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Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east, it has an area of 79,710 km2. It is the 15th largest state by area, the 14th largest by population. Hindi is the official language of the state; the city of Ranchi is Dumka its sub capital. The state is known for its waterfalls and holy places; the region has been inhabited since the Mesolithic-Chalcolithic period, as shown by several ancient cave paintings. Evidence of use of iron started in this region as early as 1400 BCE; the region was under the rule of many sovereign and autonomous ruling dynasties including Maurya, Gauda, Nagvanshi, Ramgarh Raj, Raksel and Kharagdiha Zamindari estates. In the 16th century Mughal influence reached the region, it came under the East India Company in the 18th century. After the Independence of India, the region became part of Bihar state. There was demand for a separate state in the region and the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 passed in Parliament, giving rise to the new state of Jharkhand.

Jharkhand suffers from what is sometimes termed a resource curse: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities. Jharkhand is among the leading states in economic growth. In 2017–18, the GSDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%. The word "Jhar" means'bush' and "Khand" means'land' in various Indo-Aryan languages, thus "Jharkhand" means'land of bush or forest'. Stone tools have been discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region, from Mesolithic and Neolithic period. There are ancient cave paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period. In Kabra-Kala mound at the confluence of Son and North Koel rivers in Palamu district various antiquities and art objects have found which are from Neolithic to the medieval period and the pot-sherds of Redware and red ware, black ware, black slipped ware and NBP ware are from Chalcolithic to the late medieval period.

Several iron slags and potsherds have been discovered from Singhbhum district which are from 1400 BCE according to carbon dating age. The region was ruled by many empires and dynasties including Maurya, Gauda, Nagvanshi, Ramgarh Raj, Raksel and notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates of Koderma, Ledo Gadi, Gandey Gadi and Gadi Palganj. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Anga. In the Mauryan period, this region was ruled by a number of states, which were collectively known as the Atavika states; these states accepted the suzerainty of the Maurya empire during Ashoka's reign. Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley. In the 7th century, Chinese traveller Xuanzang passed through the region, he described the kingdom as Shashanka as its ruler. To the north of Karn-Suberna was Magadha, Champa was in east, Mahendra in the west and Orissa in the south.

During medieval period, the region ruled by Nagvanshi and Chero ruler. The Mughal influence reached Palamu during the reign of Emperor Akbar when it was invaded by Raja Mansingh in 1574. Several invasion took place during Mughal rule. During region of Nagvanshi King Madhu Singh, Akbar' general invaded Khukhra. There was invasion during region of Durjan Sal; the King Medini Ray, ruled from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau. His rule extended to areas in South Hazaribagh, he defeated the Nagvanshi Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Chero rule in Palamu region lasted till 19th CE, until internal conflict between various factions weakened the Cheros and they were defeated by the East India Company. Palamu estate was sold by the British. Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagvanshi dynasty and Kharagdiha became parts of territories of East India Company. Ramgarh Raj along with estates of other chiefs in the regions was permanently settled as Zamindari estate; the Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates.

Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates were Gadi Palganj and Ledo Gadi. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people; the first revolt against the British East India Company was led by Raghunath Mahato, in 1769. In 1771, the revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum. In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. Bakhtar Say and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India company in 1812; the Princely states in Chota Nagpur Plateau, came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States. The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in Kol revolt in 1832 West Bengal.

The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Kanhu. The brothers Nilambar and Pitambar were chiefs of Bhog

Hovhannes Shiraz

Hovhannes Shiraz was an Armenian poet. Shiraz was born Onik Tadevosi Karapetyan in the city of Alexandropol part of the Russian Empire, his mother, was widowed by the Armenian Genocide shortly before his birth. Shiraz grew up in a considerable poverty, his first work called Beginning of Spring was published in 1935. Novelist Atrpet gave the talented poet the epithet "Shiraz", because "this youth's poems have the fragrance of roses and covered with dew, like the roses of Shiraz". Another version of his pen name is "Shirak azn" -- a child of the region he was from. Hovhannes Shiraz studied in Moscow Maxim Gorky Literature Institute. In 1958, he published the first volume of his anthology Knar Hayastani; the second and third volumes were published in 1965 and 1974. These collections include the best examples of Shiraz's poetry. Shiraz wrote and published poetry, he is an author of popular patriotic and love poems included "Ani", "My Mother", "May my love remain a secret", "Siamanto and Khjezare", "Expromptu", "Like the Pagan Love", "My Holy Homeland", "The Fate of Armenians", "To Andranik", etc.

