Smith family (Latter Day Saints)
The Smith family is the name of an American family with many members prominent in religion and politics. The family's most famous member was Joseph Smith Jr. founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Many other members of the family took on leadership roles in various churches within the movement. Lived 1771–1840 Married: Lucy Mack in 1795 Father of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Don Carlos Smith brother of John Smith Lived 1775–1856 Married: Joseph Smith Sr. in 1795 Mother of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 1781–1854 brother of Joseph Smith Sr. father of George A. Smith Lived: 1798–1823 Oldest child of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Brother of Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 1800–1844 Second son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Brother of Alvin Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 1803–1876 Oldest daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Sister of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 1805–1844 Founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Latter Day Saint movement Mayor of Nauvoo, Illinois 1842–44 Candidate for President of the United States 1844 son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith Brother of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Father of Joseph Smith III Married: Emma Hale in 1827 Lived: 1808–1844 Brother of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 13 March 1811 – 13 November 1894 Illinois State Legislature 1842 Brother of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury, Don Carlos Smith Married: Caroline Amanda Grant, sister of Jedidiah Morgan Grant and Roxie Ann Grant Married: Roxie Ann Grant after her sister Caroline's death Lived: July 8, 1813 – February 1, 1900 Sister of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Don Carlos Smith Married: Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury Married: Joseph Younger Lived: 1816–1841 Brother of Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Katharine Smith Salisbury The following individuals were children of brothers of Joseph Smith Sr.
They were first-cousins to Alvin Smith, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. Samuel H. Smith, William Smith, Don Carlos Smith Lived: 1804–1888 son of Asael Smith Jr. and Elizabeth Schellenger Lived: 26 June 1817 – 1 September 1875 Utah Territorial Legislature 1851, 1867. S. Congress 1856 Son of John Smith Father of John Henry Smith Lived: 26 October 1830 – 11 October 1910 Utah Territorial Legislature 1859, 69, 78 Son of Silas Smith Sr. Brother of Jesse Nathaniel Smith Lived: 2 December 1834 – 5 June 1906 Mayor of Parowan, Utah 1859. Son of Joseph Smith Jr. and Emma Hale Brother of Julia Murdock Smith, Alexander Hale Smith and David Hyrum Smith Nephew of Hyrum Smith 1st cousin of Joseph F. Smith 1st Cousin once removed of Utah Judge Elias Smith Sr Married: Emmeline Griswold in 1854 and had five children Married: Bertha Madison in 1869, after the death of Emmeline Griswold, had nine children Married: Ada Clark in 1898, after the death of Bertha Madison, had three children Lived: 1838–1909 Son of Joseph Smith Jr. and Emma Hale Brother of Julia Murdock Smith, Joseph Smith III and David Hyrum Smith Lived: 1844–1904 Son of Joseph Smith Jr. and Emma Hale Brother of Julia Murdock Smith, Joseph Smith III and Alexander Hale Smith Lived: 1841–1928 daughter of Don Carlos Smith and Agnes Moulton Coolbrith Lived: 18 September 1848 – 13 October 1911 Utah Territorial Legislature 1882 Son of George A. Smith Half-brother of Clarissa Smith Williams Lived: 1859–1930 Daughter of George A. Smith and Susan West Half-sister of John Henry Smith Lived: 1872–1918 Son of Joseph F. Smith, grandson of Hyrum Smith Brother of Joseph Fielding Smith and David A. Smith Lived: 1876–1972 Son of Joseph F. Smith, grandson of Hyrum Smith Brother of Hyrum M. Smith and David A. Smith President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970–1972 Lived: 1879–1952 Son of Joseph F. Smith, grandson of Hyrum Smith Brother of Hyrum M. Smith and Joseph Fielding Smith Lived: 1874–1946 Son of Joseph Smith III, grandson of Joseph Smith Jr. Brother of Israel A. Smith and W. Wallace Smith Prophet–President of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 1915–1946 Live
Stake (Latter Day Saints)
A stake is an administrative unit composed of multiple congregations in certain denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. The name "stake" derives from the Book of Isaiah: "enlarge the place of thy tent. A stake is sometimes referred to as a stake of Zion; the first Latter Day Saint stake was organized at church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio on February 17, 1834, with Joseph Smith as its president. The second stake was organized in Clay County, Missouri that year on July 3, with David Whitmer as president; the Missouri stake was relocated to Far West, Missouri, in 1836, the Kirtland Stake dissolved in 1838. A stake was organized at Adam-ondi-Ahman in 1838 and abandoned that year due to the events of the Mormon War. In 1839, the church's central stake was established at Nauvoo, with William Marks as its president. Additional stakes were established in the area around Nauvoo in 1840. After the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, there was a schism in the Latter Day Saint movement. In 1846, all of the existing stakes, including the Nauvoo Stake, were discontinued as a result of the exodus of the majority of the Latter Day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement. After the death of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young assumed the leadership of the church and led its members to the Salt Lake Valley; the first stake established there was the Salt Lake Stake, established October 3, 1847, with John Smith as president. At the time of Young's death in 1877, there were 20 stakes in operation with a total of 250 wards. New stakes are created when the congregations in existing stakes or districts have grown sufficiently to support a stake. Districts may be elevated to stakes and are no longer presided over by a mission president. New stakes are frequently formed by dividing an existing stake. In addition to the size and number of local congregations, the creation of a new stake requires sufficient Melchizedek priesthood holders to fill the required leadership positions. At times the absence of available leadership constrains the creation of new stakes and the number of congregations within a stake can be much larger than normal.
