek flows northwest for 11 miles before reaching Resurrection Creek. Hope is located 4.5 miles to the north. Its upper portion flows for 6 miles through a broad, round-bottomed valley, while its lower part occupies a steep, narrow canyon rut through rock in some places and through gravel benches in others. Mining has been carried on chiefly in the lower 1.5 miles of the stream and has been confined to the channel gravels. The country rock includes interbedded slates and arkoses, whose cleavage strikes a little east of north and dips at a high angle; the arkoses are very much jointed and in weathering do not break into small pieces as as do the slates, a fact seen on examining tho stream wash. The gravels resemble the country rock in their composition, were undoubtedly derived from it in large part, although there are a few granitic bowlders which may not be of local origin.

There is a large proportion of angular fragments and no small percentage of coarse material 5 percent being over 1.5 feet in diameter. At the surface, the gravels were laid down without definite arrangement but are rudely stratified below. Palmer Creek gold is coarse and heavy and smooth. In color, it is whitish. Pieces of native silver have been noted. Gold was found on Palmer Creek in 1894 by George Palmer, a trader in the Knik Arm area in the late 1800s; these discoveries led to prospecting on neighboring streams, in the following year the first stakes were driven on Mills Creek by S. J. Mills, whose name it bears, at the forks of Sixmile Creek named by Mills; the gold claims on this stream were held by single individuals. Two hydraulic plants were at work in 1904, employing 10 men. By 1915, the whole of the lower canyon portion, 18 claims, was controlled by one company. In 1915, it was reported that most of the prospects on Palmer Creek were on a mineralized acidic dike; the dike was first discovered in 1898 on Coeur d'Alene Gulch by an Australian outfit, but no development work was done.

John Hirshey and Elmer Carlson located the dike in Ptarmigan Gulch about a mile south of the original discovery and W. A. Logman relocated the dike on Coeur d'Aleno Gulch; the Lucky Strike mine, managed by John Hirshey, reported activity in 1931. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: G. C. Martin's, G. L. Johnson's, U. S. Grant's "Geology and Mineral Resources of Kenai Peninsula, Alaska"

Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn

Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn is the final novel in the Lucky Starr series, six juvenile science fiction novels by Isaac Asimov that appeared under the pseudonym Paul French. The novel was first published by Doubleday & Company in 1958, it was the last novel to be published by Asimov until his 1966 novelization of Fantastic Voyage, his last original novel until 1973's The Gods Themselves. Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn is the only novel by Asimov set in the Saturnian system. Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn is set within the Saturnian system, depicted as as the knowledge of the late 1950s allowed. At that time, only nine satellites had been discovered, the innermost known satellite being Mimas. Asimov describes Mimas as being 340 miles in diameter, but its diameter is now known to be 240 miles. Several of the novel's chapters are set on Titan, thought to be the third largest satellite in the Solar System, after Ganymede and Triton, its atmosphere is described as "almost as thick as Earth's" and composed of methane.

It is now known that Titan is the second largest satellite in the Solar System after Ganymede, that its atmosphere is denser than Earth's and is 98.4% nitrogen and only 1.6% methane. The final chapters take place on the asteroid Vesta, which Asimov notes is the brightest of the asteroids. At the time, it was believed that Vesta was 215 miles in diameter, although its mean diameter is now known to be closer to 330 miles. Six weeks after returning from the Jovian system, David "Lucky" Starr learns that Jack Dorrance, the chief of a Sirian spy ring uncovered by Starr in the Jovian system, has escaped from Earth. Starr and his sidekick Bigman Jones follow Dorrance to the Saturnian system, where Dorrance tries to lose them in Saturn's rings, but his ship is destroyed by a ring fragment. A Sirian ship contacts Starr and informs him that the Sirians have built a colony on Titan and claimed it for Sirius, contrary to the traditional principle that inhabitants of one world in a stellar system have sovereignty over the entire system those parts without permanent settlements.

Starr orders the pursuing Terrestrial fleet back to Earth. When several Sirian ships pursue the Shooting Starr, Starr conceals himself and his ship in the interior of Mimas. There, Sirian commander Sten Devoure threatens to have Bigman killed unless Starr agrees to testify at an upcoming interstellar conference on the asteroid Vesta that he entered the Saturnian system to attack the Sirians; when Bigman endangers himself by defeating Devoure in a duel, Starr makes a deal with Devoure: if he spares Bigman's life, Starr will testify that he entered the Saturnian system in an armed ship, will lead the Sirians to Wessilewsky's base on Mimas. As delegates assemble for the conference, Agas Doremo, the leader of the neutralist forces of the Galaxy, tells Conway they should let the Sirians stay. While he supports the idea of stellar systems being indivisible, Doremo cannot see a way to get the Sirians out of the Solar System without a war, given the other worlds' distrust of Earth. However, should the Sirians remain, they might overplay their hand, allowing for a new conference under more favorable conditions.

However, he agrees to do. Doremo is elected to preside over the conference. Devoure admits that the Sirians have established a base on Titan, but insists that the fact that Saturn and its moons are part of Earth's stellar system is irrelevant: "An empty world is an empty world, regardless of the particular route it travels through space. We colonized it first and it is ours". Devoure brings out Starr, who admits to having re-entered the Saturnian system after being warned off, that Wessilewsky established a base on Mimas. Conway receives permission to cross-examine Starr; when asked his reasons, according to a secret plan of his own, Starr replies that Wessilewsky was placed to establish a colony on Mimas. At this, Conway states that by removing Wessilewsky from Mimas, the Sirians violated the principle they attempted to establish - Devoure has stated earlier that the Sirians have never approached Mimas earlier, so it is Earth's regardless of whose point of view is taken. Seeing the opportunity, Doremo points out the demonstrated implications of accepting the Sirian view.

He manipulates the delegates into a vote before Sirius can work out a proper response. The conference ends with three client worlds voting with the Sirians, the rest voting with Earth, with the result that the Sirians are ordered to leave Titan within a month – the principle of "Indivisibility of Stellar Systems" being established, which the protagonists consider a positive and desirable outcome. Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn was written between December 1957 and February 1958, in the immediate aftermath of the launch of Sputnik I by the Soviet Union, Asimov comments thereon in chapter 8, by having Starr talk about the superiority of Sirian robots: "These robots are a human achievement; the humans that did the achieving are Sirians, but they are human beings and all other humans can share pride in the achievement. If we fear the results of their achievement, let's match it ourselves, or more than match it, but there's no use denying them the worth of their accomplishment". Twice in the Lucky Starr series, in Lucky Starr and the Pirates