click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jerusalem Law

The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Knesset on 30 July 1980. Although the law did not use the term, the Israeli Supreme Court interpreted the law as an effective Annexation of East Jerusalem; the Jerusalem Law began as a private member's bill proposed by Geulah Cohen, whose original text stated that "the integrity and unity of greater Jerusalem in its boundaries after the Six-Day War shall not be violated." However, this clause was dropped after the first reading in the Knesset. As the Knesset thus declined to specify boundaries and did not use the words "annexation" or "sovereignty", Ian Lustick writes that "The consensus of legal scholars is that this action added nothing to the legal or administrative circumstance of the city, although at the time, its passage was considered to have political importance and sparked a vigorous protest reaction from the world community." For example, United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, adopted on 20 August 1980 by 14 votes to none, with 1 abstention, declared soon after that the law was "null and void" and "must be rescinded".

This resolution called upon member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. However, thirty-eight years the United States relocated their Israeli embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem on May 14, 2018 and other countries, including Paraguay and the Czech Republic expressed similar intentions. Although the law was not proposed by the governing coalition or Prime Minister Menachem Begin, rather, it was proposed by lawmakers concerned that peace negotiators were demanding that Arab residents of East Jerusalem be given votes in Palestinian Authority elections; as legislation, the Act is regarded as symbolic. An amendment in 2000 further specified the jurisdiction of the law, it did not change its range. The amendment prohibited transfer of authority to a foreign body, for example an international regime. Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel Jerusalem, Capital of Israel: 1. Jerusalem and united, is the capital of Israel. Seat of the President, the Knesset, the Government and the Supreme Court: 2.

Jerusalem is the seat of the President of the State, the Knesset, the Government and the Supreme Court. Protection of Holy Places: 3; the Holy Places shall be protected from desecration and any other violation and from anything to violate the freedom of access of the members of the different religions to the places sacred to them or their feelings towards those places. Development of Jerusalem: 4; the Government shall provide for the development and prosperity of Jerusalem and the well-being of its inhabitants by allocating special funds, including a special annual grant to the Municipality of Jerusalem with the approval of the Finance Committee of the Knesset. Jerusalem shall be given special priority in the activities of the authorities of the State so as to further its development in economic and other matters; the Government shall set up special bodies for the implementation of this section. Amendment no. 1: Area of the jurisdiction of Jerusalem 5. The jurisdiction of Jerusalem includes, as pertaining to this basic law, among others, all of the area, described in the appendix of the proclamation expanding the borders of municipal Jerusalem beginning the 20th of Sivan 5727, as was given according to the Cities' Ordinance.

Prohibition of the transfer of authority 6. No authority, stipulated in the law of the State of Israel or of the Jerusalem Municipality may be transferred either permanently or for an allotted period of time to a foreign body, whether political, governmental or to any other similar type of foreign body. Entrenchment 7. Clauses 5 and 6 shall not be modified except by a Basic Law passed by a majority of the members of the Knesset. Menachem Begin Prime Minister Yitzchak Navon President of the State" Published in Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 980 of the 23rd Av, 5740, p. 186. International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Golan Heights Law Text of the law: Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel

Nepenthes beccariana

Nepenthes beccariana is a tropical pitcher plant. The species was described in 1908 by John Muirhead Macfarlane based on a specimen collected from the island of Nias, which lies off the western coast of Sumatra, it appears to be related to both N. longifolia and N. sumatrana, the former is a heterotypic synonym of this taxon. The type specimen of N. beccariana was collected by Italian explorer Elio Modigliani during an 1886 expedition to Nias, an island located 120 km from the port town of Sibolga in Sumatra. It is designated as E. Modigliani is specimen FI-HB 7485 at the Herbarium Beccarianum in Florence, Italy; the type specimen consists of fragments of three leaves and three pitchers and is in a damaged state, with the leaves separated from the stem in such a way that their form of attachment is unknown. Nepenthes beccariana was formally described by John Muirhead Macfarlane in his 1908 monograph, "Nepenthaceae", it is named in honour of Italian naturalist Odoardo Beccari. Macfarlane's description includes a line drawing of N. beccariana, showing a leaf blade, a lower pitcher, an upper pitcher.