The geographical area encompassed by a stake varies between countries and regions based on membership density. In Utah, a stake might encompass a few square miles in area. In contrast, a stake in another part of the world might require thousands of square miles to comprise a sufficient number of members. In December 2012, Jeffrey R. Holland organized the 3,000 th stake in Sierra Leone. At the end of 2015, there were 3,174 stakes in the LDS Church; as of December 2017, the LDS Church reported 3,341 stakes. The stake is an intermediate level in the organizational hierarchy of the LDS Church; the lowest level, consisting of a single congregation, is known as a branch. Stakes are organized from a group of contiguous branches. To be created, a stake must be composed of at least five wards. A stake may have up to a total of 16 congregations. Most stakes are composed of five to ten wards. In the United States and Canada, a minimum of 3,000 members is required to create a stake. For a stake to be created, there must be at least 99 active, full-tithe-paying Melchizedek priesthood holders living in the stake boundaries.
Stakes may be compared to dioceses in other Christian denominations. However, most Catholic dioceses are larger than LDS stakes. In terms of size, although less familiar, a comparable unit in hierarchical churches such as the Catholic Church might be a deanery, which comprises ten to twenty parishes. LDS Church stakes have fewer than 5,000 members, while Catholic dioceses average 250,000, but at times have over one million members; the presiding officer in a stake is known as the stake president. The president is assisted by two counselors and the three together form a stake presidency; the stake presidency is assisted in turn by a twelve-member body, called the stake high council. The members of the stake presidency and stake high council hold the priesthood office of high priest; the stake presidency and the high council handle the administrative and judicial business of the stake. The three members of the stake presidency are given the honorific title "President". In an area where there are insufficient congregations to form a stake, a district is formed to oversee the congregations.
The presiding officer in a district is called the district president. The district president may or may not have counselors, depending on the number of members in the district. A district council of up to twelve individuals may be formed. Duties which would be carried out by a stake presidency within a stake are shared between the district presidency and the mission presidency in a district. In addition to the presidency and high council, stake auxiliary leaders are called to oversee the operation of the various auxiliary organizations of the stake; the stake auxiliaries correspond to the ward-level auxiliaries, include the Stake Relief Society, the Stake Primary, the Stake Young Men and Young Women, the Stake Sunday School organizations. The stake-level auxiliary leadership consists of a presidency, a secretary, additional assistants or board members with specific responsibilities within the organization; the stake auxiliary leaders provide oversigh
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
The Territory of Utah was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state. The territory was organized by an Organic Act of Congress in 1850, on the same day that the State of California was admitted to the Union and the New Mexico Territory was added for the southern portion of the former Mexican land; the creation of the territory was part of the Compromise of 1850 that sought to preserve the balance of power between slave and free states. With the exception of a small area around the headwaters of the Colorado River in present-day Colorado, the United States had acquired all the land of the territory from Mexico with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848; the creation of the Utah Territory was the result of the petition sent by the Mormon pioneers who had settled in the valley of the Great Salt Lake starting in 1847.
The Mormons, under the leadership of Brigham Young, had petitioned Congress for entry into the Union as the State of Deseret, with its capital as Salt Lake City and with proposed borders that encompassed the entire Great Basin and the watershed of the Colorado River, including all or part of nine current U. S. states. The Mormon settlers had drafted a state constitution in 1849 and Deseret had become the de facto government in the Great Basin by the time of the creation of the Utah Territory. Following the organization of the territory, Young was inaugurated as its first governor on February 3, 1851. In the first session of the territorial legislature in September, the legislature adopted all the laws and ordinances enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Deseret. Mormon governance in the territory was regarded as controversial by much of the rest of the nation fed by continuing lurid newspaper depictions of the polygamy practiced by the settlers, which itself had been part of the cause of their flight from the United States to the Great Salt Lake basin after being forcibly removed from their settlements farther east.
Although the Mormons were the majority in the Great Salt Lake basin, the western area of the territory began to attract many non-Mormon settlers after the discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1858. In 1861 as a result of this, the Nevada Territory was created out of the western part of the territory. Non-Mormons entered the easternmost part of the territory during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, resulting in the discovery of gold at Breckenridge in Utah Territory in 1859. In 1861 a large portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory; the controversies stirred by the Mormon religion's dominance of the territory are regarded as the primary reason behind the long delay of 46 years between the organization of the territory and its admission to the Union in 1896 as the State of Utah, long after the admission of territories created after it. In contrast, the Nevada Territory, although more sparsely populated, was admitted to the Union in 1864, only three years after its formation as a consequence of the Union's desire to consolidate its hold on the silver mines in the territory.
