Jiang Zemin is a Chinese retired politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002 as Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2004 and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. Jiang has been described as the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party leaders since 1989. Jiang came to power unexpectedly as a'compromise candidate' following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 when he replaced Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary after Zhao was ousted for his support for the student movement. With the waning influence of Eight Elders due to old age and with the death of Deng Xiaoping in 1997, Jiang consolidated his hold on power and became the "paramount leader" of the party and the country in the 1990s. Urged by Deng's southern tour in 1992 to accelerate "opening up and reform", Jiang introduced the term "socialist market economy" in his speech during the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held that year, ending a period of ideological uncertainty and economic stagnation following 1989.
Under Jiang's leadership, China experienced substantial economic growth with the continuation of reforms, saw the peaceful return of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom in 1997 and Macau from Portugal in 1999 and improved its relations with the outside world while the Communist Party maintained its tight control over the government. His contributions to party doctrine, known as the "Three Represents," were written into the party's constitution in 2002. Jiang vacated the post of party General Secretary and Politburo Standing Committee in 2002, but did not relinquish all of his leadership titles until 2005, continued to influence affairs until much later. At the age of 93 years, 196 days, Jiang is the longest-living paramount leader in the history of the PRC, surpassing Deng Xiaoping on 14 February 2019. Jiang Zemin was born in the city of Yangzhou, Jiangsu in 17 August 1926, his ancestral home was the Jiang Village in Anhui. This was the hometown of a number of prominent figures in Chinese academic and intellectual establishments.
Jiang grew up during the years of Japanese occupation. His uncle his foster father, Jiang Shangqing, died fighting the Japanese in World War II and is considered in Jiang Zemin's time to be a national hero. Since Shangqing had no heirs, Shangqing's elder brother, Jiang's biological father Jiang Shijun, the vice officer of the publicity department of Japanese-ruled Nanking government, let Jiang become the adopted son of Shangqing's wife, his aunt, Wang Zhelan, whom he referred to as "Niang". Jiang attended the Department of Electrical Engineering at the National Central University in Japanese-occupied Nanjing before transferring to National Chiao Tung University, he graduated there in 1947 with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. He claims. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Jiang received his training at the Stalin Automobile Works in Moscow in the 1950s, he worked for Changchun's First Automobile Works. He was transferred to government services, where he began to rise in prominence and rank becoming a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Minister of Electronic Industries in 1983.
In 1985 he became Mayor of Shanghai, subsequently the Party Secretary of Shanghai. Jiang received mixed reviews as mayor. Many of his critics dismissed him as a "flower pot", a Chinese term for someone who only seems useful, but gets nothing done. Many credited Shanghai's growth during the period to Zhu Rongji. Jiang was an ardent believer, in Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms. In an attempt to curb student discontent in 1986, Jiang recited the Gettysburg Address in English in front of a group of student protesters. Jiang was described as having a passable command of several foreign languages, including Romanian and English. One of his favorite activities was to engage foreign visitors in small talk on arts and literature in their native language, in addition to singing foreign songs in the original language, he became friends with Allen Broussard, the African-American judge who visited Shanghai in 1987 and Brazilian actress Lucélia Santos. Jiang was elevated to national politics in 1987, automatically becoming a member of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee because it is customarily dictated that the Party Secretary of Shanghai would have a seat in the Politburo.
In 1989, China was in crisis over the Tiananmen Square protest, the central government was in conflict on how to handle the protesters. In June, Deng Xiaoping dismissed liberal Zhao Ziyang, considered to be too conciliatory toward the student protestors. At the time, Jiang was the top figure in China's new economic center. In an incident with the World Economic Herald, Jiang closed down the newspaper, deeming it to be harmful; the handling of the crisis in Shanghai was noticed by Beijing, by paramount leader Deng Xiaoping. As the protests escalated and Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang was removed from office, Jiang was selected by the Party leaders as a compromise candidate over Tianjin's Li Ruihuan, Premier Li Peng, Li Xiannian, Chen Yun, the retired elders to become the new General Secretary. Before that, he had been considered to be an unlikely candidate. Within three years, Deng had transferred most power in the state and military to Jiang. Jiang was elevated to the country's top job in 1989 with a small power base inside the party, thus little actual power.
