Trinity College (Connecticut)
Trinity College is a private liberal arts college in Hartford, Connecticut. Founded as Washington College in 1823 as an alternative to Yale, it is the second-oldest college in the state of Connecticut. Coeducational since 1969, the college enrolls 2,300 students. Trinity offers 38 majors and 26 minors, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 9:1. 73.1 percent of classes at the college contain fewer than 20 students. The college is a member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference, informally referred to as the Little Ivies. U. S. News & World Report has ranked Trinity tied for 46th in its 2019 ranking of best national liberal arts colleges in the United States. Early Connecticut was dominated by Congregationalists. Episcopalians, who had long sought to set up their own college, were provided an opportunity when the Connecticut Constitution disestablished the Congregationalist Church in 1818, it was taken by Bishop Thomas Brownell, who opened Washington College in 1824 to nine students and the vigorous protest of Yale alumni.
A 14-acre site was chosen, at the time about a half-mile from the city of Hartford. Over time Bushnell Park was laid out to the east, creating a beautiful space; the college was renamed Trinity College in 1845. The site next to Bushnell Park, where Trinity College stood, was deemed to be an ideal location to build a state house. So the trustees were persuaded to sell the entire campus to the city in 1872 for $600,000; the trustees moved the college to an 80-acre site on a ridge on the western edge of Hartford. Then-president Abner Jackson hired an English architect to draw up plans for an entire campus. Construction of the new campus was begun under the presidency of Thomas Ruggles Pynchon. In 1872, Trinity College was persuaded by the state to move from its downtown "College Hill" location to its current 100-acre campus a mile southwest. Although the college sold its land overlooking the Park River and Bushnell Park in 1872, it did not complete its move to its Gallows Hill campus until 1878; the original plans for the Gallows Hill site were drawn by the noted Victorian architect William Burges but were too ambitious and too expensive to be realized.
Only one section of the proposed campus plan — the Long Walk— was completed. By 1889 the library contained 30,000 volumes, the school boasted over 900 graduates. Enrollment reached 122 in 1892. President Remsen Ogilby enlarged the campus, more than doubled the endowment; the faculty grew from 25 to 62, the student body from 167 to 530 men. Under President Keith Funston, returning veterans expanded the enrollment to 900. Trinity ended the nineteenth century as an institution serving the Hartford area; the early years of the century were growth years for Trinity. Enrollment was increased to 500 men. In 1932, under President Remsen Ogilby, the Gothic chapel was completed and became the symbol of Trinity College, it replaced the Seabury chapel. The founding of the University of Hartford in 1957 allowed Trinity to focus on becoming a regional institution rather than a local one. In 1962, Connecticut Public Television began its first broadcasts in the Trinity College Public Library, in Boardman Hall, a science building on campus.
In 1968, the trustees voted to withdraw from the Association of Episcopal Colleges. In 1968, the trustees of Trinity College voted to make a commitment to enroll more minority students, providing financial aid as needed; this decision was preceded by a siege of the administrative offices in the Downes and Williams Memorial buildings during which Trinity students would not allow the president or trustees to leave until they agreed to the resolution. Less than one year Trinity College became coeducational and admitted its first female students, as transfers from Vassar College and Smith College. Today, women make up about 50 percent of Trinity's student body. Trinity offers three degrees: the B. A. B. S. and M. A.. The college offers 41 majors, as well as the options of creating a self-designed major or adding an interdisciplinary or departmental minor. Trinity is part of a small group of liberal arts schools. Trinity has a student-to-faculty ratio of 9:1. Study away is a part of the Trinity experience and is a component of Trinity’s urban/global focus.
70 percent of Trinity undergraduates study abroad or in another U. S. city before graduating. In addition to the Trinity College, Rome Campus, Trinity has programs in Paris, Vienna and Tobago, Cape Town, Buenos Aires that are staffed by Trinity professors. In addition, there are many other study abroad programs that Trinity students are approved to take part in. In 2012, Trinity established a program in Shanghai through a partnership with Fudan University. Trinity College, Rome Campus, is a study abroad campus of Trinity College, it was established in 1970 and is in a residential area of Rome on the Aventine Hill close to the Basilica of Santa Sabina within the precincts of a convent run by an order of nuns. The program consists of 50–70 students from different American colleges and universities. Students can either attend TCRC for their summer program; each semester, there is a range of courses from economics to art history. Most courses make use of the city of Rome by conducting numerous walking trips.
