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Jewish views on marriage

The Jewish view on marriage provided Biblically mandated rights to the wife which were accepted by the husband. A marriage was ended either because of a divorce document given by the man to his wife, or by the death of either party. Certain details as protections for the wife, were added in Talmudic times. Non-Orthodox developments have brought changes in. Intermarriage is not encouraged. In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved. Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is traditionally expected to fulfil the commandment to have children. In this view, marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging into a single soul, why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified. Non-Orthodox Jewish denominations, such as Reconstructionist and Conservative Judaism, recognize same-sex marriage, de-emphasize procreation, focusing on marriage as a bond between a couple.

This view is considered as a diversion from the Jewish Law by the Orthodox denominations, rather than as a legitimate, alternative interpretation. In Jewish law, an engagement is a contract between a man and a woman where they mutually promise to marry each other, the terms on which it shall take place; the promise may be made by the intending parties or by their respective parents or other relatives on their behalf. The promise is formalized in a document known as the Shtar Tena'im, the "Document of Conditions", read prior to the badekin. After the reading, the mothers of the future bride and groom break a plate. Today, some sign the contract on the day of the wedding, some do it as an earlier ceremony, some do not do it at all. In Haredi communities, marriages may be arranged by the parents of the prospective bride and groom, who may arrange a shidduch by engaging a professional match-maker who finds and introduces the prospective bride and groom and receives a "brokerage-fee" for his or her services.

The young couple is not forced to marry. In Jewish law, marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin, the betrothal ceremony, nissu'in or chupah, the actual Jewish wedding ceremony. Erusin changes the couple's interpersonal status, while nissu'in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status. In Talmudic times, these two ceremonies took place up to a year apart. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public. According to the Talmud, erusin involves the groom handing an object to the bride - either an object of value such as a ring, or a document stating that she is being betrothed to him. In order to be valid, this must be done in the presence of two unrelated male witnesses. After erusin, the laws of adultery apply, the marriage cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. After nisuin, the couple may live together. Marital harmony, known as "shalom bayis," is valued in Jewish tradition; the Talmud states that a man should love his wife as much as he loves himself, honour her more than he honours himself.

A husband was expected to discuss with his wife any worldly matters that might arise in his life. The Talmud forbids a husband from being overbearing to his household, domestic abuse by him was condemned, it was said of a wife. As for the wife, the greatest praise the Talmudic rabbis offered to any woman was that given to a wife who fulfils the wishes of her husband. A wife was expected to be modest if the only other person present with her was her husband. God's presence dwells in a loving home. Marriage obligations and rights in Judaism are based on those apparent in the Bible, which have been clarified and expanded on by many prominent rabbinic authorities throughout history. Traditionally, the obligations of the husband include providing for his wife, he is obligated to provide for her sustenance for her benefit. However, this is a right to the wife, she can release her husband of the obligation of sustaining her, she can keep her income for herself; the document that provides for this is the ketuba.

The Bible itself gives the wife protections, as per Exodus 21:10, although the rabbis may have added others later. The rights of the husband and wife are described in tractate Ketubot in the Talmud, which explains how the rabbis balanced the two sets of rights of the wife and the husband. According to the non-traditional view, in the Bible the wife is treated as a possession owned by her husband, but Judaism imposed several obligations on the husband giving the wife several rights and freedoms. For example, the Talmud establishes the principle that a wife is entitled, but not compelled, to the same dignity and social standing as her husband, is entitled to keep any additional advantages she had as a result of her social status before her marriage. Biblical Hebrew has two words for "husband": ba'al, ish (also

Tagiades menaka

Tagiades menaka known as the spotted snow flat or the dark-edged snow flat, is a species of spread-winged skipper butterflies. It contains three subspecies. Tagiades menaka manisFound in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam, BurmaTagiades menaka mantra Evans, 1934Found in the northwest Himalayas, Thailand, northern Vietnam, Hainan, southern ChinaTagiades menaka menaka Evans, 1934T. M. vajuna from Kanara, India has been transferred to the species Tagiades litigiosa. T. m. var. formosana and T. m. var. cohaerens of southern China and Taiwan, has been reclassified as Tagiades cohaerens

Dorothea Maria of Anhalt

Dorothea Maria of Anhalt, was by birth a member of the House of Ascania and princess of Anhalt. After her marriage, she became Duchess of Saxe-Weimar. Dorothea Maria was the sixth daughter of Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt, but second-born daughter by his second wife Eleonore, daughter of Christoph, Duke of Württemberg. In 1586, the twelve-year-old Dorothea Maria was chosen by her father as Abbess of Gernrode and Frose as the successor to her elder sister Agnes Hedwig. In 1593 she was relieved of her post as abbess in order to marry John Duke of Saxe-Weimar; the wedding took place in Altenburg on 7 January of that year. Her successor as abbess was her niece, Sophie Elisabeth, eldest daughter of her half-brother John George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. During the twelve years of her marriage, Dorothea Maria gave birth to twelve children, including Ernst I of Saxe-Gotha and the famous general Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. Dorothea Maria died of injuries sustained while riding a horse, her funeral took place on 24 August 1617 at Schloss Hornstein.

On this occasion, the Fruitbearing Society was created and her younger brother, Louis of Anhalt-Köthen, was appointed its first leader

Kentish Old English

Kentish was a southern dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent. It was one of four dialect-groups of Old English, the other three being Mercian and West Saxon; the dialect was spoken in what are now the modern-day Counties of Kent, southern Hampshire and the Isle of Wight by the Germanic settlers, identified by Bede as Jutes. Such a distinct difference in the Anglo-Saxon settlers of the entire Kingdom of Kent is viewed more sceptically by modern historians. Although by far the most important surviving Kentish manuscripts are the law codes of the Kentish kings, contained in Textus Roffensis, they were early-twelfth-century copies of much earlier laws, their spellings and forms of English were modernised and standardised in various ways; this affects the Laws of Hlothere and Eadric. However, some indications of the differences between late-seventh-century Kentish and West Saxon can be made by comparing two contemporaneous laws; the law code of the West-Saxon king Ine was composed at some point between 688 and 694.

