The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy line, it was first released on April 21, 1989 in Japan, followed by North America three months and in Europe nearly a year after. Designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games, it was created and published by Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combined features from both the NES and the Game & Watch; the console features a dot-matrix screen, five control buttons, a 2 voice speaker, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with the one of several games, including Super Mario Land and Tetris. Several accessories were developed for the Game Boy, including a carrying pouch and the Game Boy Printer. Despite being technically inferior to its competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability, outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks.
Together with its successor, the Game Boy Color, the handheld has sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide. It is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1980s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket and the Game Boy Light. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s, until it was discontinued following the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001; the original internal codename for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", these initials came to be featured on the final product's model number, "DMG-01". The internal reception of the device was very poor; the Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located.
The on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers. The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game; the port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer. The link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris.
However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri would use the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Still other instructions are unique to this particular flavor of 8080/Z80 CPU. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from 8080 instruction set also; the IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 kiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 kiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: Approximately 59.7 frames per second Vertical blank duration: Approx 1.1 ms Screen size: 66 mm diagonal Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter.
And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" campaign, known in Japan as Game Boy Bros. Specifications for this unit remain the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen; this new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for Nintendo handhelds. Play It Loud! units were manufactured in red, black, white and clear or sometimes called X-Ray in the UK. Most common are the yellow, red and black, Green is scarce but blue and white are the rarest. Blue was a Europe and Japan only release, White was a Japanese majority release with UK Toys R Us s
Kung fu film
Kung fu film is a subgenre of martial arts films and Hong Kong action cinema set in the contemporary period and featuring realistic martial arts. It lacks the fantasy elements seen in wuxia, a related martial arts genre that uses historical settings based on ancient China. Swordplay is less common in kung-fu films than in wuxia and fighting is done through unarmed combat. Kung fu films are an important product of the West, where it was exported. Studios in Hong Kong produce kung fu films; the kung fu genre was born in Hong Kong as a backlash against the supernatural tropes of wuxia. The wuxia of the period, called shenguai wuxia, combined shenguai fantasy with the martial arts of wuxia. Producers of wuxia depended on special effects to draw in larger audiences like the use of animation in fight scenes; the popularity of shenguai wuxia waned because of its cheap effects and fantasy cliches, paving way for the rise of the kung fu film. The new genre still shared many of the traits of wuxia. Kung fu protagonists were exemplars of chivalry akin to the ancient youxia, the knight-errants of Chinese wuxia fiction.
The oldest film in the genre, The Adventures of Fong Sai-yuk, is a 1938–39 two-part movie about the adventures of folk hero Fong Sai-yuk. No surviving copies of the film exist. A series of films that dramatized the life of Wong Fei-hung, a historical Cantonese martial artist, was another early pioneer of the genre; the first two films of the Wong series, directed by Wu Pang and starring Kwan-Tak Hing, were released in 1949. The major innovation of the Wong Fei-hung films was its focus on realistic fighting or zhen gongfu, a departure from earlier wuxia films; the fights were designed to be more believable. Jet Li played Wong in a revival of the series in 1990s, Tsui Hark's Once Upon a Time in China, Fong in the movie Fong Sai-yuk; the kung fu genre reached its height in the 1970s. It overtook the popularity of the new school wuxia films that prevailed in Hong Kong throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Wuxia had been revitalized in the newspaper serials of the 1950s and its popularity spread to cinemas in the 1960s.
It displaced the kung fu dramatizations of Wong Fei-hung and brought back the supernatural themes of traditional wuxia cinema. The rivalry between the Shaw Brothers, Golden Harvest, Seasonal Films studios stimulated the growth of kung fu movies in the Hong Kong film industry; the Chinese Boxer directed by Jimmy Wang and Vengeance directed by Chang Cheh in 1970 were the first films of the resurgent kung fu genre. The new wave of kung fu films reached international audiences after the financial success of Bruce Lee's first feature-length film, The Big Boss, in 1971. Lee spent most of his childhood in Hong Kong where he learned wing chun martial arts and performed as a child actor, he left for the United States, his place of birth, continued his martial arts training as a high school student. In America, he created Jeet Kune Do, a martial arts style inspired by wing chun, worked in Hollywood as a film and television actor, he returned to Hong Kong and performed his breakthrough role in The Big Boss, followed by five more films.