He wrote "The Armenian Dante-esque" about the Armenian genocide, a subject, banned in Soviet Union. The first version of this masterpiece was written in 1941. Only short passages from this work were published in Soviet Armenia during his lifetime, some chapters were published in Beirut and Tehran; the entire poem was published in 1990 in Yerevan. He was buried in Yerevan, along with other distinguished Armenians, he first married famous Armenian poet Silva Kaputikyan. His son with Kaputikyan, Ara Shiraz, was a sculptor. Shiraz had seven children with Shushanik Shiraz. One of their sons, Sipan Shiraz, was a poet. Yerevan school #169 and a street in Julfa of Isfahan are named after him. Hovhannes Shiraz’s House-Museum is located in a nineteenth-century building in Gyumri. Shiraz was known for his good sense of humour. In 1963 John Steinbeck visited poet's apartment in Yerevan, wrote in a letter: " are closest together when they laugh together. And I remember that in Yerevan we laughed together a great deal."Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Alexander Gitovich dedicated poems to Shiraz.

Shiraz was an anti-establishment poet, popular with the people of Soviet Armenia but fought against its corrupt Soviet leadership all his life. When in 1974 the known critic Suren Aghababyan has brought to Shiraz the news about awarding of the Order of Lenin, the answer has followed: "And what they want in exchange? To buy my silence?" Shiraz is an author of about forty poetry translations. His rich vocabulary and sensitive style, enhanced by folk and colloquial elements, made his poetry one of the highest achievements of Armenian literature. Critics consider many of his works masterpieces. According to Paruyr Sevak, "The modern Armenian poetry has risen on the ridge of Shiraz". "Shiraz is a great talent, we should be proud and consider as a great honor that we know him", wrote William Saroyan. Shiraz built his poems with Armenian tuff of emothions, added Yevgeny Yevtushenko. Poems of Shiraz are known throughout the former USSR and abroad. Anyway, as Andrey Dementyev writes, Hovhannes Shiraz, like Sergey Yesenin, uses many metaphors, so it's hard to translate his poems.

During a meeting with Soviet writers, to demonstrate what kind of poetry he liked best, Hindi writer Bhisham Sahni, showed a journal containing some poems by Hovhannes Shiraz. Hovhannes Shiraz’s House-Museum is located on the Master's Street of Gyumri; the house was presented to Shiraz by Soviet Armenian officials in 1983. The house was an old building belonged to a millionaire. In 2003 it became a house-museum. Beginning of Spring, 1935 Song of Armenia, 1940 The voice of poet, 1942 A book of songs, 1942 Biblian, 1944 Lyre of Armenia, three volumes, 1958, 1965 and 1974 A monument to my Mother, 1968 Peace to everybody, 1982 "Hovhannes Shiraz: A Documentary". In 2005 Director Levon Mkrtchyan released a documentary film titled "Hovhannes Shiraz". "On the Path to Eternity", Armenfilm, 1983, 35mm, director Levon Mkrtchyan, composer Sarkis Aladjadjyan Hovhannes Shiraz Museum's Official Website Hovhannes Shiraz Hovhannes Shiraz on YouTube

United States House Transportation Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management

The Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management is a subcommittee within the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The Subcommittee oversees economic development programs; the real estate management arm of the Subcommittee, for example, oversees the Public Buildings Service, responsible for the infrastructure and use of the Capitol Grounds, the Smithsonian Institution, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; the Subcommittee manages the Federal Emergency Management Agency, certain aspects of the Department of Homeland Security. Subcommittee website

Rational set

In computer science, more in automata theory, a rational set of a monoid is an element of the minimal class of subsets of this monoid that contains all finite subsets and is closed under union and Kleene star. Rational sets are useful in formal languages and algebra. A rational set generalizes the notion of rational language to monoids that are not free. Let be a monoid with identity element e; the set R A T of rational subsets of N is the smallest set that contains every finite set and is closed under union: if A, B ∈ R A T A ∪ B ∈ R A T product: if A, B ∈ R A T A × B = ∈ R A T Kleene star if A ∈ R A T A ∗ = ⋃ i = 0 ∞ A i ∈ R A T where A 0 = is the singleton containing the identity element, where A n + 1 = A n × A. This means that any rational subset of N can be obtained by taking a finite number of finite subsets of N and applying the union and Kleene star operations a finite number of times. In general a rational subset of a monoid is not a submonoid. Let A be an alphabet, the set A ∗ of words over A is a monoid.

