Jesse Woodson James was an American outlaw and train robber and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Raised in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri and his family maintained strong Southern sympathies, he and his brother Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as "bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the American Civil War. As followers of William Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, they were accused of participating in atrocities against Union soldiers and civilian abolitionists, including the Centralia Massacre in 1864. After the war, as members of various gangs of outlaws and Frank robbed banks and trains across the Midwest, gaining national fame and popular sympathy despite the brutality of their crimes; the James brothers were most active as members of their own gang from about 1866 until 1876, when as a result of their attempted robbery of a bank in Northfield, several members of the gang were captured or killed. They continued in crime for several years afterward, recruiting new members, but came under increasing pressure from law enforcement seeking to bring them to justice.
On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was shot and killed by Robert Ford, a new recruit to the gang who hoped to collect a reward on James' head and a promised amnesty for his previous crimes. A celebrity in life, James became a legendary figure of the Wild West after his death. Despite popular portrayals of James as an embodiment of Robin Hood, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor, there is no evidence that he and his gang shared any loot from their robberies with anyone outside their close kinship network. Scholars and historians have characterized James as one of many criminals inspired by the regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates following the Civil War, rather than as a manifestation of alleged economic justice or of frontier lawlessness. James continues to be one of the most iconic figures from the era, his life has been dramatized and memorialized numerous times. Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847, in Clay County, near the site of present-day Kearney; this area of Missouri was settled by people from the Upper South Kentucky and Tennessee, became known as Little Dixie for this reason.
James had two full siblings: his elder brother, Alexander Franklin "Frank" James, a younger sister, Susan Lavenia James. His father, Robert S. James, farmed commercial hemp in Kentucky and was a Baptist minister before coming to Missouri. After he married, he migrated to Bradford and helped found William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri, he held more than 100 acres of farmland. Robert traveled to California during the Gold Rush to minister to those searching for gold. After Robert's death, his widow Zerelda remarried twice, first to Benjamin Simms in 1852 and in 1855 to Dr. Reuben Samuel, who moved into the James family home. Jesse's mother and Samuel had four children together: Sarah Louisa, John Thomas, Fannie Quantrell, Archie Peyton Samuel. Zerelda and Samuel acquired a total of seven slaves, who served as farmhands in tobacco cultivation; the approach of the American Civil War loomed large in the James–Samuel household. Missouri was a border state, sharing characteristics of both North and South, but 75% of the population was from the South or other border states.
Clay County in particular was influenced by the Southern culture of its rural pioneer families. Farmers raised the same crops and livestock as in the areas, they purchased more according to their needs. The county counted more slaves than most other regions of the state. Aside from slavery, the culture of Little Dixie was Southern in other ways as well; this influenced how the population acted for a period of time after the war. After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, Clay County became the scene of great turmoil, as the question of whether slavery would be expanded into the neighboring Kansas Territory bred tension and hostility. Many people from Missouri migrated to Kansas to try to influence its future. Much of the dramatic build-up to the Civil War centered on the violence that erupted on the Kansas–Missouri border between pro- and anti-slavery militias. After a series of campaigns and battles between conventional armies in 1861, guerrilla warfare gripped Missouri, waged between secessionist "bushwhackers" and Union forces which consisted of local militias known as "jayhawkers".
A bitter conflict ensued. Confederate guerrillas murdered civilian Unionists, executed prisoners, scalped the dead; the Union presence enforced martial law with raids on homes, arrests of civilians, summary executions, banishment of Confederate sympathizers from the state. The James–Samuel family sided with the Confederates at the outbreak of war. Frank James joined a local company recruited for the secessionist Drew Lobbs Army, fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in August 1861, he returned home soon afterward. In 1863, he was identified as a member of a guerrilla squad. In May of that year, a Union militia company raided the James–Samuel farm looking for Frank's group, they tortured Reuben Samuel by hanging him from a tree. According to legend, they lashed young Jesse. Frank James eluded capture and was believed to have joined the guerrilla organization led by William C. Quantrill known as Quantrill's
Military capability is defined by the Australian Defence Force as "the ability to achieve a desired effect in a specific operating environment". It is defined by three interdependent factors: combat readiness, sustainable capability and force structure. In terms of technologies and equipment use, it represents assets, that exist to perform specific functions in relation to requirements of the statement about present or future military operations as derived from the national defence policy. A national Capabilities Development Plan seeks to provide a global understanding of capability needs, capability trends and potential capability shortfalls. Military capability is referred to in terms of low and high, although this refers to the type and sophistication of technology being used in combat operations, the severity of threat to security of the state. Maintaining military capability requires modernisation of military technology prevalent in Europe since the Middle Ages due to the arms race that commenced with the introduction of artillery and firearms into warfare.
In the European Union, capability development is approached by the Capability Directorate focusing on three primary areas: IAP: Information Acquisition & Processing - Knowledge GEM: Guidance, Energy & Materials - Engagement ESM: Environment, Systems & Modelling - ManoeuverExisting military capability in armed forces will be employed, only minor enhancements are possible in a short conflict. The context within which the military capabilities are used such as the geography of the area of operations, the culture and demography of the enemy, the preparedness of the opposing forces can not be altered at the start of the conflict, it is a major part of military science to find methods of defeating the enemy with available capabilities using existing and new concepts. Successful use of military capability by employing these concepts and methods is reflected in the effects on the enemy ability to continue to resist, subject to Rules of Engagement range of political and ethical factors. Military capability is tested in peacetime by using the scenario methodology to analyse performance as a war game.
