Jessica Michelle Chastain is an American actress and producer. Known for her roles in films with feminist themes, her accolades include a Golden Globe Award and two Academy Award nominations. Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2012. Born and raised in Sacramento, Chastain developed an interest in acting from a young age. In 1998, she made her professional stage debut as Shakespeare's Juliet. After studying acting at the Juilliard School, she was signed to a talent holding deal with the television producer John Wells, she was a recurring guest star in several television series, including Order: Trial by Jury. She took on roles in the stage productions of Anton Chekhov's play The Cherry Orchard in 2004 and Oscar Wilde's tragedy Salome in 2006. Chastain made her film debut in the drama Jolene, gained wide recognition in 2011 for starring roles in half a dozen films, including the dramas Take Shelter and The Tree of Life, her performance as an aspiring socialite in The Help earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
In 2012, she won a Golden Globe Award and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for playing a CIA analyst in the thriller Zero Dark Thirty. Chastain made her Broadway debut in a revival of The Heiress in the same year, her highest-grossing releases came with the science fiction films Interstellar and The Martian, the horror film It Chapter Two, she continued to receive critical acclaim for her performances in the dramas A Most Violent Year, Miss Sloane, Molly's Game. Chastain is the founder of the production company Freckle Films, created to promote diversity in film, she is vocal about mental health issues, as well as gender and racial equality. She is married to fashion executive Gian Luca Passi de Preposulo, with. Jessica Michelle Chastain was born on March 24, 1977, in Sacramento, California, to Jerri Renee Hastey and rock musician Michael Monasterio, her parents were both teenagers. Chastain is reluctant to publicly discuss her family background, she has two brothers.
Her sister Juliet committed suicide in 2003 following years of drug addiction. Chastain was raised in Sacramento by Michael Hastey, a fire-fighter, she has said. She shares a close bond with her maternal grandmother, whom she credits as someone who "always believed in me". Chastain first developed an interest in acting at the age of seven, after her grandmother took her to a production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, she would put on amateur shows with other children, considered herself to be their artistic director. As a student at the El Camino Fundamental High School in Sacramento, Chastain struggled academically, she was a loner and considered herself a misfit in school finding an outlet in the performing arts. She has described how she used to miss school to read Shakespeare, whose plays she became enamored with after attending the Oregon Shakespeare Festival with her classmates. With too many absences during her senior year in school, Chastain did not qualify for graduation, but obtained an adult diploma.
She attended Sacramento City College from 1996 to 1997, during which she was a member of the institution's debate team. Speaking about her early childhood, Chastain has said: I with a single mother who worked hard to put food on our table. We did not have money. There were many nights, it was a difficult upbringing. Things weren't easy for me growing up. In 1998, Chastain finished her education at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and made her professional stage debut as Juliet in a production of Romeo and Juliet staged by TheatreWorks, a company in the San Francisco Bay Area; the production led her to audition for the Juilliard School in New York City, where she was soon accepted and granted a scholarship funded by the actor Robin Williams. In her first year at the school, Chastain suffered from anxiety and was worried about being dropped from the program, spending most of her time reading and watching movies, she remarked that her participation in a successful production of The Seagull during her second year helped build her confidence.
She graduated from the school with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 2003. Shortly before graduating from Juilliard, Chastain attended an event for final-year students in Los Angeles, where she was signed to a talent holding deal by the television producer John Wells, she relocated to Los Angeles, started auditioning for jobs. She found the process difficult, which she believed was due to other people finding her difficult to categorize as a redhead with an unconventional look. In her television debut, The WB network's 2004 pilot remake of the 1960s gothic soap opera Dark Shadows, she was cast as Carolyn Stoddard; the pilot was directed by P. J. Hogan; that year, she appeared as a guest performer on the medical drama series ER playing a woman she described as "psychotic", which led to her getting more unusual parts such as accident victims or the mentally ill. She went on to appear in such roles in a few other television series from 2004 to 2007, including Veronica Mars, Close to Home and Law & Order: Trial by Jury.
The Crested is a breed of domestic duck. It was brought to Europe from the East Indies by Dutch ships.:413 It has its appearance because it is heterozygous for a genetic mutation causing a deformity of the skull. The Crested originates in the East Indies, with subsequent development in Holland.:413 Crested ducks are seen in seventeenth-century paintings such as those of Melchior d'Hondecoeter and Jan Steen. Paintings as old as 2000 years have depicted images of a bird, resembling a duck with an assortment of feathers on top of its skull. In the United States the breed was described by D. J. Browne in 1853.:413:197 The white Crested was added to the American Standard of Perfection in 1874. The Crested was recognised in the United Kingdom in 1910.:413 In the UK, as in several other European countries, any colour is permitted. The crest is well centered on top of the skull, they have long arched necks, medium length body, lots of depth and fullness through the breast. A bantam version of the breed, the Crested Miniature, was bred by John Hall and Roy Sutcliffe in the United Kingdom in the late twentieth century.