The movies of Bruce Lee began a trend of employing genuine practitioners of martial arts as actors in martial arts films. Kung fu films were internationally successful and popular in the West where a kung fu fad had taken root; the anti-imperialist themes of his films held a broad appeal for groups that felt marginalized and contributed to his popularity in Southeast Asia and the African-American and Asian-American communities of urban America. Audiences were sympathetic with Lee's role as a minority figure struggling against and overcoming prejudice, social inequality, racial discrimination; the genre declined after Bruce Lee's sudden death in 1973. In the same year, a stock market crash brought Hong Kong into a recession. During the economic downturn, audiences in Hong Kong shifted to favoring satires. In the late 1970s the kung fu comedy appeared as a new genre, merging the martial arts of kung fu films with the comedy of Cantonese satires; the films of Lau Kar-leung, Yuen Woo-ping, Sammo Hung followed this trend.
Yuen's Drunken Master in 1978 was a financial success that transformed Jackie Chan, its leading actor, into a major Hong Kong movie star. The mixture of slapstick comedy with martial arts reinvigorated the kung fu genre. Jackie Chan was the first significant action hero and martial arts performer to emerge from Hong Kong after the death of Bruce Lee; the films of Jackie Chan and Sammo Hung integrated techniques from Peking Opera, which both had trained in prior to their work as stuntmen and extras in the Hong Kong studio system. They were students of China Drama Academy, a Peking opera school operated by Yu Jim-yuen, which brought elements of combat and dance from Beijing into Cantonese opera; the Peking Opera-influenced martial arts of kung fu comedies were more fluid and acrobatic than traditional kung fu films. In the 1980s, Jackie Chan and Sammo Hung transitioned to kung fu films set in urban environments; the realism of the kung fu genre has been blurred with the widespread use of computer-generated imagery in the industry.
Technology has enabled actors without martial arts training to perform in kung fu films. Wuxia films experienced a revival in recent years with the films of Zhang Yimou. Kung fu comedies remain popular staples of Hong Kong cinema and the kung fu films of Stephen Chow have been box office hits, his 2001 film Shaolin Soccer combined kung fu, modified using CGI, with the sports and comedy genres. Chow's 2004 film Kung Fu Hustle, ch
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Donnie Yen Tze-dan is a Hong Kong actor, martial artist, film director, action choreographer, multiple-time world wushu tournament champion. Yen is one of Hong Kong's top action stars. Yen has displayed skill in an array of martial arts, being well-versed in Tai Chi, Kickboxing, Jeet Kune Do, Taekwondo, Muay Thai, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Wing Chun, Wushu. One of the most popular film stars in Asia of the early 2000s, Yen is one of the highest paid actors in Asia. Yen earned HK$220 million from four films and six advertisements in 2013. Yen is credited by many for contributing to the popularisation of Wing Chun, he played Wing Chun grandmaster Ip Man in the 2008 film Ip Man, a box office success. This has led to an increase in the number of people taking up Wing Chun, leading to hundreds of new Wing Chun schools being opened up in mainland China and other parts of Asia. Ip Chun, the eldest son of Ip Man mentioned that he is grateful to Yen for making his family's art popular and allowing his father's legacy to be remembered.
He has gained international recognition for playing Chirrut Îmwe in Rogue One: A Star Wars Story and Xiang in xXx: Return of Xander Cage. Yen was born in China, his mother, Bow-sim Mark, is a Fu Style Wudangquan and Tai Chi grandmaster, while his father, Klyster Yen, is a newspaper editor. When he was two years old, his family moved to Hong Kong and to the United States, settling in Boston when he was 11, his younger sister, Chris Yen, is a martial artist and actress, appeared in the 2007 film Adventures of Johnny Tao: Rock Around the Dragon. At a young age, under the influence of his mother, Yen developed an interest in martial arts and began experimenting with various styles, including t'ai chi and other traditional Chinese martial arts. Yen started kung fu when he was nine. Yen focused on practising wushu at the age of fourteen after dropping out of school, his parents were concerned that he was spending too much time in Boston's Combat Zone, so they sent him to Beijing on a two-year training program with the Beijing Wushu Team.
When Yen decided to return to the United States, he made a side-trip to Hong Kong, where he met action choreographer Yuen Woo-ping. Yen started taekwondo at around the age of sixteen. Yen came from a family of musicians, his mother is a soprano, in addition to being a martial arts teacher in Boston, while his father is a violinist. From a young age, he was taught by his parents to play musical instruments, including the piano, he knows hip-hop dancing and breakdancing. Yen's first step into the film industry was in 1984 when he landed his first starring role in the 1984 film Drunken Tai Chi. After filming Drunken Tai Chi and Tiger Cage, Yen made his breakthrough role as General Nap-lan in Once Upon a Time in China II, which included a fight scene between his character and Wong Fei-hung. Yen had a starring role in the film Iron Monkey in 1993. Yen and Li appeared together again in the 2002 film, where Yen played a spear fighter who fought with Li's character, an unnamed swordsman; the film was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 2003 Academy Awards.