Every student enrolled in the program is required to take the appropriate level of study of Italian language. The prog
Trump administration family separation policy
The Trump administration family separation policy is an aspect of U. S. President Donald Trump's immigration policy; the policy was presented to the public as a "zero tolerance" approach intended to deter illegal immigration and to encourage tougher legislation. It was adopted across the whole U. S.–Mexico border from April 2018 until June 2018, however investigations found that the practice of family separations had begun a year previous to the public announcement. Under the policy, federal authorities separated children from parents or guardians with whom they had entered the US; the adults were prosecuted and held in federal jails, the children placed under the supervision of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. By early June 2018, it emerged that the policy did not include measures to reunite the families that it had separated. Following national and international criticism, on June 20, 2018, President Trump signed an executive order ending family separations at the border, although in March 2019, a government report showed that since that time 245 children had been removed from their families, in some cases without clear documentation undertaken to track them in order to reunite them with their parents.
On June 26, 2018, U. S. District Judge Dana Sabraw of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of California issued a nationwide preliminary injunction against the family-separation policy and ordered that all children be reunited with their parents within 30 days. On July 26, the Trump administration said that 1,442 children had been reunited with their parents while 711 remained in government shelters. In January 2019, the administration acknowledged that thousands more children may have been separated from their families than the figure of 2,737 they had reported, with officials uncertain of the exact number. Government officials said there are no plans to attempt to reunite these children because "it would destabilize the permanency of their existing home environment, could be traumatic to the children.” President George W. Bush began the trend of a "zero tolerance" approach in 2005 with Operation Streamline, but during his administration, exceptions were made for adults traveling with minors.
U. S. President Barack Obama made changes to immigration policy, releasing parents and focusing on deportation of immigrants who committed crimes in the U. S. Attempting to cope with the 2014 American immigration crisis, a surge of unaccompanied children and women fleeing violence in Central America, while complying with the 1997 Flores v. Reno Settlement Agreement consent decree by keeping families together, under Obama the Department of Homeland Security built family detention centers in Pennsylvania, New Mexico, Texas. Unaccompanied children were kept in holding cells, separated by age and gender while appropriate placements were found. In 2015 Obama introduced the Family Case Management Program which, according to the fact sheet about the program prioritized "families with certain vulnerabilities, including pregnant or nursing family member. In 2016, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in Flores v. Lynch that detained immigrant children should be released as as possible, but that parents were not required to be freed.
The Obama administration complied by releasing women and children after detaining them together for 21 days. Presidential candidate Donald Trump said ending "catch and release" was the second of his two priorities for immigration reform, after walling off Mexico; when the administration began separating families, pro-Trump pundits argued that the administration was implementing the same policy as the Obama administration. According to PolitiFact, the assertion that Trump was implementing the same policy as Obama is "false", noting "Obama's immigration policy sought to avoid breaking up families. While some children were separated from their parents under Obama, this was rare and families were reunited if that meant the release of a parent from detention." The Obama Administration decided against it. In January 2017, the American Immigration Council and five other advocacy organizations filed a complaint with the Department of Homeland Security's Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties protesting the "systemic denial of entry to asylum seekers".
It is not legal for the US to deny anyone the right to seek asylum. Nonetheless, according to advocacy lawyers, asylum seekers presenting at border crossings were denied for a variety of reasons, including "the daily quota has been reached," that they needed to present a visa, or that they needed to schedule an appointment through Mexican authorities, none of which are accurate. One nonprofit organization spokesperson commented, "We've arrived at a place where applying for asylum is not available to most people."The Department of Homeland Security's Office of Inspector General concluded that this practice, which it calls "metering" legal entry "leads some aliens who would otherwise seek legal entry into the United States to cross the border illegally."The administration cancelled the Central American Minors Program which had given the hope to parents that they would be able to bring their child into the U. S. – ending the parole portion of the program in August 2017 and no longer accepting new applications for the refugee portion of the program as of November 9, 2017.
The CAM program had allowed some parents to bring their children to the U. S. s
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.
Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people communicate. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Observers have noted a range of negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, can be an effective communication tool for corporations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments.
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country. The PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s; when the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997.
According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Open Diary was launched in October 1998. 360° in March 2005.
The nunchaku is a traditional Okinawan martial arts weapon consisting of two sticks connected at one end by a short chain or rope. The two sections of the weapon are made out of wood, while the link is a cord or a metal chain; the nunchaku is most used in martial arts such as Okinawan kobudō and karate, is used as a training weapon, since it allows the development of quicker hand movements and improves posture. Modern-day nunchaku can be made from metal, plastic or fiberglass. Toy and replica versions made of polystyrene foam or plastic are available. Possession of this weapon is illegal in some countries, except for use in professional martial art schools; the exact origin of nunchaku is unclear. Adapted by Okinawan farmers from a non-weapon implement for threshing rice, it was not a popular weapon because it was ineffective against the most used weapons of that time such as samurai swords, few historical techniques for its use still survive. In modern times, nunchaku were popularized by actor and martial artist Bruce Lee and his martial arts student Dan Inosanto, who introduced this weapon to the actor.
Further exploration of use of nunchaku and of other kobudo discipline was afforded to Bruce Lee with and by Tadashi Yamashita, who worked with Bruce Lee on and in the movie "Enter the Dragon". Another popular association in modern times is the fictional character Michelangelo of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise. Organizations including the North American Nunchaku Association, World Amateur Nunchaku Organization, Fédération Internationale de Nunchaku de Combat et Artistique, World Nunchaku Association, International Techdo Nunchaku Association teach the use of nunchaku as a contact sport; the origin of the word nunchaku is not known. One theory indicates it was derived from pronunciation of the Chinese characters 双截棍 in a Southern Fujian dialect of Chinese language. Another derives from the definition of "nun" as "twin". Another name for this weapon is "nûchiku". In the English language, nunchaku are referred to as "nunchuks"; the origin of the nunchaku is unclear, although one popular belief is that nunchaku was a short South-East Asian flail used to thresh rice or soybeans.
This gave rise to the theory that it was developed by an Okinawan horse bit, or that it was adapted from a wooden clapper called hyoshiki carried by the village night watch, made of two blocks of wood joined by a cord. The night watch would hit the blocks of wood together to attract people's attention warn them about fires and other dangers; some propose that the association of nunchaku and other Okinawan weapons with rebellious peasants is most a romantic exaggeration. Martial arts in Okinawa were practiced by aristocracy and "serving nobles", but were prohibited among commoners. According to Chinese folklore, nunchaku are a variation of the two section staff. Ana: the hole on the kontoh of each handle for the himo to pass through—only nunchaku that are connected by himo have an ana. Himo: the rope which connects the two handles of some nunchaku. Kusari: the chain which connects the two handles of some nunchaku. Kontoh: the top of each handle. Jukon-bu: the upper area of the handle. Chukon-bu: the center part of the handle.
Kikon-bu: the lower part of the handle. Kontei: the bottom of the handle. Nunchaku consist of two sections of wood connected by a cord or chain, though variants may include additional sections of wood and chain. In China, the striking stick is called "dragon stick", while the handle is called "yang stick". Chinese nunchaku tend to be rounded; the ideal length of each piece should be long enough to protect the forearm when held in a high grip near the top of the shaft. Both ends are of equal length, although asymmetrical nunchaku exist; the ideal length of the connecting rope or chain is just long enough to allow the user to lay it over his or her palm, with the sticks hanging comfortably and perpendicular to the ground. The weapon should be properly balanced in terms of weight. Cheaper or gimmicky nunchaku are not properly balanced, which prevents the performer from performing the more advanced and flashier "low-grip" moves, such as overhand twirls; the weight should be balanced towards the outer edges of the sticks for maximum ease and control of the swing arcs.
