Fort Gibson is a historic military site located next to the present day city of Fort Gibson, in Muskogee County Oklahoma. It guarded the American frontier in Indian Territory from 1824 until 1888; when constructed, the fort lay farther west than any other military post in the United States. The fort succeeded in its peacekeeping mission for more than 50 years, as no massacres or battles occurred there; the fort site is now managed by the Oklahoma Historical Society as the Fort Gibson Historical Site. It is a National Historic Landmark. Colonel Matthew Arbuckle commanded the 7th Infantry Regiment from Arkansas, he moved some of his troops to establish Cantonment Gibson on 21 April 1824 on the Grand River just above its confluence with the Arkansas River. This was part of a series of forts which the United States established to protect its western border and the extensive Louisiana Purchase; the US Army named the fort for Commissary General of Subsistence. The post surgeon began taking meteorological observations in 1824, the fort provided the earliest known weather records in Oklahoma.
Colonel Arbuckle established Fort Towson in southern Indian Territory. In the early years, troops constructed a stockade, other facilities, roads, they settled strife between the indigenous Osage Nation, in the area since the seventeenth century, the earliest bands of western Cherokee settlers. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830; the Army designated the cantonment as Fort Gibson in 1832, reflecting its change from a temporary outpost to a semi-permanent garrison. Soldiers at Fort Gibson dealt with Indians removed from the eastern states to Indian Territory; these newcomers complained about hostility from the Osage Nation and other Plains Indian tribes indigenous to the region. Montfort Stokes, former governor of North Carolina, convened a commission at Fort Gibson to address these problems, troops at the fort supported its work; the American author Washington Irving accompanied troops exploring the southern Plains west of Fort Gibson in 1832. This excursion and another journey in 1833 both failed to find any significant nomadic Indian tribes, but Washington Irving wrote A Tour of the Prairies in 1835 from his experiences.
General Henry Leavenworth in 1834 led First Dragoon Expedition on a peace mission to the west established contact with the nomadic Indian tribes. The artist George Catlin made numerous studies. General Leavenworth died during the march, Colonel Henry Dodge replaced him in command; the expedition established contact and negotiated the first treaty with the Indian tribes. Debilitating fevers struck and killed many men on this expedition, posing more of a danger than the Native Americans. A West Point officer assigned to the fort said the men felt that expeditions to the Plains in the 1830s were "a veritable death sentence." During these years, the soldiers at Fort Gibson built roads, provisioned incoming American Indians removed from the eastern states, worked to maintain peace among antagonistic tribes and factions, including the indigenous Osage Nation and the Cherokee Nation, a people removed from the American South to the Indian Territory. During the Texas Revolution against the weak Mexican government, the Army sent most of the troops stationed at Fort Gibson to the Texas border region.
Their absence weakened the military power and pacification capacity at Fort Gibson, but the reduced garrison maintained stability in the region. At the height of Indian removal in the 1830s, the garrison at Fort Gibson ranked as the largest in the nation. Notable American soldiers stationed at Fort Gibson include Stephen W. Kearny, Robert E. Lee, Zachary Taylor; the Army stationed Jefferson Davis president of the Confederate States of America, more than 100 other West Point cadets at the fort. The Army assigned Nathan Boone, son of the famous explorer Daniel Boone, to the post. After leaving Tennessee, Sam Houston owned a trading post in the area. At a bitterly contentious meeting at Fort Gibson in 1836, the majority faction of the Muscogee reluctantly accepted the existing tribal government under the leadership of Chilly McIntosh, son of William McIntosh, his faction. Colonel Arbuckle tried to prevent intratribal strife within the Cherokee, but Chief John Ross and his followers refused to acknowledge the government that earlier "Old Settlers" had established in Indian Territory.