In 1995, Yen starred as Chen Zhen in the television series Fist of Fury produced by ATV, adapted from the 1972 film of the same title that starred Bruce Lee as Chen Zhen. Yen reprised his role as Chen Zhen in the 2010 film Legend of the Fist: The Return of Chen Zhen. In 1997, Yen started the production company Bullet Films, made his directorial debut in Legend of the Wolf and Ballistic Kiss, in which he played the lead character. At age 34, Yen went bankrupt. Films produced by his own production company and directed by him were critically acclaimed but did not do well at the box office. Yen was forced to borrow money from his production crew to get by. Yen went back to the United States, where he was invited to choreograph fight scenes in Hollywood films, such as Highlander: Endgame and Blade II, his choreography and skills impressed the directors, they invited him for cameo appearances in both movies. In 2002, Jet Li was filming the movie Hero and insisted to the director that he wanted Yen to play the role of Sky, his adversary, due to Yen's martial arts ability.
Li invited Yen back from Hollywood to star in the movie, marking the second time the two actors appeared onscreen together since Once Upon a Time in China II ten years earlier. In 2003, Yen played the antagonist against Jackie Chan in Shanghai Knights. Yen choreographed most of the fight animation in the 2004 video game Onimusha 3, which featured actors Takeshi Kaneshiro and Jean Reno. Yen continued to be active in Hong Kong cinema in the 2000s, starring as Chu Zhaonan in Tsui Hark's wuxia epic film Seven Swords, as Ma Kwun in Wilson Yip's brutal crime drama film SPL: Sha Po Lang in 2005. Both films were featured at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival; that year, Yen co-starred with Nicholas Tse and Shawn Yue in Wilson Yip's Dragon Tiger Gate, an adaptation of Wong Yuk-long's manhua series Oriental Heroes. Yen worked as action choreographer in Stormbreaker, starring Alex Pettyfer. Yen continued to work with Wilson Yip in Flash Point, in which he starred as the lead character and served as producer and action choreographer for the film.
He won the award for Best Action Choreography at the Golden Horse Film Awards and the Hong Kong Film Awards for his performance in Flash Point. In 2008, Yen starred in Ip Man, a semi-biographical account of Ip Man, the Wing Chun master of Bruce Lee. Ip Man marked Yen's fourth collaboration
Ji Yun known as Ji Xiaolan or Ji Chunfan was an influential scholar of Qing dynasty China and many anecdotes have been recorded about him. Ji Yun left behind a book entitled Notes of the Thatched Abode of Close Observations, another book named Wenda Gong Yiji, edited by generations, he was mentioned with Yuan Mei as the "Nan Yuan Bei Ji". Ji Yun was born in Xian County of Hebei Province; when he was young, he was deemed intelligent. His father Ji Rongsu was archaeologist. In 1747, Ji Yun rose to intellectual prominence after winning the highest distinction in the provincial examinations. Several years in 1754, he attained the jinshi degree, whereupon he entered the Hanlin Academy. Ji Yun's career was not, smooth sailing. In 1768, he became an accessory in a bribery case after he tipped off a brother-in-law about the severity of charges pending against him, for which crime he was banished to Dihua in Xinjiang Province, he was a rival of one of the most powerful officials in Qianlong's court, Heshen.
On his return from Xinjiang, Ji was received by the Qianlong Emperor in 1771 when the ruler happened to be returning from Jehol to Beijing, he was ordered to write a poem on the return of the Turgut Mongols from the banks of the Volga. Ji's rendition of the inspiring tale of the return of the exiled Mongols celebrated in English by poet Thomas de Quincey in his epic Revolt of the Tartars, delighted the emperor, for whom he became an unofficial poet laureate; the job of compiling the Siku Quanshu was his dubious reward. One year Ji Yun was pardoned from his sentence, and, on his return journey in 1771, he wrote a travel account distilled into 160 poems titled Xinjiang zalu; this remains one of the most useful sources in Chinese on life in Xinjiang Province in the late-eighteenth century. In the first year of the Jiaqing Emperor's reign, he was appointed as the secretary of defense. However, Ji Yun died of illness at the age of 82 in 1805. In Ji Yun's late life, he was inspired by Pu Songling's Liaozhai Zhiyi to compile his own collections of remarkable tales, many of which were held to be satirical portraits of prominent Neo-Confucian scholars.
