Birkat Hamazon, known in English as the Grace After Meals, is a set of Hebrew blessings that Jewish Halakha prescribes following a meal that includes at least a kezayit piece of bread or matzoh made from one or all of wheat, rye, and/or spelt. It is a mitzvah de'oraita, written in the Torah. Birkat Hamazon is recited after a meal with bread or any food, made from the five grains, with the exception of bread that comes as a desert and food that does not possess the form or appearance of bread, in which case a blessing that summarizes the first three blessings is recited instead; when a meal includes 3 slices of Pizza, it is a bread meal. Some hold 2 slices, still others hold that if that's your mid-day meal one slice. Except when in teaching situations, Birkat hamazon is read to oneself after ordinary meals. Sometimes it's sung aloud on special occasions such as the Shabbat and festivals; the blessing can be found in all prayerbooks and is printed in a variety of artistic styles in a small booklet called a birchon in Hebrew or bencher in Yiddish.
The length of the different Birkat hamazon can vary from benching under half a minute to more than 5 minutes. Several websites such as BirkatHamazon.org, Tefillos.com, Open Siddur Project, others, have published the prayer in various Nuschaot. Hashem provides us sustenance. For this we owe Hashem: הודאה - level thanks, but Hashem does not stop there. For this, blessing is appropriate God provides sustenance and therefore food for all creatures and for all living beings through three main qualities: favor or grace, just as it was for Noach benevolence mercy or clemency The fact that Hashem indiscriminately sustains everything signals that this sustenance comes from His attribute of benevolence, since it is His benevolence that extends to everything and is shared by everything; this is the import of “His benevolence is universal” – meaning that it is boundless and not quantifiable. When Hashem’s benevolence is active do not imagine that it is finite or limited, for, “His benevolence is universal”.
Hashem's benevolence is without restriction. Why, it may be asked, is this true about Hashem’s attribute of benevolence? It may further be asked, why does the phrase, “For His benevolence is universal” recur in the Tehillim-song, “Hodu”? In the Hallel prayer we say, “Give thanks to Hashem, because He is good, for His benevolence is universal”; the reason is. Most transmissions are recipientdriven. For example, when judgement is imposed it is; this is true of mercy as well. Benevolence is the sole exception to this rule. Benevolence is an intrinsic property. Hashem emanates kindness and benevolence because it is his nature, so to speak, to do so, He does so without regard to any particular beneficiary, he does. Attributes of Hashem that are intrinsic share Hashem’s property of limitlessness, thus His attribute of benevolence is infinite. It is universal. Attributes like judgement or mercy, on the other hand, require objects; the scriptural source for the requirement to recite a blessing after a meal is Deuteronomy 8:10 "When you have eaten and are satisfied, you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He gave you".
The process is referred to as bentching. Birkat Hamazon is made up of four blessings; the first three blessings are regarded as required by scriptural law: The food: A blessing of thanks for the food was traditionally composed by Moses in gratitude for the manna which the Jews ate in the wilderness during the Exodus from Egypt. The land: A blessing of thanks for the Land of Israel, is attributed to Joshua after he led the Jewish people into Israel. Jerusalem: Concerns Jerusalem, is ascribed to David, who established it as the capital of Israel and Solomon, who built the Temple in Jerusalem. God's goodness: A blessing of thanks for God's goodness, written by Rabban Gamliel in Yavneh; the obligation to recite this blessing is regarded as a rabbinic obligation. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook described the order of these four blessings as a “ladder of prayer,” as we raise our sights and aspirations; the first blessing refers to one's personal needs. After these four blessings, there is a series of short prayers, each beginning with the word Harachaman, which ask for God's compassion.