After losing the Seminole Wars against the United States Army in Florida, many of the Seminole arrived in Indian Territory "bitter and dispirited." Officials at Fort Gibson prevented disunity among them. When Colonel Arbuckle left Fort Gibson in 1841, he reported that despite the arrival of 40,000 eastern Native Americans of decidedly unfriendly disposition, "I have maintained peace on this frontier and at no period have the Whites on our border or the Red people of this frontier been in a more perfect state of quiet and Security than they enjoy now." The removed Native American nations lost their desire for American military protection. Among the traders who operated at Fort Gibson was John Allan Mathews, the husband of the half-Osage Sarah Williams, daughter of William S. Williams. In the 1850s, the Cherokee complained about brothels at Fort Gibson, they tried to prevent the sale of alcohol to their people. The Chero
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Great Hiwassee was an important Overhill Cherokee town from the late 17th through the early 19th centuries. It was located on the Hiwassee River in present-day Polk County, Tennessee, on the north bank of the river where modern U. S. Route 411 crosses the river; the site is now part of the Tennessee Forestry Division's East Tennessee Nursery. The town was linked to Great Tellico and Chota to the north, via the Great Indian Warpath, which followed Conasauga Creek into the mountains. Duncan, Barbara R. and Riggs, Brett H. Cherokee Heritage Trails Guidebook. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill. ISBN 0-8078-5457-3 Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokee"
National Register of Historic Places listings in Blaine County, Oklahoma
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Blaine County, Oklahoma. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Blaine County, United States; the locations of National Register properties for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 17 properties listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Oklahoma National Register of Historic Places listings in Oklahoma
Wichita is the largest city in the U. S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s and was incorporated as a city in 1870, it became a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to Kansas railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown."In the 1920s and'30s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita, including Beechcraft and Stearman Aircraft. The city became a U. S. aircraft production hub known as "The Air Capital of the World." Textron Aviation, Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita, the city remains a major center of the American aircraft industry. Wichita is home to McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, the largest airport in Kansas.
As an industrial hub, Wichita is a regional center of culture and trade. It hosts several universities, large museums, theaters and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena and Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center; the city's Old Cowtown Museum maintains historical artifacts and exhibits on the city's early history. Wichita State University is the third-largest post-secondary institution in the state. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation near the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers, the site of present-day Wichita, as early as 3000 B. C. In 1541, a Spanish expedition led by explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado found the area populated by the Quivira, or Wichita, people. Conflict with the Osage in the 1750s drove the Wichita further south. Prior to American settlement of the region, the site was located in the territory of the Kiowa. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it became part of Kansas Territory in 1854 and the state of Kansas in 1861.
The Wichita returned in 1864 due to the American Civil War and established a settlement on the banks of the Little Arkansas. During this period, trader Jesse Chisholm established a trading post at the site, one of several along a trail extending south to Texas which became known as the Chisholm Trail. After the war, the Wichita permanently relocated south to Indian Territory. In 1868, trader James R. Mead established another trading post at the site, surveyor Darius Munger built a house for use as a hotel, community center, post office. Business opportunities attracted area hunters and traders, a new settlement began to form; that summer and others organized the Wichita Town Company, naming the settlement after the Wichita tribe. In 1870, Munger and German immigrant William "Dutch Bill" Greiffenstein filed plats laying out the city's first streets. Wichita formally incorporated as a city on July 21, 1870. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads which led to markets in eastern U.
S. cities. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached the city in 1872; as a result, Wichita became a railhead for the cattle drives, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". Across the Arkansas River, the town of Delano became an entertainment destination for cattlemen thanks to its saloons and lack of law enforcement; the area had a reputation for violence until local lawmen, Wyatt Earp among them, began to assertively police the cowboys. By the end of the decade, the cattle trade had moved west to Dodge City. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. Rapid immigration resulted in a speculative land boom in the late 1880s, stimulating further expansion of the city. Fairmount College, which grew into Wichita State University, opened in 1886. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state after Kansas City and Topeka with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom, the city entered an economic recession, many of the original settlers went bankrupt. In 1914 and 1915, deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered in nearby Butler County.
This triggered another economic boom in Wichita as producers established refineries, fueling stations, headquarters in the city. By 1917, there were five operating refineries in Wichita with another seven built in the 1920s; the careers and fortunes of future oil moguls Archibald Derby, who founded Derby Oil, Fred C. Koch, who established what would become Koch Industries, both began in Wichita during this period; the money generated by the oil boom enabled local entrepreneurs to invest in the nascent airplane manufacturing industry. In 1917, Clyde Cessna built his Cessna Comet in the first aircraft built in the city. In 1920, two local oilmen invited Chicago aircraft builder Emil "Matty" Laird to manufacture his designs in Wichita, leading to the formation of the Swallow Airplane Company. Two early Swallow employees, Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech, went on to found two prominent Wichita-based companies, Stearman Aircraft in 1926 and Beechcraft in 1932, respectively. Cessna, started his own company in Wichita in 1927.
