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Jiangnan

Jiangnan or Jiang Nan is a geographic area in China referring to lands to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta. The region encompasses the city of Shanghai, the southern part of Jiangsu Province, the southeastern part of Anhui Province, the northern part of Jiangxi Province and the northern part of Zhejiang Province; the most important cities in the area include Anqing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou, Wuxi and Zhenjiang. Jiangnan has long been regarded as one of the most prosperous regions in China due to its wealth in natural resources and high human development. Most people of the region speak Wu Chinese dialects as their native languages; the word Jiangnan is based on the Chinese name for the Yangtze, Cháng Jiāng, nán meaning "south." In the 19th century, English speakers called it Keang-nan. The earliest archaeological evidences were of the Hemudu cultures; the Liangzhu culture, from around 2600–2000 BC, created complex and beautiful jade artifacts.

Their economy was based on rice cultivation and constructed houses on stilts over rivers or lakes. During the Zhou dynasty, the Wu and Baiyue peoples inhabited the area with heavy aquaculture and stilt houses, but became sinicized through contact with northern Chinese states, they created excellent bronze swords. The Chu state from the west defeated the Yue state. After Chu was conquered by the Qin state, China was unified, it was not until the fall of the Western Jin dynasty during the early 4th century AD that northern Chinese moved to Jiangnan in significant numbers. The Yellow River valley was becoming barren due to flooding and constant harassment and invasion by the Wu Hu nomads. Although Chinese civilization originated in the North China Plain around the Yellow River, natural climate change and continuous harassment from nomadic enemies damaged North China's agricultural productivity throughout the 1st millennium AD. Many people settled in South China, where the Jiangnan area's warm and wet climate were ideal for supporting agriculture and allowed sophisticated cities to arise.

As early as the Eastern Han dynasty, Jiangnan areas became one of the more economically prominent areas of China. Other than rice, Jiangnan produced profitable trade products such as tea and celadon porcelain. Convenient transportation – the Grand Canal to the north, the Yangtze River to the west, seaports such as Yangzhou – contributed to local trade and trade between ancient China and other nations. Several Chinese dynasties were based in Jiangnan. After the Qin dynasty fell, the insurgent state of Chu took control, its ruler, Xiang Yu, was born here. During the Three Kingdoms period, Jianye was the capital of Eastern Wu. In the 3rd century, many northern Chinese moved here after nomadic groups controlled the north. In the 10th century, Wuyue was a small coastal kingdom founded by Qian Liu who made a lasting cultural impact on Jiangnan and its people to this day. After the Jurchen overran northern China in the Jin–Song war of the 1120s, the exiled Song dynasty government retreated south, establishing the new Southern Song capital at Hangzhou in 1127.

During the last years of the Yuan dynasty, Jiangnan was fought for by two major rebel states: Zhu Yuanzhang's Ming faction, based in Nanjing, the Suzhou-centered Wu faction led by Zhang Shicheng. A ten-year rivalry ended with Zhu's capture of Suzhou in 1367. Nanjing remained the capital of the Ming dynasty until the early 15th century, when the third Ming ruler, the Yongle Emperor, moved the capital to Beijing; when the Qing dynasty first took over China, Jiangnan's gentry offered resistance in the form of denying the ability to deal with taxes to the government. The Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty made many visits to Jiangnan, which have been the popular subject of numerous Chinese operas and television dramas. Earlier, the Kangxi Emperor visited the region as well. During the 19th century Taiping Rebellion, the regime established by the Taiping rebels occupied much of Jiangnan and made Nanjing its capital; the area suffered much damage as the rebellion was quelled and Qing imperial rule restored.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, the Republic of China, following the wishes of Sun Yat-sen, made Nanjing the national capital. From the late 1920s until the Second World War, the Jiangnan area was the focus of Chinese economic development. Much of the Kuomintang's ruling elite and the ROC's economic elite hailed from the Jiangnan area. Dialect has been used as a tool for regional identity and politics in the Jiangbei and Jiangnan regions. While the city of Yangzhou was a flourishing and prosperous center of trade, it was considered part of Jiangnan, known to be wealthy though Yangzhou was north of the Yangtze river. Once Yangzhou's wealth and prosperity began to wane, it was considered to be part of Jiangbei, the "backwater". After Yangzhou was removed from Jiangnan, its residents decided to replace Jianghuai Mandarin, the dialect of Yangzhou, with Taihu Wu dialects. In Jiangnan itself, multiple subdialects of Wu fought for t

Lucinda A. McDade

Dr. Lucinda A. McDade is an American botanist and plant collector, noted for her study of Acanthaceae and her work in conservation biology, she received her B. S. in Biology from Newcomb College of Tulane University, her Ph. D. in Botany/Zoology from Duke University. She has been president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and Association of Tropical Biology. In 2019 she was awarded the Asa Gray Award by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, she has described at least sixteen species, has gathered around 600 specimens, many from Central and South America. The standard author abbreviation McDade is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. McDade, Lucinda A. La selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226039527. Retrieved 8 March 2019. De Groot, Sarah J. A conservation plan for Berberis harrisoniana. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. ISBN 9780960580880. Retrieved 8 March 2019. McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.

A conservation plan for Xylorhiza cognata. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Retrieved 8 March 2019. Fraga, Naomi S. A conservation plan for Mimulus shevockii. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Retrieved 8 March 2019

Michael Brown (cricketer)

Michael James Brown is an English first-class cricketer. Brown was born in Burnley, attending Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School in neighbouring Blackburn. Like many of his family, he began playing cricket for Burnley Cricket Club, making his debut for the adult side at age 14, his younger brother David is a Cricketer. A right-handed batsman, he made his first-class debut for Middlesex in 1999 and joined Hampshire in 2004. On 3 October 2008 he joined Surrey after speculation in late September. On 12 January 2010, Brown announced that he would be spending a three-week spell in Trinidad playing for National League side Clico Preysal Sports Club, he intended to use the opportunity as some additional pre-season training prior to the start of the 2010 County Championship. He missed the whole of the 2010 season after suffering an elbow injury; this injury, as well as a shoulder injury, was still giving him problems the following season, he was forced to announce his immediate retirement in late July, 2011.

In April 2011, Brown returned to his roots to take up the role of chairman at Burnley Cricket Club. Cricket Archive page on Michael Brown Cricinfo page on Michael Brown