Traditional nunchaku are made from a flexible hardwood such as oak, loquat or pasania. The wood would be submerged in mud for several years, where lack of oxygen and optimal acidity would prevent rotting and cause the wood to harden; the rope is made from horsehair. The wood is finely sanded and rubbed with an oil or stain for preservation. Today, such nunchaku are varnished or painted for display purposes; this practice tends to reduce the grip and make the weapon harder to handle, is therefore not advised for combat. Modern nunchaku can be made from any suitable material, such as wood, metal, or any plastic, fiberglass or other hard substance. Toy and practice nunchaku are covered with foam to prevent injury to the self or others, it is not uncommon to see modern nunchaku made from light metals such as aluminum. Modern equivalents of the rope are nylon metal chains on ball bearing joints. S
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, Tribeca to its west. With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Chinatown is home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Manhattan's Chinatown is one of the oldest Chinese ethnic enclaves; the Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, comprising an estimated 893,697 uniracial individuals as of 2017. Chinatown was populated by Cantonese speakers. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, large numbers of Fuzhounese-speaking immigrants arrived and formed a sub-neighborhood annexed to the eastern portion of Chinatown, which has become known as Little Fuzhou; as many Fuzhounese and Cantonese speakers now speak Mandarin—the official language in China and Taiwan—in addition to their native languages, this has made it more important for Chinatown residents to learn and speak Mandarin.
Although now overtaken in size by the growing Flushing Chinatown, located in the nearby borough of Queens – within New York City – the Manhattan Chinatown remains a dominant cultural force for the Chinese diaspora, as home to the Museum of Chinese in America and as the headquarters of numerous publications based both in the U. S. and China that are geared to overseas Chinese. Chinatown is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10013 and 10002, it is patrolled by the 5th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Although a Business Improvement District has been identified for support, Chinatown has no defined borders, but they have been considered to be approximated by the following streets: Hester Street or Grand Street to the north, bordering or overlapping Little Italy Worth Street to the southwest, bordering Civic Center East Broadway to the southeast, bordering Two Bridges Essex Street to the east, bordering the Lower East Side Lafayette Street to the west, bordering Tribeca The Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, enumerating an estimated 779,269 individuals as of 2013.
In addition, Manhattan's Little Fuzhou, an enclave populated by more recent Chinese immigrants from the Fujian Province of China, is technically considered a part of Manhattan's Chinatown, albeit now developing a separate identity of its own. A new and growing Chinese community is now forming in East Harlem, Uptown Manhattan, nearly tripling in population between the years 2000 and 2010, according to U. S. Census figures; this neighborhood has been described as the precursor to a new satellite Chinatown within Manhattan itself, which upon acknowledged formation would represent the second Chinese neighborhood in Manhattan, the tenth large Chinese settlement in New York City, the twelfth within the overall New York City metropolitan region. As the city proper with the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia by a wide margin, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017, as the primary destination for new Chinese immigrants, New York City is subdivided into official municipal boroughs, which themselves are home to significant Chinese populations, with Brooklyn and Queens, adjacently located on Long Island, leading the fastest growth.
After the City of New York itself, the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn encompass the largest Chinese populations of all municipalities in the United States. Ah Ken is claimed to have arrived in the area during the 1850s; as a Cantonese businessman, Ah Ken founded a successful cigar store on Park Row. He first arrived around 1858 in New York City, where he was "probably one of those Chinese mentioned in gossip of the sixties as peddling'awful' cigars at three cents apiece from little stands along the City Hall park fence – offering a paper spill and a tiny oil lamp as a lighter", according to author Alvin Harlow in Old Bowery Days: The Chronicles of a Famous Street. Immigrants would find work as "cigar men" or carrying billboards, Ah Ken's particular success encouraged cigar makers William Longford, John Occoo, John Ava to ply their trade in Chinatown forming a monopoly on the cigar trade, it has been speculated that it may have been Ah Ken who kept a small boarding house on lower Mott Street and rented out bunks to the first Chinese immigrants to arrive in Chinatown.