The city became such a center of the industry that the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce dubbed it the "Air Capital of the World" in 1929. Over the following decades and aircraft manufacturing continued to drive expansion of the city. In 1934, Stearman's Wichita facilities became part of Boeing which would become the city's largest employer. I
Bandera is the county seat of Bandera County, United States, in the Texas Hill Country, part of the Edwards Plateau. The population was 857 at the 2010 census, it is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bandera calls itself the "Cowboy Capital of the World"; the Frontier Times Museum, founded by J. Marvin Hunter and named for Hunter's Frontier Times magazine, is located in Bandera across from the First Baptist Church. Bandera has a large presence in biker culture. A visitor to Bandera can see a sign on Main Street, in front of the fire department, which states that Bandera was founded by Roman Catholic immigrants from Poland. St. Stanislaus Catholic Church was built by those immigrants, the church is one of the oldest in Texas. Many of the residents are descended from those original Polish immigrants. Several stories exist regarding the origin of the name "Bandera". One says that in the 19th century, a flag was placed at the top of a path that came to be called Bandera Pass, due to bandera being the Spanish and Polish word for flag.
Bandera was the starting point of the Great Western Cattle Trail, during the second half of the 19th century. Bandera is located in east-central Bandera County at 29°44′N 99°4′W, it is 47 miles northwest on the Medina River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which 0.008 square miles, or 0.55%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 957 people, 408 households, 239 families residing in the city; the population density was 820.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 488 housing units at an average density of 418.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.98% White, 0.21% African American, 0.52% Native American, 2.51% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.84% of the population. There were 408 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 25.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,089, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $27,604 versus $17,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,502. About 11.0% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 17.1% of those age 65 or over. Bandera is served by the Bandera Independent School District and home to the Bandera High School Bulldogs. Paris Hilton and Nicole Richie visited the town while taping their reality television program, The Simple Life 2.
They worked at the Bandera County Jail. The city is home of Arkey Blue's Silver Dollar, a famous Hill Country honky-tonk, was included in the 1975 horror film, Race with the Devil. On Sunday mornings, Bandera is a popular destination for motorcyclists from San Antonio, known as the Bandera Breakfast Run. Bandera is home to the Bandera Riverfest that takes place in June each year on the Medina River, offering tubing, kayaking and live music throughout the weekend. Willie Nelson has an instrumental called "Bandera" on his Red Headed Stranger record. "The Bandera Waltz" was written by Easy Adams in 1949, has been recorded by the Texas Top Hands, Slim Whitman, Bruce Robison. Bandera was once home to Texas music legend Robert Earl Keen. Bandera is the hometown of singer-songwriter brothers Bruce Charlie Robison; the rugged Hill Country State Natural Area is the location of the Bandera 100K trail run and the Cactus Rose 100 mile endurance run, two of the toughest ultramarathons in Texas. Both are hosted annually by veteran trail runner Joe Prusaitis.
The Bandera Downs horse racing facility lies just northeast of town. It is now closed; the Mayan Dude Ranch and the Dixie Dude Ranch are located in Bandera. Rudy Robbins, a Western actor, stuntman and songwriter, lived in Bandera for nearly five decades until his death in 2011. Strzelce Opolskie, Poland Tysmenytsia, Ukraine City of Bandera official website Bandera Chamber of Commerce Bandera Visitors Bureau Bandera from the Handbook of Texas Online Bandera, Texas at Curlie
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route. Trading posts were places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or the news from their home country in a time when not newspapers existed. European colonialism traces its roots to ancient Carthage. A trading settlement of Phoenician colonists, Carthage grew into a vast economic and political power throughout the Mediterranean, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic prowess. Numerous cities of importance once started their history as trading posts: Venice, New York City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Rotterdam, Kansas City, etc; the annexation of trading posts along ancient trade routes took place in the 16th and 17th century by European powers like the Dutch and English. It began with the capture of Ceuta by the Portuguese in 1415, they went on to establish further enclaves as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade.
Trading posts were very common in the early settlements of Canada and the United States for the trade of such things as fur. They were used in many camps across the United States as places to buy snacks and souvenirs; the Hudson's Bay Company set up trading posts around Hudson Bay during the fur trade. Goods were traded for beaver pelts amongst the Native Americans. In the United States in the early 19th century, trading posts used by Native Americans were licensed by the federal government and called "factories". Tribes were to concede substantial territory to the United States in order to access the "factories" as happened at Fort Clark in the Treaty of Fort Clark in which the Osage Nation conceded most of Missouri in order to access the trading post. In the context of Scouting, trading post refers to a camp store where snacks, craft materials and general merchandise are sold. A "trading post" can be referred to as the place where securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange are traded.
In recent years, many people have developed their own trading posts such as the Front Range Trading Post in Lobsterfest Springs, CO. Trades include handmade and hand grown/raised items, baked goods and more. Cash is not accepted, only bartering is allowed. Trading Post Outreach program has been established since 1995, where founder Linette Crelly began to host "trading swaps" where parents of children could gather to "swap or exchange" clothing, infant items, toys; this idea blossomed and by 2004 had grown to become a 4,000 sq. ft. community care center in Springville, New York. Fur trade Factory Trading Post