His most re
Professor Sinnappah Arasaratnam was a Ceylonese academic and author, born in Sri Lanka during British colonial rule. Known as Arasa, he was a lecturer at the University of Ceylon, University of Malaya and University of New England. Arasaratnam was born on 20 March 1930 in Navaly in northern province of Ceylon, he was educated at Vaddukoddai. After school he joined the University of Ceylon in 1947 from where he graduated in 1951 with a First Class Honours BA degree. Arasaratnam married Thanalakshmi, daughter of Selvathurai, they had a son. They have 2 granddaughters and 5 grandsons. Arasaratnam was a practising Christian who attended the Uniting Church in New South Wales. After graduation in 1951 Arasaratnam was appointed an assistant lecturer of history at the University of Ceylon. In 1954 he joined the University of London to carry out doctoral research and in 1956 he graduated with a Ph. D in history. On returning to Ceylon Arasaratnam rejoined the University of Ceylon as a lecturer, he was appointed lecturer in Indian Studies at the University of Malaya in 1961.
He was promoted to professor of history in 1968. Arasaratnam was appointed second professor in the Department of History at the University of New England in 1972, he took up the post in 1973. He held the Smuts Fellowship in Commonwealth Studies, Cambridge in 1977. Arasaratnam retired from the University of New England in March 1995. Arasaratnam died in Sydney, Australia on 4 October 1998, he was 68. Arasaratnam was prolific writer — he wrote 15 books and 93 articles/chapters, his literary works were achieved while engaged with activities such as sitting on key bodies such as the Academic Advisory Committee. Dutch Power in Ceylon, 1658-1687 Ceylon Indian festivals in Malaya Indians in Malaysia and Singapore. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. 1970. Maritime India in the seventeenth century Ceylon and the Dutch, 1600-1800 Maritime commerce and English power
Uncle Charlie & His Dog Teddy is the 1970 album from The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band that contains the hit song "Mr. Bojangles"; the album reached #66 on US charts. Three singles charted: "Mr. Bojangles" reached #9, "House On Pooh Corner" reached #53, "Some Of Shelly's Blues" reached #64; the 1994 CD version has His Dog on the spine. Side 1"Some of Shelly's Blues" – 2:51 "Prodigal's Return" – 3:11 "The Cure" – 2:11 "Travelin' Mood" – 2:39 "Chicken Reel" – 0:55 "Yukon Railroad" – 2:16 "Livin' Without You" – 2:00 "Clinch Mountain Backstep" – 2:31 "Rave On" – 2:56 "Billy in the Low Ground" – 1:13Side 2"Jesse James" – 0:50 "Uncle Charlie Interview" – 1:38 "Mr. Bojangles" – 3:37 "Opus 36, Clementi" – 1:42 "Santa Rosa" – 2:24 "Propinquity" – 2:20 "Uncle Charlie" – 1:49 "Randy Lynn Rag" – 1:46 "House at Pooh Corner" – 2:39 "Swanee River" – 0:36 "Uncle Charlie Interview #2 / Spanish Fandango" – 2:36Extra tracks on the 2003 CD reissue: "Mississippi Rain" – 3:06 "What Goes On" – 2:12 The Band Les Thompson - electric bass, electric guitar, vocals Jimmie Fadden - lead acoustic and electric guitar, washtub bass, vocals Jeff Hanna - rhythm acoustic and electric guitar, washboard, vocals Jimmy Ibbotson - rhythm acoustic guitar, lead electric guitar, electric piano, conga, vocals John McEuen - banjo, acoustic guitar, accordion Contributing Musicians Bill Cunningham Maurice Manceau - guitar, vocals Jim Gordon - horns, keyboards Mike Rubine John London - bass Byron Berline - violin Russ Kunkel - drums Not credited on LP or CD Chris Darrow - guitar, vocals Ralph Barr - guitar, vocalsAccording to a blog specializing in country music discographies, the "Uncle Charlie Interview" was recorded in November 1968.
In actuality, this recording was done in November 1963. The error comes from a typo found on a CD reissue of the Dirt and Gold album. Despite the fact that this is an interview that pre-dates the band's formation and features no other musicians besides the titular Uncle Charlie, it has been blindly assumed on the date alone that Chris Darrow and Ralph Barr play on this track and therefore on this album. Producer: William McEuen Recording Engineer: Woody Woodward Mixing: John McEuen/Jimmy Hoyson Art Direction: Dean Torrence / Kittyhawk Graphics Photography: William McEuen2003 CD reissue with two additional tracks and new liner notes Interview and Liner Notes: Robyn Flans "Some of Shelly's Blues" was written by Michael Nesmith, best known as a member of The Monkees. Jimmy Ibbotson and Jeff Hanna share the vocals, it features harmonica break by Jimmie Fadden. It was released as a single twice; because the title doesn't appear in the lyrics, fans were confused about what song to request on the radio or buy.