It has been suggested that the upper pitcher in this illustration represents a composite, with features of both lower and upper pitchers. Twenty years B. H. Danser synonymised the taxon with N. mirabilis in his seminal monograph, "The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies". With regards to the taxonomic status of N. beccariana, Danser wrote: N. tubulosa and N. Beccariana of Macfarlane show important differences with the common N. mirabilis. N. Beccariana differs from N. mirabilis only by the other shape of the pitchers. I have not seen type material, collected in P. Nias, but in the Buitenzorg Herbarium there are wholly congruent plants from the neighbouring P. Sibéroet, which undoubtedly are plants of N. mirabilis, showing the peculiar character, that the upper pitchers have the shape and the wings of the lower pitchers of the common form. N. tubulosa, N. Beccariana and N. Rowanae nearly show the extremes of the variation in the pitcher shape of N. mirabilis. However, Danser never saw the type specimen of N. beccariana.

In their 1997 monograph, "A skeletal revision of Nepenthes", Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek included N. beccariana as a synonym of N. mirabilis, having not examined the type specimen either. The authors retained this synonymy in their 2001 monograph, "Nepenthaceae". In 2000, Jan Schlauer and C. Nepi examined the type specimen of N. beccariana and noted significant differences between it and N. mirabilis, suggesting that it should be restored as a distinct species. In Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, Charles Clarke agreed that N. beccariana appears to be distinct from both N. mirabilis and N. sumatrana, but noted that if N. beccariana is found to be conspecific with N. longifolia, the latter taxon would become a heterotypic synonym of the former. The stem of N. beccariana is 10 to 12 mm wide. Leaves are petiolate; the lamina or leaf blade is elliptic-lanceolate to obovate in shape. It is up to 40 cm long by 9 cm wide; the petiole is 7 to 10 cm winged. It is semi-amplexicaul, with the lower wings being expanded.

Tendrils are 25 to 35 cm long. Rosette and lower pitchers are up to 18 cm long by 5 cm wide; the peristome is up to 15 mm wide. The pitcher lid or operculum is up to 7 cm long by 5 cm wide. A filiform, club-shaped spur up to 15 mm long is inserted near the base of the lid; the cylindrical upper pitchers are larger than their lower counterparts, growing to 30 cm high by 6 cm wide. Flowers and fruits are unknown. No forms or varieties of N. beccariana have been described. Nepenthes beccariana is known with certainty only from the type locality on the island of Nias, where the type specimen was collected; this population has not been knowingly observed since its discovery by Modigliani and no photographs of it are known to exist. Plants that resemble N. beccariana and may be conspecific with it grow along the road from Sibolga to Tarutung in North Sumatra. This unidentified taxon is sympatric with N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. rafflesiana, N. reinwardtiana, N. tobaica. A putative natural hybrid with N. sumatrana has been recorded.

The conservation status of N. beccariana has not been formally assessed and it is not listed on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Nepenthes beccariana is related to N. longifolia and N. sumatrana, may be conspecific with the former. The extent of the variation in N. beccariana and N. longifolia is unknown, making them difficult to circumscribe. Observations of N. beccariana at the type locality would need to be carried out to resolve this taxonomic confusion. Despite sharing a number of morphological features with N. sumatrana, N. beccariana is difficult to confuse with this species. Nepenthes sumatrana is distinguished by its infundibular upper pitchers, which have a raised section at the front of the peristome. In addition, the ovoid lower pitchers of N. sumatrana have orbicular lids, as opposed to the ovate operculum of N. beccariana. The unidentified taxon that grows along the road from Sibolga to Tarutung is similar to N. longifolia, but is atypical of the species. It differs from the type form of N. longifolia in that the petioles are not decurrent into a pair of wings over the internodes and some of the hairs lining the leaf margins are caducous.

The plants differ in ecology.

