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Jewish and democratic state

"Jewish and democratic state" is the Israeli legal definition of the nature and character of the State of Israel. The "Jewish" nature was first defined within the Declaration of Independence of 1948; the "Democratic" character was first added in the amendment to the Basic Law: the Knesset, passed in 1985. Numerous scholars and political observers have debated the definition whether the terms are contradictory or complementary. According to Yossi Klein Halevi, "Israel is based on two non-negotiable identities; the homeland of all Jews, whether or not they are citizens of Israel, it's the state of all its citizens, whether or not they are Jews." The Israeli Declaration of Independence identifies Israel as a "Jewish State," In the sense that Jews as ethnicity can exercise their right for self determination. It does it deny minority rights; the word "Democratic" is absent throughout the Israeli Declaration of Independence. However, the declaration states the intention to: "Ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex: It will guarantee freedom of religion, language and culture.

Since no constitution had been passed by 1985, the Supreme Court ruled that the Declaration of Independence document is a guiding principle of Israeli society and its state, the need to define the Jewish nature and Democratic character of the State of Israel arose. During the 1984 Knesset elections, religious ideas were brought up that were aimed at canceling the democratic character of Israel, replacing it with a theocratic Halachic state, thus in the eleventh Knesset session, the amendment to the Basic Law: the Knesset was passed, that stipulated that: "7A. A candidates list shall not participate in elections to the Knesset, if the goals or actions of the list, expressly or by implication, include one of the following: negation of the existence of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state. Since the definition of "a Jewish and democratic state" was used in additional Basic Laws of Israel: Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty and Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation, that were legislated in 1992, amended in 1994.

These laws states that: "1. The purpose of this Basic Law is to protect human dignity and liberty, in order to establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state." "2. The purpose of this Basic Law if to protect freedom of occupation, in order to establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state." As part of a project to draft a constitution for Israel by the Israel Democracy Institute led by former Chief Justice Aharon Barak, the country's Jewish and democratic character was described as follows: The State of Israel is a Jewish state in the following two senses: it is the political framework in which the right of the Jewish people to self-determination is manifested and it is a "Jewish nation-state." A first and necessary condition to being a Jewish and democratic state is a decisive majority of Jews in the State. Israel’s attribute as a Jewish and democratic state is conveyed through aspects of Zionism and Jewish heritage.

Other aspects are Hebrew being the main official language of the State and the inextricable link to Jewish culture in public life. On the other hand, the characterization of the State as Jewish is not intended to bestow extra privileges on its Jewish citizens and does not obligate the imposition of religious requirements by state law; the State of Israel is democratic in the following sense: the sovereign is the entire community of the nation’s citizens, irrespective of ethnic-national origin. In the main, the character of the State as a democratic country is manifested by two basic principles: the first being the recognition of the dignity of man qua man, the second, derived from the first, is the recognition of the values of equality and tolerance. Arrangements regarding free and equal elections, the recognition of the core human rights, including dignity and equality, separation of powers, the rule of law, an independent judiciary, are all drawn from these principles. Democracy’s basic principles require equal treatment of all those included as citizens of the State, without regard to their ethnic, religious and linguistic affiliations.

The IDI concludes that "the definition of Israel as a'Jewish state' does not contradict its definition as a'state of its citizens.' Although the State is Jewish in that, within its framework, the realization of certain interests of the Jewish people is ensured and its identity is protected and developed, its sovereignty lies in its community of citizens, including the non-Jewish community."The boundaries of the definition of "a Jewish and democratic state" are subject to public discourse in Israel, in context of the relation between state and government. In 1994, the question whether Israeli Government is permitted to limit the import of Non-Kos

Erich Vogt

Erich Wolfgang Vogt, was a Canadian physicist. Born in Steinbach, Manitoba, he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1951 and a Master of Science degree in 1952 from the University of Manitoba, he received a Ph. D. from Princeton University in 1955 under the direction of Eugene Wigner. In 1965, he started teaching at the University of British Columbia. From 1975 to 1981, he was the Vice President, he retired in 1994. He is best known as one of the founders of TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory of nuclear and particle physics, which utilizes a particle accelerator, located on the University of British Columbia, he was the director from 1981 to 1994. In 1976, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for his "role in the creation the new multi-million dollar cyclotron at the University of British Columbia, a major achievement in Physics in Canada". In 2006, he was awarded the Order of British Columbia. In 1970, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, he has received honorary degrees from the University of Manitoba, Queen's University, University of Regina, Carleton University, Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia.

On December 4, 2009, he gave his final lecture at the UBC Hennings Building, room 201, to his class of Physics 107 students. This lecture was attended by faculty members as well as former students, he continued to work at TRIUMF. "Canadian Who's Who 1997 entry". Retrieved February 8, 2006. "University of Manitoba profile". Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2006