Though Cresteds can be good layers and strong roasting qualities, the main interest and demand for the breed is as pets and decorations. They are not a popular show breed due to challenges associated with the crest; when two ducks heterozygous for the crested allele breed, their eggs are in the usual 1:2:1 genotypic ratio, but live offspring are in a 1:2 ratio as explained below: 25% are homozygous for the normal allele of this gene and so have no crest and if bred together their offspring will never have a crest. 50 % are heterozygous for this hatch with a crest of varying sizes. 25% are homozygous for the crested allele of this gene and die from exposed brain without hatching, as it is lethal in homozygous form. The offspring of a duck with a crest and a duck with no crest are expected to be 50% with and 50% without a crest
Chemogenetics is the process by which macromolecules can be engineered to interact with unrecognized small molecules. Chemogenetics as a term was coined to describe the observed effects of mutations on chalcone isomerase activity on substrate specificities in the flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus; this method is similar to optogenetics however, it uses chemically engineered molecules and ligands instead of light and light-sensitive channels known as Opsins. In recent research projects, chemogenetics has been used to understand the relationship between brain activity and behavior. Prior to chemogenetics, researchers used methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation to study the relationship between neuronal activity and behavior. Optogenetics and chemogenetics are the more recent and popular methods used to study this relationship. Both of these methods target specific brain circuits and cell population to influence cell activity. However, they use different procedures to accomplish this task.
Optogenetics uses light-sensitive pumps that are virally introduced into neurons. Cells' activity, having these channels, can be manipulated by light. Chemogenetics, on the other hand, uses chemically engineered receptors and exogenous molecules specific for those receptors, to affect the activity of those cells; the engineered macromolecules used to design these receptors include nucleic acid hybrids, variety of metabolic enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors such as DREADDs. DREADDs are the most common GPCRs used in chemogenetics; these receptors get activated by the drug of interest and influence physiological and neural processes that take place within and outside of the central nervous system. Chemogenetics has been favored over Optogenetics, it avoids some of the challenges of Optogenetics. Chemogenetics does not require the expensive light equipment, therefore, is more accessible; the resolution in Optogenetic declines due to light scattering and illuminance declined levels as the distance between the subject and the light source increases.
These factors, don’t allow for all cells to be affected by light and lead to a lower spatial resolution. Chemogenetics, does not require light usage and therefore can achieve a higher spatial resolution. GPCRs' usage and chemogenetics are nowadays the targets for many of the pharmaceutical companies to cure and alleviate symptoms of diseases that involve all tissues of the body. More DREADDs have been used to explore treatment options for various neurodegenerative and psychological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, depression and addiction; these aforementioned conditions involve processes that occur within and outside of the nervous system involving neurotransmitters such as GABA and Glutamate. Chemogenetics has therefore been used in pharmacology to adjust the levels of such neurotransmitters in specific neuron while minimizing the side effects of treatment. To treat and relieve the symptoms of any disease using the DREADDs, these receptors are delivered to the area of interest via viral transduction.
Some studies have considered using a new method called retro DREADDs. This method allows specific neuronal pathways to be studied under cellular resolution. Unlike classic DREADDs, this method is used in wild type animals, these receptors are given to the targeted cells via injection of two viral vectors. DREADDS have been used in many animal models to influence the activity of various cells. Chemogenetics used in animals assists with demonstrating human disease models such as Parkinson's disease. Having this information allows scientists understand whether viral expression of DREADD proteins, both in-vivo enhancers and inhibitors of neuronal function can be used to bidirectionally affect the behaviors and the activity of the involved neurons. Recent studies have shown that DREADDs were used to treat the motor deficits of rats modeling Parkinson's disease. Other studies have had successes linking the usage of DREADDs and influencing drug seeking and drug sensitization behavior; the progression of Chemogenetics from rodents to non-human primates has been slow due to increased demand in time and expense surrounding these projects.
However, some recent studies in 2016 have been able to demonstrate successes showing that silencing the activity of neurons in the Orbitofrontal cortex along with the removal of Rhinal cortex, restricted the reward task performance in macaques. Chemogenetics and usage of DREADDs have allowed researchers to advance in biomedical research areas including many neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Chemogenetics have been used in these fields to induce specific and reversible brain lesions and therefore, study specific activities of neuron population. Although Chemogenetics offers specificity and high spatial resolution, it still faces some challenges when used in investigating neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex nature where lesions in the brain have not been identified as the main cause. Chemogenetics has been used to reverse some of the deficits revolving such conditions however, it hasn’t been able to identify the main cause of neuropsychiatric diseases and cure these conditions due to complex nature of these conditions.