Mabel Terry-Lewis

Mabel Gwynedd Terry-Lewis was an English actress and a member of the Terry-Gielgud dynasty of actors of the 19th and 20th centuries. After a successful career in her twenties and thirties she married and retired from the stage in 1904, her husband died in 1917 and she returned to the theatre in 1920, continuing to act on stage and in films until the late 1940s. Among her celebrated roles was Lady Bracknell in The Importance of Being Earnest, which she played opposite her nephew John Gielgud in 1930. Mabel Terry-Lewis was born in London, the youngest of the five children, four daughters, one son, of Arthur James Lewis and his wife Kate, née Terry. Lewis was a prosperous businessman, co-owner of the haberdashery firm of Lewis and Allenby, an amateur painter and musician. Before their marriage, Kate Terry had been a well-known actress; the Lewises had no wish for any of their daughters to act professionally, but amateur theatricals were encouraged when the children were young. The author Lewis Carroll was a friend of Arthur Lewis, on 24 January 1883 he visited the family home, Moray Lodge, for a performance of a comedietta titled Lady Barbara's Birthday given by the Lewis children and those of Ellen Terry.

Present on that occasion was W. S. Gilbert. Carroll wrote of the event: Edith was clever and Katie distinctly good: Teddie was good, though a little given to rant: but Mabel was the gem of the whole thing. I never saw her equal among children, except Ellen Terry herself, she is a born actress. It is little known that Mabel was a painter of miniatures. Who's Who in 1935 recorded that she had exhibited miniatures at the Royal Academy and New Galleries and at Liverpool and Manchester. One such miniature was of Minnie Terry aged 5 years, circa 1887, which can be seen at Smallhythe Place in Kent, now a National Trust property, but once the home of actress Ellen Terry, married to the painter George Frederic Watts. Two other examples are miniatures of the'Silver King' George McCulloch and his wife who lived near Mabel's home in London. Mabel was the only one of the four Terry-Lewis daughters to pursue a theatrical career, her first appearance on the professional stage was at the Garrick Theatre, in January 1895, as Lucy Lorimer in "A Pair of Spectacles," with John Hare.

The Times commented, "Miss Lewis … is a tall and graceful young lady, exhibiting few of the characteristics of the novice." The Manchester Guardian said that she "played the pretty little part with unaffected simplicity, with more ease than might have been expected in a débutante". At the Criterion in May 1897, she played Margaret Linfield in Threepenny Bits. In the same year she played Bianca in The Taming of the Shrew for the Oxford University Dramatic Society at Oxford, she was not seen again in London until April 1898, when she appeared at the Globe, in Hare's company, playing Mary Faber in The Master. Although Kate had the lion's share of the press notices, Mabel was praised for a touching performance. From until 1904, Terry-Lewis had a successful stage career, she appeared at the Globe as Bella in School, Blanche Haye in Ours, Esther Eccles, Marie Wilton's old part, in a revival of Caste, created the role of Muriel Eden in The Gay Lord Quex. In 1900 she toured in The Mistress of Craignairn and Gudgeons, on her return to London she opened at the Strand in May 1900, as Gloria Clandon in You Never Can Tell, in which The Observer's reviewer considered her acting superior to Bernard Shaw's play.

After playing in a succession of ephemeral costume dramas, ending with the role of Sylvia Fitzallen in My Lady of Rosedale, she retired from the stage on her marriage in 1904. Her only West End appearance during her marriage was in 1906, at her aunt Ellen Terry's jubilee celebration at Drury Lane, along with more than twenty other members of the Terry family, her marriage, to Captain Ralph Cecil Batley, was a happy one, she enjoyed her quiet life on his country estate in Dorset. Her young nephew, John Gielgud stayed there on occasions, took part in the amateur dramatics she organised for the Women's Institute. Batley had to resign his commission in January 1917 because of ill health, he died on 23 October 1917 aged 54. Writing in 1989 about his aunt, Gielgud was uncertain whether her return to the stage after being widowed was an outlet for her "boundless energies" or was for financial reasons. Terry-Lewis made her reappearance on the stage at the Prince of Wales Theatre on 10 February 1920, when she played Lady Sarah Aldine in The Young Person in Pink, at a one-off charity matinée.