The inaugural International Race of Champions was held at two tracks over two weekends in 1973 and 1974. The first three races were held October 27 and 28 at Riverside International Raceway and the final race was held on the Daytona International Speedway road course on February 14, 1974. Champion Mark Donohue won $54000 for his efforts and the championship was determined by prize money rather than points; the races were contested in Porsche Carrera RSR race cars. This was the only IROC to be contested on road courses. Only the top 6 finishing drivers competed in all four races; the roster of drivers and final points standings were as follows: 2- Mark Donohue 7- Bobby Unser 3- Peter Revson 4- George Follmer 6- Denis Hulme 8- A. J. Foyt 10- Richard Petty 12- Roger McCluskey 5- David Pearson 11- Gordon Johncock 9- Bobby Allison 1- Emerson Fittipaldi 4- George Follmer 9- David Pearson 12- Emerson Fittipaldi 3- Peter Revson 6- A. J. Foyt 2- Bobby Unser 11- Bobby Allison 5- Denis Hulme 10- Gordon Johncock 7- Richard Petty 8- Roger McCluskey 1- Mark Donohue 12- Mark Donohue 6- Bobby Unser 3- Emerson Fittipaldi 2- David Pearson 1- George Follmer 5- A. J. Foyt 4- Peter Revson 8- Denis Hulme 7- Bobby Allison 10- Richard Petty 9- Gordon Johncock 11- Roger McCluskey 1- Mark Donohue 2- Peter Revson 5- Bobby Unser 3- David Pearson 4- George Follmer 6- A. J. Foyt

List of Chibi Vampire chapters

The chapters of the manga series Chibi Vampire were written and illustrated Yuna Kagesaki. The series premiered in Japan as Karin in Monthly Dragon Age in 2003 where it ran till its conclusion in 2008; the 58 individual chapters were collected and published in fourteen tankōbon by Kadokawa Shoten between October 2003 and April 2008. The chapters follow the growing romance between Karin, a mixed-up vampire who gives blood instead of taking it, Kenta, a classmate who learns her secret and becomes her daytime help. A series of light novels, which cover the same timeline as the manga, are being written by Tohru Kai with Kagesaki. Chibi Vampire: The Novel series is tied to the manga releases, with each volume designed to be read after the corresponding manga volume. For example, the first novel takes place between the events that occur in the first and second volumes of the manga series. Chibi Vampire uses characters introduced in and refers to events that occur within the novel series; as of April 2008, nine volumes have been released in the light novel series in Japan.

The manga was adapted into a twenty-four episode anime series produced by J. C. Staff; the anime series aired in Japan on WOWOW from November 3, 2005 through May 11, 2006. The series is licensed for English-language release in North America by Tokyopop, which renamed the series from Karin to Chibi Vampire To avoid confusion with another of its properties, it released the first volume in April 2006.

2020 Adelaide International

The 2020 Adelaide International was a tournament on the 2020 ATP Tour and 2020 WTA Tour. It was played on outdoor hard courts in Australia; this was the first edition of the tournament, replacing the Sydney International, took place at the Memorial Drive Tennis Centre from 12 to 18 January 2020. 1Qualifiers prize money is the Round of 32 prize money.*per team 1 Rankings are as of 6 January 2020. The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Alex Bolt James Duckworth Alexei PopyrinThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Grégoire Barrère Federico Delbonis Lloyd Harris Tommy PaulThe following players received entry as a lucky loser: Salvatore Caruso Jaume Munar Stéphane Robert Alex de Minaur → replaced by Jaume Munar Novak Djokovic → replaced by Stéphane Robert Lucas Pouille → replaced by Alexander Bublik Fernando Verdasco → replaced by Salvatore Caruso 1 Rankings are as of 6 January 2020; the following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Alex Bolt / Alexei Popyrin Lleyton Hewitt / Jordan Thompson 1 Rankings are as of 6 January 2020.

The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Belinda Bencic Priscilla Hon Aryna Sabalenka Ajla TomljanovićThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Viktorija Golubic Daria Kasatkina Bernarda Pera Yulia Putintseva Arina Rodionova Aliaksandra SasnovichThe following players received entry as a lucky loser: Tímea Babos Vitalia Diatchenko Tatjana Maria Before the tournament Kiki Bertens → replaced by Vitalia Diatchenko Johanna Konta → replaced by Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova Petra Kvitová → replaced by Tímea Babos Petra Martić → replaced by Hsieh Su-wei Alison Riske → replaced by Tatjana Maria Venus Williams → replaced by Belinda Bencic 1 Rankings are as of 6 January 2020. Andrey Rublev def. Lloyd Harris, 6–3, 6–0 Ashleigh Barty def. Dayana Yastremska, 6–2, 7–5 Máximo González / Fabrice Martin def. Ivan Dodig / Filip Polášek, 7–6, 6–3 Nicole Melichar / Xu Yifan def. Gabriela Dabrowski / Darija Jurak, 2–6, 7–5, Official website

Clear Creek (Nevada)

Clear Creek is a 13.5 miles long stream which begins at 8,780 feet on the southern slopes of Snow Valley Peak west of Carson City. It is the only perennial tributary of the Carson River mainstem, is protected by The Nature Conservancy, its mouth is at its confluence with the Carson River in the southeast portion of Carson City, Nevada. Clear Creek Station, about 5 miles south of Carson City proper, was a famous stage station and headquarters for sheepherders. Three large sawmills were built on the banks of Clear Creek in 1862. Clear Creek Mining District was organized in 1859 and appears on Henry De Groot's Map of the Washoe Mines of 1860. Clear Creek flows south before crossing under U. S. Route 50 and into Douglas County, Nevada from Carson City it turns east and bounces along the Carson City - Douglas County line, until its terminus in the Carson River southeast of downtown Carson City. Carson River Carson River Project of The Nature Conservancy