A jester, court jester, or fool, was an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras, a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests. A jester was an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets. Jesters are modern-day entertainers who resemble their historical counterparts. Jesters in medieval times are thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts mimic this costume. Jesters entertained with a wide variety of skills: principal among them were song and storytelling, but many employed acrobatics, telling jokes, such as puns and imitation, magic tricks. Much of the entertainment was performed in a comic style and many jesters made contemporary jokes in word or song about people or events well known to their audiences; the modern use of the English word jester did not come into use until the mid-16th century, during Tudor times. This modern term derives from the older form gestour, or jestour from Anglo-Norman meaning storyteller or minstrel.
Other earlier terms included fol, disour and bourder. These terms described entertainers who differed in their skills and performances but who all shared many similarities in their role as comedic performers for their audiences. Early jesters were popular in Ancient Egypt, entertained Egyptian pharaohs; the ancient Romans had a tradition of called balatrones. Balatrones were paid for their jests, the tables of the wealthy were open to them for the sake of the amusement they afforded. Jesters were popular with the Aztec people in the 14th to 16th centuries. Many royal courts throughout English royal history employed entertainers and most had professional fools, sometimes called licensed fools. Entertainment included music and physical comedy, it has been suggested they performed acrobatics and juggling. Henry VIII of England employed a jester named Will Sommers, his daughter Mary was entertained by Jane Foole. During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I of England, William Shakespeare wrote his plays and performed with his theatre company the Lord Chamberlain's Men.
Clowns and jesters were featured in Shakespeare's plays, the company's expert on jesting was Robert Armin, author of the book Fooled upon Foole. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Feste the jester is described as "wise enough to play the fool". In Scotland, Queen of Scots had a jester called Nichola, her son, King James VI of Scotland employed a jester called Archibald Armstrong. During his lifetime Armstrong was given great honours at court, he was thrown out of the King's employment when he over-reached and insulted too many influential people. After his disgrace, books telling of his jests were sold in London streets, he held some influence at court still in estates of land in Ireland. Anne of Denmark had a Scottish jester called Tom Durie. Charles I employed a jester called Jeffrey Hudson, popular and loyal. Jeffrey Hudson had the title of Royal Dwarf. One of his jests was to be presented hidden in a giant pie. Hudson fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War. A third jester associated with Charles I was called Muckle John.
Scholar David Carlyon has cast doubt on the "daring political jester", calling historical tales "apocryphal", concluding that "popular culture embraces a sentimental image of the clown. Jesters could give bad news to the King that no one else would dare deliver. In 1340, when the French fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Sluys by the English, Phillippe VI's jester told him the English sailors "don't have the guts to jump into the water like our brave French". After the Restoration, Charles II did not reinstate the tradition of the court jester, but he did patronize the theatre and proto-music hall entertainments favouring the work of Thomas Killigrew. Though Killigrew was not a jester, Samuel Pepys in his famous diary does call Killigrew "The King's fool and jester, with the power to mock and revile the most prominent without penalty"; the last British nobles to keep jesters were the Bowes-Lyons. In the 18th century, jesters had died out except in Russia and Germany. In France and Italy, travelling groups of jesters performed plays featuring stylized characters in a form of theatre called the commedia dell'arte.
A version of this passed into British folk tradition in the form of a puppet show and Judy. In France the tradition of the court jester ended with the French Revolution. In 1968, the Canada Council awarded a $3,500 grant to Joachim Foikis of Vancouver "to revive the ancient and time-honoured tradition of town fool". In the 21st century, the jester is still seen at medieval-style pageants. In 2015, the town of Conwy in North Wales appointed Russel Erwood as the official resident jester of the town and its people, a post, vacant since 1295. Poland's most famous court jester was Stańczyk, whose jokes were related to political matters, who became a historical symbol for Poles. In 2004 English Heritage appointed Nigel Roder as the State Jester for England, the first since Muckle John 355 years previously. However, following an objection by the National Guild of Jesters, English Heritage accepted they were not authorised to grant such a title. Roder was succeeded as "Heritag
Glasgow was a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 to 1885. It returned two Member of Parliament until 1868, three from 1868 to 1885. Elections were held using the bloc vote system; until 1832, Glasgow had been one of the parliamentary burghs in the Clyde Burghs constituency, abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1832. The Act created the new Glasgow constituency with two seats, increased to three by the Representation of the People Act 1868. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the constituency was divided into seven new single-seat constituencies, with effect from the 1885 general election: Glasgow Blackfriars and Hutchesontown Glasgow Bridgeton Glasgow Camlachie Glasgow College Glasgow Central Glasgow St Rollox Glasgow Tradeston The boundaries of the constituency, as set out in the Representation of the People Act 1832, were- "From the Point, on the West of the Town, at which the River Kelvin joins the River Clyde, up the River Kelvin to a Point, distant One hundred and fifty Yards above the Point at which the same is met by the Park Wall which comes down thereto from Woodside Road.
Caused by Anderson's appointment as Master of the Mint at Melbourne, Australia. Caused by Whitelaw's death. Anderson and Cameron stood to speak "for the interests of temperance, working men, religious freedom and reform"; the Whig sect of the local party nominated Bolton and Crum, Kerr represented "the Irish interest" and Roman Catholicism. Bolton withdrew before the election. Seat increased to three members Caused by MacGregor's resignation by accepting the office of Steward of the Manor of Northstead
R v Kouri 2005 SCC 81, was a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada that, along with its sister case R v Labaye, established that harm is the sole defining element of indecency in Canadian criminal law. The case involved a club; the acquittal was upheld by the Supreme Court. In 1997, James Kouri, the owner of the Montreal club Coeur à Corps, was accused of operating a common bawdy-house and fined $7,500 under section 210 of the Criminal Code; the fine came after undercover investigations of the club by police that started in 1996, although the club had been established in 1985. The group sex club was for couples who, upon entering, would be asked if they were a "liberated couple." Only those who replied in the affirmative could enter, the couples would have to pay an entrance fee. On appeal to the Quebec Court of Appeal, Mr. Kouri was acquitted; the majority of the Supreme Court upheld the acquittal. As the test for defining indecency, necessary in order to answer whether Mr. Kouri was guilty of operating a bawdy-house, was set out in R v Labaye, the Court in R v Kouri concentrated on whether sufficient measures were taken by Mr. Kouri so that the public was not exposed to something they would not want to see.