The rational subset of A ∗ are the regular languages. Indeed, the regular languages may be defined by a finite regular expression; the rational subsets of N are the periodic sets of integers. More the rational subsets of N k are the semilinear sets. McKnight's theorem states that if N is finitely generated its recognizable subset are rational sets; this is not true in general, since the whole N is always recognizable but it is not rational if N is infinitely generated. Rational sets are closed under morphism: given N and M two monoids and ϕ: N → M a morphism, if S ∈ R A T ϕ = ∈ R A T. R A T is not closed under complement as the following example shows. Let N = ∗ × ∗, the sets R = ∗ ∗ = and S = ∗ ∗ = are rational but R ∩ S = {\displaystyle R\cap S=\{\mid n\in \mathb

Ogier the Dane

Ogier the Dane is a legendary knight of Charlemagne who appears in many Old French chansons de geste. In particular, he features as the protagonist in La Chevalerie Ogier, which belongs to the Geste de Doon de Mayence; the first part of this epic, the enfance of Ogier, is marked by his duel against a Saracen from whom he obtains the sword Cortain, followed by victory over another Saracen opponent from whom he wins the horse Broiefort. In subsequent parts, Ogier turns into a rebel with cause, seeking refuge with the King of Lombardy and warring with Charlemagne for many years, until he is reconciled when a dire need for him emerges after another Saracen incursion, his character is a composite based on an historical Autcharius Francus, aligned with king Desiderius of Lombardy against Charlemagne. The legend of a certain Othgerius buried in Meaux is incorporated into the Chevalerie. In Scandinavia he was first known as Oddgeir danski in the Old Norse prose translation Karlamagnús saga, but became more known as Holger Danske and was given the pedigree of being Olaf son of King Gøtrik, in a Danish translation published in the 16th century.

Since Holger Danske has become a Danish folklore hero, with a sleeping hero motif attached to him, a symbol of Danish identity and patriotism as well as anti-German nationalism. The Ogier character is believed to be based on Autcharius Francus, a Frankish knight who had served Carloman and escorted his widow and young children to Desiderius, King of Lombardy, but surrendered to Charlemagne; the Ogier character could have been constructed from the historical Adalgis, son of Desiderius, who played a similar role. The chanson de geste does parallel this, Ogier does seek refuge with the Lombardian king Didier or Désier. An unrelated Othgerius, a benefactor buried at the Abbey of Saint Faro in Meaux in France, became connected with Ogier by a work called Conversio Othgeri militis written by the monks there; this tradition is reflected in the chanson of Ogier. There is no Ogier of consequence in Danish history. However, the Danish work Holger Danskes Krønike made Ogier into the son of King Gøtrek of Denmark.

"Olgerus, dux Daniæ" had rebuilt the St. Martin's monastery pillaged by the Saxons in 778, according to the chronicle of this monastery at Cologne. However, this may just be poetic fiction. Ogier the Dane's first appearance in any work is in Chanson de Roland, where he is not named as one of the douzepers of Charlemagne, although he is one of the twelve peers in other works. In the poeticized Battle of Ronceveaux, Ogier is assigned to be the vanguard and commands the Bavarian Army in the battle against Baligant in the half, he plays only a minor part in this poem, it is unclear what becomes of him, but the Pseudo-Turpin knows of a tradition that Ogier was killed at Roncevaux. A full career of Ogier from youth to death is treated in La Chevalerie Ogier de Danemarche, a 13th-century assonanced poem of 13,000 lines attributed to Raimbert de Paris, it relates his rebellion against Charlemagne and eventual reconciliation. This is now considered a retelling. Ogier in a lost original "Chevalerie Ogier primitive" is thought to have fought alongside the Lombards because Charlemagne attacked at the Pope's bidding, as happened in the Siege of Pavia, that is, there was no fighting with the Saracens as a prelude to this.