There are several known texts for birkat hamazon. The most available is the Ashkenazic. There are Sephard
"Mazel tov" or "mazal tov" is a Jewish phrase used to express congratulations for a happy and significant occasion or event. The expression comes from the Mishnaic Hebrew mazzāl, meaning "constellation" or "destiny", which may be related to nazal, meaning "to flow down"; the Mishnaic word derives from Biblical Hebrew mazalot. While the words mazal and tov are Hebrew in origin, the phrase is of Yiddish origin, was incorporated into Modern Hebrew. Although the Yiddish pronunciation of mazel has the stress on the first syllable, the modern Hebrew word "mazal" has the stress on the last syllable, as is standard in modern Hebrew; the phrase "mazel tov" is recorded as entering into American English from Yiddish in 1862. The Yiddish שלימזל, transliterated as shlimazl made its way into US English in the 20th century; the same words were lent to German, as Massel, as the verb vermasseln and "schlamassel". In Czech and Slovak, the words šlamastyka/šlamastika mean a "pickle". In Polish, the word ślamazara derived from Yiddish shlimazl, denotes a person, slow, sluggish, or lifeless.
In Hungarian the informal mázli means luck, slamasztika means an unpleasant, distressful situation. The words mazzel, tof/toffe and the verb mazzelen have entered Dutch; the American English pronunciation is. Although mazel tov is translated as "good luck", it means "good luck has occurred" or "your fortune has been good" and is an acknowledgement of this fact, it is similar to the word "congratulations!" and conveys that "I am pleased this good thing has happened to you!"The phrase for wishing "good luck" in Hebrew, meaning the same as English "good luck", is b'hatzlacha meaning "with success." In the diaspora, "mazel tov!" is a common Jewish phrase, such as after a bar or bat mitzvah or a wedding, when the congregation may be inclined to shout "Mazel Tov!" For instance, at a Jewish wedding, after the groom breaks the glass everyone yells "Mazel Tov!" "Mazal tov" is used for all sorts of happy occasions, whether they be a new driver's license, a birthday, or getting a new job. Jewish greetings List of English words of Yiddish origin Moss, Aron.
"What Does'Mazel Tov' Mean?". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2009-06-02
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage. Wedding traditions and customs vary between cultures, ethnic groups, religions and social classes. Most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of marriage vows by the couple, presentation of a gift, a public proclamation of marriage by an authority figure or celebrant. Special wedding garments are worn, the ceremony is sometimes followed by a wedding reception. Music, prayers or readings from religious texts or literature are commonly incorporated into the ceremony, as well as superstitious customs originating in Ancient Rome; some cultures have adopted the traditional Western custom of the white wedding, in which a bride wears a white wedding dress and veil. This tradition was popularized through the marriage of Queen Victoria; some say Victoria's choice of a white gown may have been a sign of extravagance, but may have been influenced by the values she held which emphasized sexual purity. Within the modern'white wedding' tradition, a white dress and veil are unusual choices for a woman's second or subsequent wedding.
The use of a wedding ring has long been part of religious weddings in Europe and America, but the origin of the tradition is unclear. One possibility is the Roman belief in the Vena amoris, believed to be a blood vessel that ran from the fourth finger directly to the heart. Thus, when a couple wore rings on this finger, their hearts were connected. Historian Vicki Howard points out that the belief in the "ancient" quality of the practice is most a modern invention. "Double ring" ceremonies are a modern practice, a groom's wedding band not appearing in the United States until the early 20th century. The wedding ceremony is followed by wedding reception or a wedding breakfast, in which the rituals may include speeches from the groom, best man, father of the bride and the bride, the newlyweds' first dance as a couple, the cutting of an elegant wedding cake. In recent years traditions has changed to include a father-daughter dance for the bride and her father, sometimes a mother-son dance for the groom and his mother.
Kua, Chinese traditional formal wear Batik and Kebaya, a garment worn by the Javanese people of Indonesia and by the Malay people of Malaysia Hanbok, the traditional garment of Korea Barong Tagalog, an embroidered, formal men's garment of the Philippines Kimono, the traditional garments of Japan Sari/Lehenga, Indian popular and traditional dress in India Dhoti, male garment in South India Dashiki, the traditional West African wedding attire Seshweshe, female dress worn by the Basotho women during special ceremonies. Although it has been adopted to men attire as well. Ao dai, traditional garments of Vietnam Ribbon shirt worn by American Indian men on auspicious occasions, such as weddings, another common custom is to wrap bride and groom in a blanket Kilt, male garment particular to Scottish culture Kittel, a white robe worn by the groom at an Orthodox Jewish wedding; the kittel is worn only under the Chupah, is removed before the reception. Topor, a type of conical headgear traditionally worn by grooms as part of the Bengali Hindu wedding ceremony Western code Morning dress, western daytime formal dress Stroller White tie Evening Suits Black tie Non-traditional "tuxedo" variants Lounge suit Sherwani, a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia Wedding crown, worn by Syrian and Greek couples and Scandinavian brides Wedding veil Wedding dress Langa oni, traditional two piece garment worn by unmarried Telugu Hindu women.