It was with the profits he earned as a landlord, earning an average of $100 per month, that he was able to open his Park Row smoke shop around which modern-day Chinatown would grow. Faced with increasing racial discrimination and new laws that prevented participation in many occupations on the U. S. West Coast, some Chinese immigrants moved to the East Coast cities in search of employment. Early businesses in these cities included hand restaurants. Chinatown started on Mott, Park and Doyers Streets, east of the notorious Five Points district. By 1870, there was a Chinese population of 200. By the time the Ch
John David Podesta Jr. is an American political consultant who served as White House Chief of Staff to President Bill Clinton from October 20, 1998 until January 20, 2001 and as Counselor to President Barack Obama from January 1, 2014 until February 13, 2015. Before that he served as the White House Staff Secretary and White House Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations for the Clinton Administration between January 20, 1993 until October 20, 1998, he is the former president, now Chair and Counselor, of the Center for American Progress, a think tank in Washington, D. C. as well as a Visiting Professor of Law at the Georgetown University Law Center and was chairman of the 2016 Hillary Clinton presidential campaign. Additionally, he was a co-chairman of the Obama-Biden Transition Project. Podesta spent most of his early years in Chicago, where he was born, growing up in the neighborhood of Jefferson Park on the city's Northwest Side, his mother, was Greek-American, his father, John David Podesta, Sr. was Italian-American.
Tony Podesta, a lobbyist, is his brother. Podesta's father encouraged his children to attend college. In 1967, Podesta graduated from Lane Tech High School in Chicago. Podesta met Bill Clinton in 1970 when they worked in Connecticut for Joseph Duffey, a candidate for the United States Senate. In 1971, he graduated from Knox College, Illinois, where he had served as a volunteer for the presidential candidacy of Eugene McCarthy, he received his J. D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1976. Podesta worked as a trial attorney for the Department of Justice's Honors Program in the Land and Natural Resources Division, as a Special Assistant to the Director of ACTION, the Federal volunteer agency, his political career began in 1972, when he worked for George McGovern's unsuccessful presidential campaign. Podesta held positions on Capitol Hill, including Counselor to Democratic Leader Senator Thomas Daschle. In 1988, he and his brother Tony co-founded Podesta Associates, Inc. a Washington, D. C. "government relations and public affairs" lobbying firm.
Now known as the Podesta Group, the firm "has close ties to the Democratic Party and the Obama administration has been retained by some of the biggest corporations in the country, including Wal-Mart, BP and Lockheed Martin." Podesta served as both an Assistant as Deputy Chief of Staff. Earlier, from January 1993 to 1995, he was Assistant to the President, Staff Secretary and a senior policy adviser on government information, telecommunications security and regulatory policy. Podesta was the first White House staffer to get the news of the Lewinsky scandal and was put in charge of managing the crisis. In 1998 he became President Clinton's Chief of Staff in the second Clinton Administration and executed the position until the end of Clinton's time in office in January 2001. Podesta encouraged Executive Order 12958 which led to efforts to declassify millions of pages from the U. S. diplomatic and national security history. In 2003, Podesta founded the Center for American Progress, a liberal think tank in Washington, D.
C. and served as its president and CEO until he stepped down in 2011. Podesta remained chairman of the nonexecutive board of directors for a time, remains on the board today, although not as chairman. Podesta has taught at his alma mater, Georgetown University Law Center, many times over the years, teaching classes on congressional investigations and technology, legislation and public-interest law. On the Georgetown faculty, Podesta's title is Distinguished Visitor from Practice. From 2002–14, Podesta served as a member of the Constitution Project's bipartisan Liberty and Security Committee. In 2008, he authored The Power of Progress: How America's Progressives Can Save Our Economy, Our Climate, Our Country. In 2009, he accompanied former President Bill Clinton to North Korea for negotiations securing the release of two American journalists imprisoned on espionage charges, he can be seen in numerous circulated photographs of Clinton meeting with Kim Jong-il. Podesta opposes the excessive use of classification, in a 2004 speech at Princeton University condemned what he called the U.
S.'s "excessive government secrecy" and "bloated secrecy bureaucracy". Podesta has called Executive Order 12958, "which set tough standards for classifying documents and led to the unprecedented effort to declassify millions of pages from our nation's diplomatic and national security history," as "perhaps the biggest accomplishment of the Clinton administration." More than 800 million pages of intelligence documents were declassified as part of the program. Podesta is described as "a longtime advocate for government disclosure of UFO files." Podesta has supported petitions by some who believe UFOs are alien spacecraft to the government to release files related to the subject. At a 2002 news conference organized by Coalition for Freedom of Information Podesta stated that, "It is time for the government to declassify records that are more than 25 years old and to provide scientists with data that will assist in determining the real nature of this phenomenon."Podesta wrote the forward for a book by Leslie Kean titled "UFOs- Generals and Government Officials Go On The Record".
The book details numerous conta