Her return to the mainstream West End theatre was in April of the same year, in the role of Jane Stroud in " The Grain of Mustard Seed". The Times commented, "Miss Mabel Terry-Lewis, in the part of a grave, high-minded, somewhat désabusée patrician gives a performance of exquisite beauty."In 1923 she toured America with Cyril Maude and Lydia Bilbrook in If Winter Comes, playing at Chicago in April and New York in the autumn. During subsequent visits to the US she played for three seasons in such popular pieces as Aren't We All, Easy Virtue, The Constant Wife. In the West End she appeared in new plays and revivals, including The Importance of Being Earnest as t

Tom Bromilow

Thomas George Bromilow was an English international left half footballer who played for Liverpool between 1919 and 1930. He was ever-present during the back-to-back League title triumphs of the early 1920s. Born in West Derby, England, Bromilow was signed by Liverpool after the 24-year-old turned up at Anfield one afternoon in 1919 asking for a trial, he had only been demobilised from the army. George Patterson, the Liverpool assistant manager, agreed to give him a trial and was impressed by his skill and Bromilow was signed. Bromilow made his debut on 25 October 1919 at Turf Moor in a Division One match against Burnley, a game that the Reds won 2–1. Bromilow soon became an established member of the side, to win back-to-back League titles in 1921–22 and 1922–23. A fine tackler and distributor of the ball, Bromilow was regarded as the brains of the team and blossomed into a full England international within three years of turning professional, he continued to be an influential first team regular until the latter part of the decade, serving the club with distinction and leading by example as team captain.

He was capped for England on five occasions between 1921 and 1925. After retiring from playing, Bromilow took up a career in coaching and went to coach in Amsterdam during the summer of 1930. In October 1932 he was appointed Burnley manager, the first manager of the club to have been a former professional player, he remained there until summer 1935, he went on to manage Crystal Palace, Newport County and Leicester City. In 2006, he was included in the 100 Players That Shook The Kop poll, as voted by fans on the Liverpool FC official site. Bromilow died on a train in March 1959 while scouting for Leicester City. Liverpool Football League First Division winners: 1922, 1923 Charity Shield runners-up: 1923 Crystal Palace Football League Third Division South runners-up: 1939

Acacia jibberdingensis

Acacia jibberdingensis known as Jibberding wattle or willow-leafed wattle, is a shrub or tree belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Juliflorae, endemic to Western Australia. The shrub or tree is slender and erect grows to a height of 1.5 to 7 metres and a width of around 5 m. It has angled hairy branchlets with patent to ascending evergreen phyllodes with a flat linear shape, straight to curved; the glabrous phyllodes are 15 to 32 cm in length with a diameter of 1 to 1.5 mm. It blooms from June to October producing bright yellow perfumed flower-spikes; the simple inflorescences occur singly in the axils with flower-spikes that are 20 to 35 mm in length with a diameter of 6 mm loosely packed with golden flowers. The thinly coriaceous and glabrous seed pods that form after flowering resemble a string of beads are up to 21 cm in length and have a width of 5 to 7 mm; the glossy, black seeds are longitudinally arranged in the pods and have a broadly elliptic shape with a length of 4.5 to 5.5 mm with a pitted areole.

The species was first formally described by the botanists Joseph Maiden and William Blakely in 1927 as part of the work Descriptions of fifty new species and six varieties of western and northern Australian Acacias, notes on four other species as published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. It was reclassified as Racosperma jibberdingense by Leslie Pedley in 2003 was transferred back to genus Acacia in 2006; the type specimen was collected by M. Koch in 1960 at Jibberding near Dalwallinu, it is native to an area in the Mid West and Goldfields regions of Western Australia where it is found among granite outcrops growing is sandy loamy soils. The population is scattered from Mullewa and Jingemarra Station in the north down to around Peak Charles National Park in the south east where it is found in shrubland communities, it is available for cultivation in seed form but the seeds must scarified prior to planting. It is both frost and drought tolerant. List of Acacia species

University of the Ozarks

University of the Ozarks is a private university in Clarksville, Arkansas. Enrollment averages around 900 students, representing 25 countries. U of O is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. University of the Ozarks traces its roots back to 1834, making it the oldest university in Arkansas and one of the oldest institutions of higher education west of the Mississippi River, it was founded by Cumberland Presbyterians in 1834 as Cane Hill School in Cane Hill, Arkansas in Washington County becoming Cane Hill College. Its successor, Arkansas Cumberland College, opened in Clarksville in September 1891; the name was changed to College of the Ozarks in 1920. The university alma mater was written in 1928 by Rev. John W. Laird, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Rochester, New York. In 1875, the university became the first institution of higher education in Arkansas to admit women. In 1946, the university housed the state's first pharmacy school. During the years of World War II, the enrollment decreased to the point that the Board of Trustees decided to find a tenant for the facilities.