Different wedding clothing around the world Music played at Western weddings includes a processional song for walking down the aisle either before or after the marriage service. An example of such use is reported in the wedding of Nora Robinson and Alexander Kirkman Finlay in 1878; the "Bridal Chorus" from Lohengrin by Richard Wagner is used as the processional and is known as "Here Comes the Bride". Richard Wagner is said to have been anti-Semitic, as a result, the Bridal Chorus is used at Jewish weddings. UK law forbids music with any religious connotations to be used in a civil ceremony. Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D is an alternative processional. Other alternatives include various contemporary melodies, such as Bob Marley's One Love, sometimes performed by a steel drum band. In the United States 2 million people get married each year and close to 70 million people attend a wedding and spend more than $100 on a gift. Most religions recognize a lifelong union with established rituals; some religions permit same-sex marriages.
Many Christian faiths emphasize the raising of children as a priority in a marriage. In Judaism, marriage is so important. Islam recommends marriage highly; the Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife. Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both social obligations. By contrast, Buddhism does not encourage or discourage marriage, although it does teach how one might live a ma
Get (divorce document)
A get or gett is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce. The essential part of the get is short: the text states "You are hereby permitted to all men", which means that the woman is no longer married and that the laws of adultery no longer apply; the get returns to the wife the legal rights that a husband holds in regard to her in a Jewish marriage. The biblical term for the divorce document, described in Deuteronomy 24, is "Sefer Keritut"; the word get may have its origins in the Sumerian word for document, GID. DA, it appears to have passed from Sumerian into Akkadian as gittu, from there into Mishnaic Hebrew. In fact in the Mishnah, get can refer to any legal document although it refers to a divorce document. A number of popular etymological speculations were offered by early modern Rabbinic authorities. According to Shiltei Giborim, it refers to the stone agate, which purportedly has some form of anti-magnetic property symbolizing the divorce.
The Gaon of Vilna posits that the Hebrew letters of Gimel and Tet of the word get are the only letters of the Hebrew alphabet that cannot make a word together, again symbolizing the divorce. Rabbi Baruch Epstein states that it comes from the Latin word gestus "action, gesture", which refers to any legal document. Marcus Jastrow posits a Semitic root. Rabbi Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg posits that after the Bar Kochba revolt the Romans decreed that all documents be processed in a Roman court; the term get. Halakha requires specific formalities. A divorce document must be written, it must have been written on the explicit instruction and free-willed approval of the husband, with the specific intention that it is to be used by the man and for the specific woman. It cannot be written with blanks to be filled in later, it must be delivered to the wife, whose physical acceptance of the get is required to complete and validate the divorce process. There are certain detailed requirements relating to the legal and religious nature of the get itself.
For example: It must be written on a fresh document, there must be no possibility of cleanly erasing the text. It may not be written on anything attached to the ground; the get. Any deviation from these requirements invalidates the divorce procedure. A get. A get may not be given out of fear of any obligation either party undertook to fulfill in a separation agreement; such an agreement may provide for matters such as custody of the children and their maintenance, property settlement. But either party may withdraw from such an agreement, on the question of the dissolution of the marriage only, if they can satisfy the court of a genuine desire to restore matrimonial harmony. In such a situation all the recognised matrimonial obligations continue to apply. On the other hand, pecuniary conditions stipulated by the parties in the separation agreement would still be valid and enforceable, though the marriage state continues to exist; the laws of gittin only provide for a divorce initiated by the husband.