Had Mr. Kouri not done so, he might have been guilty of indecency; the Court took the view that the Crown did not prove its case against Mr. Kouri; as the Court argued, the Crown had no evidence of anyone being forced to watch the sexual activities in the club, nor of anyone in the club being surprised to see group sex. Whether a couple was a "liberated couple" was viewed as a "sufficiently clear and comprehensive" means to ensure only knowing and willing couples would enter, given the context of the outside of the club, which had sexually-themed images present, it thus did not matter that there was no explicit cautionary message at the entrance that sexual conduct might be seen inside. The Crown had pushed its case against Mr. Kouri by saying that it was not known whether every couple was asked if they were "liberated" before they were admitted, indeed some of the police had not been asked that question when they had entered the bar; the police corroborated the evidence that not every couple was asked this with the anecdote that a woman once left the club "upset with her partner".
The Court responded to these concerns by noting that the fact that this woman became upset does not mean she was surprised to see sexual conduct in the club. If she was unhappy to see group sex when the activity occurred, that does not prove she had not agreed to see this activity in the first place. Moreover, while some police were not asked the "liberated couple" question, that did not prove that all other couples were not asked the question the first time they came to the club. Mr. Kouri might have been guilty of indecency had the club encouraged degrading views of certain people; the Court, found no evidence that Mr. Kouri was guilty of this, noting that the activity was consensual and no money was exchanged between the persons having sex. While there was an entrance fee, this was not paid to anyone for a sexual service, but rather to enter the club to use the bar and engage in sexual activity with others. List of Supreme Court of Canada cases Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision available at LexUM and CanLII CBC news story
Back Up Off Me! is the only studio album by Yo! MTV Raps hosts Ed Lover and Doctor Dré, it was released on November 1994 via Relativity Records. Production was handled by Franklyn Grant, Davy D, Erick Sermon, Jolly Stomper Productions, Marley Marl, The 45 King, T-Money, Ty Fyffe, Ed Lover & Doctor Dré, it features guest appearances from Erick Sermon & Keith Murray of Def Squad, Lords of the Underground, Naima Bowman, Notorious B. I. G. of Junior M. A. F. I. A. Todd-1, T-Money of Original Concept. Back Up Off Me! was a mild success, peaking at #91 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and #27 on the Top Heatseekers charts in the United States. The album spawned two charting singles: "Back Up Off Me!" and "For the Love of You". Its title track peaked at #85 on the Billboard Hot 100 and at #23 on the Hot Rap Singles, its second single, "For the Love of You", peaked at #47 on the Hot Rap Singles chart. Back Up Off Me! at Discogs
Kazuki Watanabe, known by his stage name Kazuki, was a Japanese musician known as guitarist and lead songwriter of the visual kei rock band Raphael. The group became quite popular, with all their releases entering the top 40 of the Oricon chart, before disbanding after Kazuki died at the age of 19. Kazuki Watanabe was born on April 1981 in Shibuya, Tokyo. After playing some roles in a few TV programs and a film, he went on to have a musical career. In 1995, he and bassist Yukito formed a punk cover band which covered songs by bands such as The Blue Hearts and Ramones. In 1996, Kazuki and Yukito both soon began writing original material, formed Raphael in 1997, whose members were all just 15 years old. In only three years time they were popular enough to headline the Nippon Budokan, he had a side-project called Yuri Juujidan, a band consisted of Kazuki, Kuruto on bass and Mask on guitar. All of their songs are instrumental. On October 31, 2000, he was found dead in his room located in Shibuya, he was 19 years old.
The cause of death was reported according to the Shibuya Police in Tokyo. After his death, Raphael disbanded in January 2001. In 2012, they reunited for two concerts on October 31 and November 1, released a re-recording of their hit 1999 song "Eternal Wish" as a single. Official site
Yin Yu Tang House is a late 18th-century Chinese house from Anhui province, removed from its original village and re-erected in Salem, Massachusetts. In North America it is the only example of historic Chinese vernacular architecture; as such it provides an example of the type of dwelling an average family in China would have lived in. The Yin Yu Tang was built in the late eighteenth century during the Qing Dynasty. A prosperous merchant surnamed Huang built a stately sixteen-bedroom house in China's southeastern Huizhou region, calling his home Yin Yu Tang House; this Chinese merchant commissioned the construction of the house in the province of his birth, China. The five-bay, two-story residence was typical of its region, built of timber frame construction, with a tile roof and exterior masonry walls of sandstone and brick; the house is about 47 feet 6 inches by 52 feet 5-1/2 inches not including the kitchens. In addition to sixteen bedrooms there are two reception areas, a storage room, a courtyard in the center.
There are large intricately carved wooden panels that cover the inner windows on the first floor. The house survived economic and political upheavals, was home to eight generations of the Huang family. By the mid-1980s the house stood empty. Local and national authorities, with the endorsement of the original owner's descendants, gave permission for the house to be relocated to the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts; the house opened in June 2003 as a permanent exhibit at the PEM. List of historic houses in Massachusetts Yin Yu Tang House @ Peabody Essex Museum website Photos of the Yin Yu Tang House