The legend that Ogier fought valiantly with some Saracens in his youth is the chief material of the first branch of Raimbert's Chevalerie Ogier. This is recounted in Enfances Ogier, a rhymed poem of 9,229 lines by Adenet le Roi; the story of Ogier's youth develops with close similarity in these two works starting at the beginning, but they diverge at a certain point when Raimbert's version begins to be more economical with the details. Ogier in versions of the Renaissance travels to the Avalon ruled by King Arthur and becomes paramour of Morgan le Fay; this is how the story culminates in Roman d'Ogier, a reworking in Alexandrins written in the 14th century, as well as its prose redaction retitled Ogier le Danois printed in a number of editions from the late 15th century onwards. There are several texts that might be classed as "histories" which refer to Ogier. Girart d'Amiens' Charlemagne contains a variant of Ogier's enfances. Jean d'Outremeuse's Ly Myreur des Histors writes of Ogier's combat with the capalus.

Philippe Mouskes's 13th-century Chronique rimée writes on Ogier's death. A legend of Conversio Othgeri militis was invented by the monks at the abbey of Saint Faro at Meaux around 1070–1080, it claimed Othgerius Francus to be the most illustrious member of Charlemagne's court after the king himself, thus making him identifiable with Ogier the Dane. He was buried in the abbey in a mausoleum built for him, his remains were placed in a sarcophagus lidded with his recumbent tomb effigy lying next to that of Saint Benedictus, the chamber was enshrined with erect statues of various figures from the Charlemagne Cycle. A stone head found in Meaux was determined to

John Purcell (author)

John Purcell is an Australian author whose novels include The Secret Lives of Emma published by Penguin Random House in 2012 and The Girl on the Page, due to be published by HarperCollins Australia in October 2018. He is the Director of Books at Booktopia and Angus & Robertson Bookworld. John appears in print, on television and at Australian writers festivals to talk about books and the publishing industry. John Purcell grew up in the wealthy lower-north-shore suburb of Mosman, he attended Mosman High School and was in his final months of school when his teachers figured out he could read due to undiagnosed dyslexia.'Then a teacher put a copy of Catch-22 in my hands and that changed my life,' John has said. He still had fallen in love with books. From 1999-2008, John ran John's Bookshop, a second-hand bookshop located in Mosman, he has described this period of his life as his'education' as a writer and says he spent more time reading and writing than selling books. He learned a great deal from his customers and dissuaded them from buying the latest bestseller in favour of a Dostoevsky, a Hardy or an E.

M. Forster. About this stage of his life, John has said,'I had no interest in business, it was a place for me to sit and pontificate, I was anti most of the books in the universe. It was just the classics and the greatest writing possible.'John closed'John's Bookshop' in late 2008 when the building in which it was housed was to be redeveloped and joined the staff of, where he holds the title of Director of Books. In June 2017 he was nominated for Australian Bookseller of the Year. John has written about the extreme contrast between his two experiences of being a bookseller:'Since leaving the second-hand bookshop I have become unrecognisable to myself. I have become the book guy at Australia's fastest growing online bookshop. I have published a series of erotic novels under a pseudonym. I have interviewed hundreds of authors and celebrities. I have worked with every major publisher in the country, and I read a book by a dead person.' John's bestselling trilogy The Secret Lives of Emma began as a short story written'to impress a girl'.

John wrote a fuller version in his twenties, drawing inspiration from Henry Miller's graphic realism, but he made no attempt to have it published. It remained in a drawer until 2011 when, in the wake of the publication of Fifty Shades of Grey, publishers were "scrambling for erotic fiction"; the Secret Lives of Emma was published under the pseudonym'Natasha Walker', which John says he used to protect his stepchildren from the adult content, as well as to safeguard his professional reputation. His publishers agreed as they believed readers would be more comfortable with a woman writing erotic fiction, it sold over 50,000 copies in print and eBook in its first year of publication and in 2012 John was the third-highest selling debut author in Australia. Caroline Overington broke the story of John's identity in The Australian Women's Weekly in May 2013, further increasing sales. John's second work, The Girl on the Page was acquired by HarperCollins Australia in January 2018 and will be published under the imprint 4th Estate.

Publisher Catherine Milne said: ‘The joy of this novel isn’t just that it’s a complete page-turner... but that at its heart The Girl on the Page is a serious and intelligent novel about the power of literature, which asks searching questions about art and commerce and authenticity’. John has blogged about the novel, stating:'Everything I had done up till now had been research for The Girl on the Page.'The Girl on the Page was published in Australia in September 2018. John Purcell - official website