From January 1944 through May 1945, the United States Navy leased the full campus for operating a Primary School in their Electronics Training Program. An estimated total of 3,000 Navy and Marine servicemen were trained in the three-month course. In this period, classes for the 150 College of the Ozarks students were held off-campus at the First Presbyterian Church. In 1957, the university became the first predominately white university in Arkansas to integrate, in 1959 the first to graduate an African-American, more than 7 years before any others. In 1963 Ozarks athlete Sylvester Benson became the first African-American to compete in the Arkansas Intercollegiate Conference. In 1987, the name was changed to University of the Ozarks; the university enrollment has increased since the mid-1990s, the number of full-time faculty has been increased from 32 to 48. During the past decade, the university's supporters helped increase the school's endowment by 284 percent, contributing more than $100 million for academic programs, scholarships and staff benefits, facilities.

In 1998, U of O received the largest single monetary donation made to a private university in Arkansas - $39.5 million from the Walton Family Charitable Support Foundation. University of the Ozarks' 30-acre campus, sits at the top of College Hill on the north edge of Clarksville, Arkansas, a town with a population of about 10,000 in the Arkansas River Valley; the campus has a long history at its current location, dating back to 1891. In the years since the first cornerstone was laid on the site, the campus has undergone continued growth and improvement. There are now more than 20 buildings on campus, with the ten major buildings arranged around a central mall which features a picturesque fountain; the large trees and the classically styled buildings combine to give the campus a distinctive look. One of the main landmarks of the university is the Raymond Munger Memorial Chapel, erected in 1933; the chapel was built with one of the single largest donations received by the college at the time, a $75,000 gift from Miss Jesse Munger of Plainfield, N.

J. Munger donated the money to build the chapel in memory of her father, Raymond Munger, a New York businessman, known for his interest in religion and education. College students were paid to provide much of the labor for excavation, laying of the foundation and hauling of materials. Munger Chapel, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was designed by architect A. O. Clark of Rogers, Ark. Built of limestone trimmed with Nu-Carth stone, it is of Gothic design and follows general plans used in large cathedrals; the stained glass windows were installed by The Willet Studios of Philadelphia. The university holds weekly services for the campus community in the chapel, it is a popular wedding venue. The university celebrated the 75th anniversary of the chapel during a special ceremony during the 2008 Alumni Weekend. In 2014, the Raymond Munger Memorial Chapel at University of the Ozarks received a $2 million gift from Frances E. Wilson of Tulsa, for a variety of renovations and improvements that would proceed until December 2015.

The university's board of trustees formally accepted the gift at its Spring Board Meeting on April 26, 2014. Wilson made the gift to the university in memory of Thomas D. Wilson. In accepting the gift, the board unanimously voted to express its appreciation to Wilson by renaming the building Munger-Wilson Memorial Chapel; the sanctuary and exterior of the Chapel underwent a great deal of restoration and replacement of structural elements to preserve the historic look and spiritual feel of what is an iconic landmark in this area. Walker Hall was completed in 2003, funded by a gift from the Willard and Pat Walker Charitable Foundation of Springdale. With its massive 24-foot limestone columns, red granite steps and majestic wood doors, Walker Hall resembles its predecessor, Hurie Hall, which occupied the same area of the campus for 80 years. In continued honor of Dr. Hurie's contributions to the university, the new facility is home to the Wiley Lin Hurie Education Center, located on its third level.

The center contains faculty and staff offices, tutoring rooms, document storage areas, "smart classrooms" which will give Ozarks education students the chance to learn teaching skills in a modern, flexible environment. The first floor of the 36,000-square-foot facility houses the university's communication program, which now boasts some of the most modern and sophisticated television and multi-media equipment to be found in the entire region; the main entrance, lo