"Travelin' Mood" was written and first recorded by R&B artist James "We Willie" Waynes in 1955. It is sung on this album by Jimmie Fadden. "Chicken Reel" is an instrumental track. "Yukon Railroad" is about two people falling in love while riding a train on the Yukon Railroad. The White Pass & Yukon Railroad goes from Alaska to Carcross, Yukon; however it used to go to Yukon. The railroad was built in the late 1890's; the song talks about imagining all the gold on the train about "100 years ago." On "Clinch Mountain Backstep" John plays banjo, Les plays mandolin, Jimmie plays one string washtub bass, Jeff plays the washboard and cymbals. The is credited to Ruby Rakes. Ruby Rakes Eubanks is the half sister of Carter Stanley, she was assigned the rights to many of their songs for personal financial reasons. "Rave On" is the Buddy Holly song. Jimmy and Jeff share the lead vocal. "Billy in the Low Ground" is a traditional tune played by Les Thompson on mandolin. It is a short song that fades in and out. "Jesse James" is a 1963 recording of Uncle Charlie, a relative of Bill McEuen's wife.
It is a folk song that dates back to at least to 1924. Uncle Charlie stops mid-song saying "That's about all I can think of." The "Uncle Charlie Interview" is from the same 1963 recording. He first gives some biographical information, he was born in Kaufman County, Texas on September 11, 1886, moved to California in 1906. He did not serve in either world war, he took care of his parents in their old age. He gets his dog Teddy to sing along with his harmonica; this leads directly into Mr. Bojangles. "Mr. Bojangles" was recorded by Jerry Jeff Walker. Jeff Hanna mentioned it to Jimmy Ibbotson. Ibbotson knew the song and had been carrying the single around in his trunk for months, they transcribed the song as best they could. However, they got a few words wrong on the final recording; this story is told in more colorful detail on the
Connor Seabold is an American professional baseball pitcher in the Philadelphia Phillies organization. He was drafted by the Phillies in the third round of the 2017 MLB draft. Seabold attended Newport Harbor High School in California. In 2013, as a junior, he went 2–6 with a 1.97 ERA. As a senior in 2014, he pitched to a 3.80 ERA. He was drafted by the Baltimore Orioles in the 19th round of the 2014 MLB draft, but did not sign and instead chose to enroll at California State University, Fullerton where he played college baseball. In 2015, as a freshman at Cal State Fullerton, Seabold appeared in 22 games, going 5–4 with a 3.26 ERA in 69 innings, striking out 76 while walking only 12. As a sophomore in 2016, Seabold became the Titan's Friday night starter a month into the year, pitching to a 7–6 record with a 2.48 ERA in 16 games, striking out 96 and walking only nine in 83 innings. He was named to the All-Big West Conference Second Team. After the season, he played in the Cape Cod Baseball League for the Yarmouth–Dennis Red Sox, helping them win the league championship.
In 2017, as a junior, Seabold started 18 games, going 11–5 with a 2.96 ERA, earning a spot on the All-Big West Conference First Team. After his junior year, he was drafted by the Philadelphia Phillies in the third round of the 2017 MLB draft. Seabold signed with the Phillies for $525,000 and made his professional debut with the Williamsport Crosscutters, pitching to a 0.90 ERA in ten innings. In 2018, he began the year with the Clearwater Threshers before earning a promotion to the Reading Fightin Phils in June. In 23 starts between the two clubs, he went 5–8 with a 4.28 ERA and a 1.11 WHIP as he struck out 132 batters in 130.1 innings. He returned to Reading to begin 2019, spent time with Clearwater. Over seven starts with Reading, he went 3-1 with a 2.25 ERA, while compiling a 1.00 ERA over two games with Clearwater. He pitched four starts in the Arizona Fall League for the Scottsdale Scorpions following the season, going 1-0 with a 1.06 ERA as he struck out 22 batters in 17 innings. He pitched for the United States national baseball team in the 2019 WBSC Premier 12 tournament in November 2019.
Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference
Mega or MEGA may refer to: mega-, the SI prefix for one million Mega "mega-" a prefix meaning "large", used in taxonomy Aixam-Mega, a French automobile manufacturer based in Aix-les-Bains, Savoie Mega Aircompany, a charter airline based in Almaty, Kazakhstan Mega Enterprise, a South Korean company that specialises in developing games MEGA International Srl. A French software company Mega Maldives, a Maldivian airline Mega, 2005 Mega, 2016 Mega Records, a US record label Mega Records, a Danish record company renamed Edel-Mega Records when it was acquired by Edel Music MEGA, Belarusian Internet radio station Mega 101, a Spanish radio station in Houston Mega 96.3, a Spanish radio station in Los Angeles Mega 97.9, a Spanish radio station in New York City Mega 106.9, a Spanish radio station in Puerto Rico Megawati Sukarnoputri, former Indonesian president Ram Charan Teja, Indian actor. S. MEGA Family Shopping Centre, a network of shopping malls in Russia operated by IKEA MEGA Esports, professional esports organization based in Bangkok, Thailand Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, the complete works of Marx and Engels in German Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad Megatall, a skyscraper taller than 600 m Megabus Mega Man Megha
The modern history of anticlericalism has been characterized by deep conflicts between the government and the Catholic Church, sometimes including outright persecution of Catholics in Mexico. In one form or another, anticlericalism has been a factor in Mexican politics since the Mexican War of Independence from the Spanish Empire, attributable to the frequent change in government and those governments' eagerness to access wealth in the form of the property of the Church. Mexico was born after its independence as a confessional state, its first constitution was enacted in 1824 and stated in the article 3 that the religion of the nation was and would perpetually be Roman Catholic-it prohibited any other religion. After the Revolution of Ayutla, nearly all of the top figures in the government were Freemasons and fierce anticlericalists. In 1857 a Constitution was adopted which attacked the property possessions of the Church. After a civil war and the dominance by the supporters of that Constitution under Benito Juárez, the supporters of tradition backed the ill-fated Second Mexican Empire supported by the Second French Empire.