However, the wife has the right to sue for divorce in a rabbinical court. The court, if finding just cause as prescribed in rare cases in Jewish law, will require the husband to divorce his wife. In such cases, a husband who refused the court's demand that he divorce his wife would be subjected to various penalties in order to pressure him into granting a divorce; such penalties included monetary punishments, corporal punishment—including forcing the husband to spend the night at an unmarked grave. In modern-day Israel, rabbinical courts have the power to sentence a husband to prison to compel him to grant his wife a get. Rabbinical courts outside of Israel do not have power to enforce such penalties; this sometimes leads to a situation in which the husband makes demands of the court and of his wife, demanding a monetary settlement or other benefits, such as child custody, in exchange for the get. Prominent Jewish feminists have fought against such demands in recent decades. Prominent Orthodox rabbis have pointed to many years of rabbinical sources that state that any coercion can invalidate a get except in the most extreme of cases, have spoken out against "get organizations", which they claim have inflamed situations that could have otherwise been resolved amicably.
Sometimes a man will refuse to grant a divorce. This leaves his wife with no possibility of remarriage within Orthodox Judaism; such a woman is called a mesorevet get. Such a man who refuses to give his wife a get is spurned by Modern Orthodox communities, excluded from communal religious activities, in an effort to force a get. While it is assumed that the problem lies in men refusing to grant a get to their wives and that it is a widespread issue, in Israel, figures released from the chief rabbinate show that women refuse to accept a get and that the numbers are a couple of hundred on each side. However, such a husband has the option of seeking a Heter m
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, affianced, engaged to be married, or engaged. Future brides and grooms may be called the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-to-be, fiancée or fiancé, respectively; the duration of the courtship varies vastly, is dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages, it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the engaged couple were old enough; this is still common in some countries. The origins of European engagement in marriage practice is found in the Jewish law, first exemplified by Abraham, outlined in the last Talmudic tractate of the Nashim order, where marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin, the betrothal ceremony, nissu'in or chupah, the actual ceremony for the marriage.
Erusin changes the couple's interpersonal status, while nissu'in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status. This was adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, although unlike in Judaism the contract made in front of witness was only verbal; the giving of a ring was borrowed from Judaism by Roman marriage law, with the fiancé presenting it after swearing the oath of marriage intent, presenting of the gifts at the engagement party. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. In Jewish weddings during Talmudic times, the two ceremonies of betrothal and wedding took place up to a year apart. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public; the betrothal is now part of the Jewish wedding ceremony, accomplished when the groom gives the bride the ring or another object of at least nominal value. As mentioned above, betrothal in Judaism is separate from engagement. Typical steps of a match were the following: Negotiation of a match done by the couple's families with bride and groom having varying levels of input, from no input, to veto power, to a fuller voice in the selection of marriage partner.
This is not as practiced as it was although it is still common in culturally conservative communities in Israel, India and Persian Gulf countries, although most of these have a requirement that the bride be at least allowed veto power. Negotiation of bride price or dowry In most cultures evolved from Europe, bride prices or dowries have been reduced to the engagement ring accompanying the marriage contract, while in other cultures, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, they are still part of negotiating a marriage contract. Blessing by the parents and clergy Exchange of Vows and Signing of Contracts Often one of these is omitted Celebration The exact duration of a betrothal varies according to culture and the participants’ needs and wishes. For adults, it may be anywhere from several hours to a period of several years. A year and a day are common in neo-pagan groups today. In the case of child marriage, betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage; the responsibilities and privileges of betrothal vary.
In most cultures, the betrothed couple is expected to spend much time together, learning about each other. In some historical cultures, the betrothal was a trial marriage, with marriage only being required in cases of conception of a child. All cultures are loosening restrictions against physical contact between partners in cultures that had strong prohibitions against it; the betrothal period was considered to be a preparatory time, in which the groom built a house, started a business or otherwise proved his readiness to enter adult society. In medieval Europe, in canon law, a betrothal could be formed by the exchange of vows in the future tense, but sexual intercourse consummated the vows, making a binding marriage rather than a betrothal. Although these betrothals could be concluded with only the vows spoken by the couple, they had legal implications: Richard III of England had his older brother's children declared illegitimate on the grounds their father had been betrothed to another woman when he married their mother.