It is The military's strategic role is to advise civilian leadership on the capability of military forces to execute specific missions. Future military capability is developed based on the analysis of experimentation and testing of existing capability performance, future capability decisions are made based on the armed forces being able to meet the challenges of a range of possible future scenarios; this is arguably a difficult task to accomplish due to the lack of predictability about future threats, changes in defence policy, the range of response options and their effects that a government may want as a matter of future national defence policy. The difference between expected and deliverable military capabilities is called the military capability gap, although the same term is sometimes used to compare capabilities of potential future belligerents; the vast majority of international relations studies and defense analyses assume that military power is a direct product of material resources measured in terms of the size of a state's defense budget, military forces, or gross domestic product.
A growing body of research, claims that certain non-material factors affect the ability of states to translate their resources into fighting power. Military budget Hinge, Australian Defence Preparedness: Principles and Prospects: Introducing Repertoire of Missions a Practical Path to Australian Defence Preparedness, Australian Defence Studies Centre, Canberra, 2000 FM 100-61 Armor and mechanized-based Opposing Force Operational Art, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 26 January 1998 Newell, Clayton R. Framework of Operational War, Routledge, 1991
Byrraju Ramalinga Raju is the former chairman and CEO of Satyam Computer Services, from 1987 until 7 January 2009. Raju stepped down following his admission to embezzlement from the company to the tune of Rs 71.36 billion, including Rs 50.40 billion of non-existent cash and bank balances. In 2015, he was convicted of corporate fraud. Ramalinga Raju, the eldest of four children, was born on 16 September 1954 to a farming family, he earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Andhra Loyola College at Vijayawada and subsequently earned an MBA from Ohio University in the United States. After returning to India in 1977, Raju married at the age of twenty two, he ventured into many businesses including Dhanunjaya Hotels, Cotton spinning mill named Sri Satyam Spinning funded by Andhra Pradesh Industrial Development Corporation with an investment of ₹9 crore. As the businesses failed Raju moved into real estate and started a construction company named Mytas Infra Limited. In 1987, Raju incubated Satyam Computer Services along with one of his brothers-in-law, DVS Raju at P&T colony in Secunderabad and 20 employees.
In 1991, Satyam won its first fortune 500 client – John Deere. Raju navigated Indian bureaucracy to obtain the required clearance to transmit data from India; the company went public in 1992. Raju was enrolled in the Owner/President Management program at Harvard Business School in the 1990s. In an interview with Deccan Chronicle way back in 1998, Raju was talking about Satyam's ambition of operating out of 50 countries with an employee count of more than 50,000. In 1999, Raju launched Satyam Infoway as Satyam's internet subsidiary, thereby becoming an early participant in the Indian internet service market. Sify was sold to Raju Vegesna. In September 1995, as Raju was building Satyam, Andhra Pradesh had a new Chief Minister, Chandra Babu Naidu, who wanted to bring in change and saw IT as a strategic industry to focus on and Raju became instrumental in shaping the state's information technology initiatives like'Mee Kosam'. Raju had unfettered access to the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh at a personal level.
Research into his life has exposed close links between business and politics. The favoritism and personal close association of Raju and Chandra Babu Naidu was criticized by Opposition and media during the visit of Bill Clinton to Hyderabad in March 2000 when Naidu asked only Raju to share dais with the U. S. President Bill Clinton, while eminent respected personalities and business man like Ratan Tata, Kumaramangalam Birla, Mukesh Ambani et.al, where seated in general audience. When Chandra Babu Naidu's government allocated nearly INR Rupees 3609 crores of state government eSeva and eGovernance IT projects to Satyam without inviting other companies like L&T, TCS, Wipro, HCL etc, for a public bid, the opposition leaders have criticized Raju as a benami shareholder of satyam with the real owner been Chandra Babu Naidu controlling satyam via shell companies in Singapore and Mauritius; the major philanthropic foundations he has founded and grown to large scale between 2000 and 2008 are: Byrraju Foundation: The Byyraju Foundation, a family run philanthropic organization, was started in July 2001 by him and his 2 brothers in the memory of his father Late Byrraju Satyanarayana Raju.
The Foundation adopted 200 villages in 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh namely East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur, Ranga Reddy and Visakhapatnam. The foundation built progressive self-reliant rural communities by adopting a holistic approach, it provided 40 different programs like healthcare, environment improvement, primary education, adult literacy and skills development. GramIT etc. which impacted over 3 million people. Some significant achievements of the foundation are: Over 7 million patient visits, 53,250 persons made literate, 89,000 toilets built in rural homes, Livelihood skill training and certification for over 26,000 unemployed rural youth, setting up 61 drinking water plants and 4 GramIT Centres which employed 500 rural youth. After the Satyam episode, the foundation has 117 adopted villages where it runs 110 health centres with the help of CARE foundation and operates 18 water plants; the local people across the region hail the development works undertaken by the Byrraju Foundation and are appreciative of the positive impact it had on them.
Emergency Management and Research Institute: Raju set up a state of the art and first of its kind 24X7 emergency service named Emergency Management and Research Institute in August 2005. It was modelled after the 911 service in America and had an aim of giving citizens in an emergency the benefit of getting timely attention and support; this was done by providing a single toll-free number accessible from land line. Forbs magazine has published an Article about the "Emergency Management System in US". Started with just 75 ambulances, EMRI has expanded to 10,697 ambulances covering 15 states and 2 union territories, serving over 26,710 emergencies per day, covering a population of 75 Crores. EMRI has more than 45,000 employees on its rolls. Till date 4.7 crore beneficiaries have availed these services, 4.38 lakh deliveries were assisted, 18.56 lakh lives were saved since inception. All the call-centre activities and support activities for emergency handling were automated. While state Governments were providing most of the funding, EMRI part funded and managed the services in PPP mode.
After the Satyam episode, Raju resigned from the Bo