When Maximilian I of Mexico was deposed and killed, the country descended into a series of anti-clerical governments. After the rule of Porfirio Díaz, moderate in his stance toward the Church, an violent and extreme anticlericalism erupted. In 1917, a new Constitution was enacted, hostile to the Church and religion, which promulgated a draconian anti-clericalism of the sort seen in France during the Revolution; the new Mexican Constitution was hostile to the Church as a consequence of the support given by the High Mexican Catholic Clergy to the dictatorship of Victoriano Huerta. The 1917 Constitution outlawed teaching by the Church, gave control over Church matters to the state, put all Church property at the disposal of the state, outlawed religious orders, outlawed foreign-born priests, gave states the power to limit or eliminate priests in their territory, deprived priests of the right to vote or hold office, prohibited Catholic organizations which advocated public policy, prohibited religious publications from commenting on public policy, prohibited clergy from religious celebrations and from wearing clerical garb outside of a church and deprived citizens of the right to a trial for violations of these provisions.
One political scientist stated that the gist of the 1917 constitution was to "effectively outlaw the Roman Catholic Church and other religious denominations". Another article of the Constitution emboldened Marxist and Communist labor unions which subsequently incited more anti-religious governments. Recent President Vicente Fox stated "After 1917, Mexico was led by anti-Catholic Freemasons who tried to evoke the anticlerical spirit of popular indigenous President Benito Juarez of the 1880s, but the military dictators of the 1920s were a lot more savage than Juarez." Fox goes on to recount how priests were killed for trying to perform the sacraments, altars were desecrated by soldiers and freedom of religion outlawed by generals. As a reaction against the strict enforcement of the above anti-clerical articles in the constitution of 1917 in Mexico Article 130, armed conflict broke out in the Cristero War of 1926 to 1929; this was a civil war between Catholic rebels called Cristeros and the anti-clerical Mexican government of the time, localized in central Western states in Mexico.
The Cristero War came about in response to the anti-clerical laws of the Mexican Constitution of 1917, its interpretation by the "violent atheist" President Plutarco Elías Calles. Though conflict between church and state marked the presidency of Álvaro Obregón, who "accused the clergy of being insincere and of producing conflict" but "spoke of Jesus Christ as'the greatest socialist, known to Humanity'", it was with Calles' election in 1924 that anti-clerical laws were stringently applied throughout the country. Calles added his own anti-clerical legislation, including a requirement that prohibited priests from ministering unless licensed by the state. State officials began to limit the number of priests so that vast areas of the population were left with no priest at all. After a zealous persecution of unlicensed ministry, decrepit churches were soon expropriated for use as garages and the like, the Mexican bishops, deported or underground, as a last resort of protest suspended all remaining ministry and urged the people to protest the persecution of their faith.
Calles presided over the worst persecution of Catholics and clergy in the history of Mexico, including the killing of hundreds of priests and other clergy. One contemporary is quoted as saying that "while President Calles is sane on all other matters, he loses control of himself when the matter of religion comes up, becomes livid in the face and pounds the table to express his hatred." Wearing clerical garb outside of churches was outlawed during his rule and priests exercising their right of political speech could be imprisoned for five years. On November 18, 1926, Pope Pius XI promulgated the encyclical Iniquis afflictisque decrying the severe persecution of the faithful in Mexico and the deprivation of the rights of the faithful and the Church; the formal rebellion began on January 1, 1927 with the rebels calling themselves Cristeros because they felt they were fighting for Christ himself. The Cristeros' battle cry was ¡Viva Cristo Rey!. When Jalisco federal commander General Jesús Maria Ferreira moved on the rebels, he calmly stated that "it will be less a campaign than a hunt."
Just as the Cristeros began to hold their own against the federal forces