A betrothal is considered to be a'semi-binding' contract. Normal reasons for invalidation of a betrothal include: Revelation of a prior commitment or marriage Evidence of infidelity Failure to conceive Failure of either party to meet the financial and property stipulations of the betrothal contractNormally, either party can break a betrothal, though some financial penalty applies. In some common law countries, including England and Wales and many US states, it was once possible for the spurned partner to sue the other for breach
A chuppah huppah, chupah, or chuppa, is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony. It consists of a cloth or sheet, sometimes a tallit, stretched or supported over four poles, or sometimes manually held up by attendants to the ceremony. A chuppah symbolizes the home. In a more general sense, chupah refers to the method by which nesuin, the second stage of a Jewish marriage, is accomplished. According to some opinions, it is accomplished by the couple standing under the canopy. A traditional chuppah in Orthodox Judaism, recommends that there be open sky above the chuppah, although this is not mandatory among Sephardic communities. If the wedding ceremony is held indoors in a hall, sometimes a special opening is built to be opened during the ceremony. Many Hasidim prefer to conduct the entire ceremony outdoors, it is said. In Yemen, the Jewish practice was not for the groom and his bride to be secluded in a canopy hung on four poles, as is practised today in Jewish weddings, but rather in a bridal chamber that was, in effect, a decorated room in the house of the groom.
This room was traditionally decorated with large hanging sheets of colored, patterned cloth, replete with wall cushions and short-length mattresses for reclining. Their marriage is consummated; this ancient practice finds expression in the writings of Isaac ben Abba Mari, author of Sefer ha-'Ittur, concerning the Benediction of the Bridegroom: "Now the chuppah is when her father delivers her unto her husband, bringing her into that house wherein is some new innovation, such as the sheets… surrounding the walls, etc. For we recite in the Jerusalem Talmud, Sotah 46a,'Those bridal chambers, they hang within them patterned sheets and gold-embroidered ribbons,' etc." The word chuppah appears in the Hebrew Bible. Abraham P. Bloch states that the connection between the term chuppah and the wedding ceremony'can be traced to the Bible'. There were for centuries regional differences in what constituted a'huppah'. Indeed, Solomon Freehof finds. Alfred J. Kolatch notes that it was during the Middle Ages that the'chupa... in use today' became customary.
Daniel Sperber notes that for many communities prior to the 16th century, the huppah consisted of a veil worn by the bride. In others, it was a cloth spread over the shoulders of the groom. Numerous illustrations of Jewish weddings in medieval Europe, North Africa and Italy show no evidence of a huppah as it is known today. Moses Isserles notes that the portable marriage canopy was adopted by Ashkenazi Jews in the generation before he composed his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. In Biblical times, a couple consummated their marriage in a tent. In Talmudic times, the room where the marriage was consummated was called the chuppah. There is however a reference of a wedding canopy in the Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 57a: "It was the custom when a boy was born to plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born to plant a pine tree, when they married, the tree was cut down and a canopy made of the branches". Jewish weddings consist of two separate parts: the betrothal ceremony, known as erusin or kiddushin, the actual wedding ceremony, known as nisuin.
The first ceremony prohibits the bride to all other men and cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. The second ceremony permits the bride to her husband; the two ceremonies took place separately. After the initial betrothal, the bride lived with her parents until the day the actual marriage ceremony arrived. After the ceremony the bride and groom would spend an hour together in an ordinary room, the bride would enter the chuppah and, after gaining her permission, the groom would join her. In the Middle Ages these two stages were combined into a single ceremony and the chuppah lost its original meaning, with various other customs replacing it. Indeed, in post-talmudic times the use of the chuppa chamber ceased; the canopy'created the semblance of a room'. There are legal varying opinions as to. Major opinions include standing under the canopy, secluding the couple together in a room; the bethothal and chuppah ceremonies are separated by the reading of the ketubah. This chuppah ceremony is connected to the seven blessings which are recited over a cup of wine at the conclusion of the ceremony.