Colorado was admitted in 1876. Historic regions of the United States History of Utah Territorial evolution of the United States Unpopular Sovereignty: Mormons and the Federal Management of Early Utah Territory by Brent M. Rogers, 2017, University of Nebraska Press Utah in 1851, with the text of the 1850 Act of Congress to Establish the Territory of Utah, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah's Role in the Transcontinental Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah State History Utah Office of Tourism Official Website
Pittsfield is a city in and the county seat of Pike County, United States. The population was 4,576 at the 2010 census, an increase from 4,211 in 2000. Pittsfield was settled by settlers from New England; these settlers were of old Yankee stock, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had founded and settled New England in the 1600s. A group of settlers from Pittsfield, Massachusetts headed west and settled this region of Illinois in 1820; when they arrived the area was a virgin wilderness, they constructed farms and government buildings. Pittsfield was home to John Hay, Lincoln's personal secretary, ambassador to England under President William McKinley Secretary of State for Theodore Roosevelt and creator of the Open Door Policy; as county seat, the town was one of the various places in central Illinois where Abraham Lincoln practiced law as part of the circuit court, working on 34 cases between 1839 and 1852. One local newspaper, now known as the Pike Press, was owned by another of Lincoln's future secretaries, John Nicolay, featured an editorial containing one of the first known suggestions of Lincoln as the Republican nominee for the presidency.
Pittsfield is the self-proclaimed "Pork Capital" of the Midwest, owing to the long history of pork production in the region, which fed into the large meat-packing industry of Chicago. Though agriculture in the region is no longer so dependent on pork, the town still hosts a yearly "Pig Days" festival; the local high school football team, the Saukees, still holds the record for longest winning streak in the state. Starting with their season opening 6-0 win over North Greene in 1966, the Pittsfield Saukees reeled off 64 consecutive wins, which included 15 straight shutouts between 1969 and 1971; the streak extended all the way through to the second game of the 1973 season, when Pittsfield dropped a 12-0 decision to Winchester, Illinois. Pittsfield is the setting for Jamie Gilson's book. Singer/songwriter Sufjan Stevens wrote a song about Pittsfield on his album The Avalanche; the basketball Saukees won the Illinois State basketball title in 1991 under Coach David T. Bennett, installed into the Illinois Basketball Hall of Fame.
There are many historic landmarks within the "city" limits, the most notable of, the Pike County Courthouse. The courthouse was designed by Architect Henry Elliott of Jacksonville. Contractors were Schultz of Danville, Illinois; the courthouse was to be completed within 400 days after the signing of the contract at a cost of $45,000. Groundbreaking for the courthouse was on May 11, 1894; the cornerstone was laid on July 12, 1894 and the dedication of the new courthouse was on November 16, 1895. Robert Franklin, a master mason from Nebo, Illinois designed and supervised the keystone architecture of the courthouse, it was the fifth in Pike County. The building is of octagon shape 96 x 96 feet of Cleveland sandstone veneering, backed by heavy walls of brick. Four entrances, all alike, face the four cardinal points – north, south and west; the entrances are large, double doors of oak and glass and are overhung with beautiful stone porches. The park in which the building stands is 340 feet square. There are four sidewalks leading up to the doors of the courthouse and a sidewalk circles the building.
From the center of the building rise the graceful outlines of the tower and dome to an imposing height of 136 feet. The corridors, which cross under the dome are ten feet in width, with marbled tiled floors and frescoed ceilings. Standing on the lower floor in the center of the corridor under the dome and looking upward, one may observe a beautiful concave of colored lights which spans the vault of the rotunda at a point near the top of the main building; the dome roof is of red slate. Total cost of building and fixtures was $68,520; the Pike County Illinois Courthouse is recognized as one of the most beautiful courthouses in the state and the midwest. The Pike County Illinois courthouse was the fifth courthouse designed by Mr Elliott who designed the Greene County Courthouse in Carrollton, Illinois; the DeWitt County Courthouse was demolished in 1987. The East Ward School, built between 1861 and 1866, was designed by Architect John M. Van Osdel, who designed the Palmer House in Chicago, as well as the Governor's Mansion in Springfield.
John Houston of Griggsville built the school for the contract price of $35,000, financed by bonding. The building is brick burned in Pittsfield. Both the grade school and high school were located in this building, its large clock and bell were mounted in the tower. The school closed in 1955 and was unoccupied until 1978 when it was renovated and became the home of the Pike County Historical Society and the Pike County Historic Museum. There are nine homes still in existence in Pittsfield that are connected to Abraham Lincoln, including the Shastid House, where Lincoln stayed while practicing cases in the county. Pittsfield is on U. S. Route 54 between the Mississippi River eight miles to the southwest and the Illinois River eight miles to the east. Bay Creek flows past just north and east of the "city". According to the 2010 census, Pittsfield has a total area of 4.968 square miles, of which 4.58 square miles is land and 0.388 square miles (1.00 km
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t