Clause 20 concerns potential thefts by outsiders. This was adopted word for word by Ine's contemporary, the Kentish king Wihtræd: With many words at this point, there is no difference between Kentish and what became the dominant West-Saxon form of English. Other words indicate possible differences in pronunciation, such as fremde / gonge / gange. However, there is little doubt that with minor differences in syntax and vocabulary, the two forms were mutually intelligible, at least by this late date in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of southern England. Henry Sweet included a Kentish psalm in his Anglo-Saxon Reader. Dictionary

Lists of leaders of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

This is a list of Leaders of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Note, due to historical circumstances first hierarchs of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church carried titles without mentioning of Kyiv. Although sometimes being referred to as primates out of all hierarchs only Mykhailo Levitsky carried the title of primate, granted by the Austrian Emperor as the Primate of Galicia and Lodomeria, but not approved by the Pope of Rome. Following the Union of Brest, in the 16th century the Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and all Ruthenia located in the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth broke relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and placed themselves in communion with the Patriarch of the West, thus establishing what was known as "Ruthenian Uniate Church" or "Ruthenian Catholic Church". Certain dioceses in the Carpathian region including Galicia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia stayed loyal to the Patriarch of Constantinople for another 100 years. In 17th century dioceses in Galicia joined the Union of Brest, while the Orthodox diocese in Subcarpathian Ruthenia came under communion with the Pope of Rome through the Union of Uzhhorod and was temporarily placed under the Latin bishop of Eger.

Following the partitions of Poland, the Russian Empire occupied most of the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Carpathian region with Galicia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia was passed to the Habsburg Monarchy; the Russian Emperor refused to have primates of the Uniate Church to be approved by the Pope. The Uniate Church under Habsburg Monarchy was forced to reorganize. After losing its main archdiocese in Kyiv, the Uniate Church had its historical metropolis of Galicia reinstated, centered in the archdiocese of Lemberg. At the same time, the diocese of Munkacs was ceded from the jurisdiction of the Latin bishop of Eger, but instead of rejoining the Uniate Church it was given a self-rule on demand of the Rákóczi family. In 19th and 20th centuries the Church lost most of its dioceses, most of which were taken over by the Russian Orthodox Church. During this time, some emigrants of Austria-Hungary established the Ruthenian Catholic Church in the United States. In 20th century dioceses were created in various parts around the globe.

Metropolitans of Kyiv and all Ruthenia: Isidore of Kyiv Gregory the Bulgarian Misail Pstruch Metropolitans of Kyiv and all Ruthenia: Mykhailo Ipatii Josyf Rafajil Antin Havryil Kyprian Lev Yurij Lev II Atansy Florian Feliks Lev III Yason Teodor In 1807 the Russian Empire continued to appoint its own primates for the Ruthenian Uniate Church without confirming them with the Pope. Metropolitans of Kiev: Irakliy Hryhoriy Josafat Following the Synod of Polatsk, the Ruthenian Uniate Church was forceably abolished on the territory of the Russian Empire, its property and clergy transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church. Upon the partition of Poland, Eparchies that ended up within the Habsburg Monarchy were reorganized; the Eparchy of Lviv was converted into archeparchy and its bishop became a Metropolitan bishop governing the rest of the eparchies of the former Ruthenian Uniate Church. The new Metropolia received name of Galicia and in way became a successor of the 14th century Metropolia of Galicia.

All primates were approved by the Pope. Metropolitan of Galicia and Archbishop of Lemberg: Antin II Mykhailo II served as a Primate of Galicia and Lodomeria Hryhoriy II Spyrydon Josyf II Sylvester Julian Andrei leading bishop Josyf Slipyj In 1945 Josyf Slipyj as leading bishop of the Greek Catholic Church was arrested by the Soviet authorities. Following the Lviv Council, the Greek Catholic Church was forcibly abolished on the territory of the Soviet Union, its property and clergy transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church. Josyf III In 1963 the Archbishop of Lviv was elevated to the rank of Major archbishop. With fall of the Soviet Union, in 1989 the Metropolitan of Galicia was revived. Myroslav Lubomyr In 2005 Exarch of Kyiv-Galicia was transformed into a diocese and converted into an archdiocese; the new archdiocese was turned into the Major Archbishop's see and reinstating the Kyiv see since the 1838 Synod of Polotsk. Lubomyr Sviatoslav Religious Leaders Major Archdiocese of Kiev–Galicia

Ntungamo–Rukungiri Road

Ntungamo–Rukungiri Road is in the Western Region of Uganda, connecting the towns of Ntungamo in Ntungamo District with Rukungiri in Rukungiri District. The road starts on the Mbarara -- Ntungamo -- Kabale -- Katuna Road, it takes a northwesterly direction, though the towns of Kagamba and Nyakibale, to end at Rukungiri, the district headquarters of Rukungiri District, a total of 52 kilometres. The coordinates of the road, about equidistant from Kagamba and Rukungiri, are 0°49'57.0"S, 30°02'25.0"E. Prior to 2004, the road was gravel surfaced and in a poor state. In that year, the government of Uganda upgraded the road to grade II bitumen surface with shoulders, drainage channels, culverts. Uganda National Road Authority Homepage Police bribery in Ntungamo, Rukungiri