The chuppah represents a Jewish home symbolized by the four poles. Just as a chuppah is open on all four sides, so was the tent of Abraham open for hospitality. Thus, the chuppah represents hospitality to one's guests; this "home" lacks furniture as a reminder
Hora known as horo and oro, is a type of circle dance originating in the Balkans but found in other countries. The name is cognate to the Greek χορός: "dance", cognate with the ancient Greek art form of χορεία; the original meaning of the Greek word χορός may have been "circle". The course of the seasons was symbolically described as the dance of the Greco-Roman Horae, they were accordingly given the attributes of spring flowers and graceful freshness; the words hora and oro are found in many Slavic languages and have the meaning of "round". The Greek χορός is cognate with Pontic khoron, Bulgarian хоро, Romanian horă, kolo or оро in the languages of the former Yugoslavia, the Turkish form hora, valle in Albania, in Hebrew הורה; the Khorumi dance of Georgia might be connected to the Horon dance in the neighbouring Turkish regions, as it rose out of the Adjara region, where Kartvelian Laz people co-existed for centuries with Greek Pontians. Hora is a traditional Romanian folk dance where the dancers hold each other's hands and the circle spins counterclockwise, as each participant follows a sequence of three steps forward and one step back.
The dance is accompanied by musical instruments such as the cymbalom, violin, double bass, trumpet or the pan pipes. The hora is popular during wedding celebrations and festivals, is an essential part of the social entertainment in rural areas. One of the most famous hore is the Hora Unirii, which became a Romanian patriotic song as a result of being the hymn when Wallachia and Moldavia united to form the Principality of Romania in 1859. During the 2006/2007 New Year's Eve celebration, when Romania and Bulgaria joined the European Union, people were dancing Hora Bucuriei over the boulevards of Bucharest as a tribute to the EU anthem, Ode to Joy; some of the biggest hora circles can be found on early 20th century movies filmed by the Manakis brothers in Pindus and performed by local Aromanians. Variants: Perinița The traditional Bulgarian dance horo comes in many shapes, it is not necessary to be in a circle. The steps used in a horo dance are diverse; the horo may vary between three and seven or eight steps forward and one to five or six steps back, depending on the specific type.
There are more than five types of horo that are danced at every wedding. They differ by the steps taken. There are no two horo dances with similar steps. There are over one hundred types of horo dances in the Bulgarian folklore. In the past, the horo dance had a social role in Bulgarian society, it was for fun, as a contest of skills, or for show, leading to the development of the variety of horo dances. There are hora for people with little skill that can be learned in five to ten minutes, but there are very sophisticated dances that cannot be learned unless one is fluent in many of the simpler dances. North Macedonia uses the Cyrillic spelling of "oro"; the origins of Macedonian oro vary from its use in socializing and celebrating, to historical dancing before going into battle. Teshkoto, translated "The difficult one", is one of those, danced by men only, the music of which reflects the sorrow and mood of war; the oro is danced with men and women holding one another by hand. They are used to celebrate occasions such as weddings, name-days and religious holidays, birthdays.
The Hora/Oro circle dance should not be confused with the Oro dance in Montenegro and Herzegovina, a paired mating dance. Its name comes from the Serbian орао, meaning "eagle". Hora is played in Eastern Thrace; the Oro is popular among the Romani people of Eastern Europe, the dancing is the same as that of the neighbouring ethnicities. Romani oros, Romani music in general, are well appreciated among non-Romani people in the Balkans, as they have a reputation as the skilful performers of other folk music there; the Horah in klezmer music is the same as the traditional Romanian Hora dance. It has a slow, limping gait in 38 and leads into a faster and more upbeat freylekh or bulgar; the horah, somewhat different from that of some of the Eastern European countries, is widespread in the Jewish diaspora and played a foundational role in modern Israeli folk dancing. It became the symbol of the reconstruction of the country by the socialistic-agricultural Zionist movement. Although considered traditional, some claim it rose to popularity due to Hora Agadati, named after dancer and choreographer Baruch Agadati and performed for the first time in 1924.
It is performed to Israeli folk songs, sometimes to Jewish songs to the music of "Hava Nagila". To start the dance, everybody forms a circle, holding hands or interlocking arms behind their backs or on their shoulders and steps forward toward the right with the left foot follows with the right foot; the left foot is brought back, followed by the right foot. This is done while circling together in a fast and cheerful motion to the right. Large groups allow for the creation of several concentric circles. In the early days, horah was popular in kibbutzim and small communities; the dancing continued for hours. The horah became popular in group dances throughout Israel, at weddings and other celebrations by Jews in Israel, the United States, United Kingdom and Canada; the dance appeared in North Amer