1747- Ranked number one provincial graduate 1754- Ranked number one graduate of the palace examination 1773- Chief editor for the Siku Quanshu, the largest collection of books in Chinese history 1796- Minister of war 1797- Minister of Personnel Between 1789 and 1798, Ji Yun published five collections of supernatural tales, in 1800 the five volumes were produced under the collective title Yuewei Caotang Biji. In addition, Ji Yun was well known as magnum opus of Qing editorial achievement, Siku quanshu, where he edited this massive work together with Lu Xixiong, in compliance with an imperial edict issued by the Qianlong Emperor. One poem by Ji Yun is shown below: Countless welcoming good mountains along the river, My eyes are lit up as soon as I'm out of Hangzhou, Misty river banks with mixed sky and green, A sail in the glass; the mansion in which Ji Yun lived for the last thirty years of his life was the residence of General Yue Zhongqi, the twenth-first generational descendant of the renowned anti-Jurchen, Song dynasty loyalist and general Yue Fei, one of the most renowned figures in Chinese history.
General Yue fought alongside General Nian Gengyao in quelling Tibetan rebels in what is today Qinghai, was honoured in Beijing. He never lived for long in the capital, his base being in Sichuan and Gansu. However, he was rewarded for his service to the throne by the Kangxi Emperor and raised to the position of duke of the third class. Ji Yun lived in the mansion for thirty years and several features of the dwelling that the visitor can still see today are associated with him. A tree in the garden is said to be more than two hundred years old. Few original items from the time of Ji Yun remain in the house but the caretaker claims that the desk and mirror in the main study are original items; the glass mirror in the zitan timber frame is one of the earliest mirrors produced with lead paint in China. After Ji Xiaolan's death, his descendants rented half of the mansion complex out to Huang Antao, a jinshi scholar, Hanlin scholar and poet, like Ji Yun. Huang was a renowned calligrapher. Ji, portrayed by Zhang Guoli, is the titular character in the mainland Chinese TV series The Eloquent Ji Xiaolan.
The series revolve around Ji, his rival Heshen, the Qianlong Emperor, along with court events in the Qing Dynasty. Pollard, David. Real Life in China at the Height of Empire. Revealed by the Ghosts of Ji Xiaolan. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-962-996-601-0. A recent translation of selected notes from the Yuewei caotang biji. "Ji Xiaolan - Well-known Gifted Man of Letters of Qing Dynasty - China culture". History.cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2014-01-22
Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker. It introduced the character of Count Dracula, established many conventions of subsequent vampire fantasy; the novel tells the story of Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and a woman led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing. Dracula has been assigned to many literary genres including vampire literature, horror fiction, the gothic novel, invasion literature; the novel has spawned numerous theatrical and television interpretations. The story is told in an epistolary format, as a series of letters, diary entries, newspaper articles, ships' log entries, whose narrators are the novel's protagonists, supplemented with newspaper clippings relating events not directly witnessed; the events portrayed in the novel take place chronologically and in England and Transylvania during the 1890s and all transpire within the same year between 3 May and 6 November.
A short note is located at the end of the final chapter written 7 years after the events outlined in the novel. The tale begins with Jonathan Harker, a newly qualified English solicitor, visiting Count Dracula at his castle in the Carpathian Mountains on the border of Transylvania and Moldavia, to provide legal support for a real estate transaction overseen by Harker's employer, Mr Peter Hawkins of Exeter. At first enticed by Dracula's gracious manners, Harker soon realizes. Wandering the Count's castle against Dracula's admonition, Harker encounters three female vampires, called "the sisters", from whom he is rescued by Dracula. Harker soon realizes that Dracula himself is a vampire. After the preparations are made, Dracula abandons Harker to the sisters. Harker escapes from the castle with his life. Dracula boards a Russian ship, the Demeter, taking along with him boxes of Transylvanian soil, which he required in order to regain his strength. Not long afterward, the ship having weighed anchor at Varna, runs aground on the shores of Whitby in the east coast of England.
The captain's log narrates the gradual disappearance of the entire crew, until the captain alone remained, himself bound to the helm to maintain course. An animal resembling "a large dog" is seen leaping ashore; the ship's cargo is described as 50 boxes of "mould", or earth, from Transylvania. It is learned that Dracula purchased multiple estates under the alias'Count De Ville' throughout London and devised to distribute the 50 boxes to each of them utilizing transportation services as well as moving them himself, he does this to secure for himself "lairs" and the 50 boxes of earth would be used as his graves which would grant safety and rest during times of feeding and replenishing his strength. Harker's fiancée, Mina Murray, is staying with her friend Lucy Westenra, holidaying in Whitby. Lucy receives three marriage proposals from Dr. John Seward, Quincey Morris, Arthur Holmwood. Lucy accepts Holmwood's proposal while turning down Seward and Morris. Dracula communicates with Seward's patient, Renfield, an insane man who wishes to consume insects, spiders and rats to absorb their "life force".
Renfield is able to detect Dracula's presence and supplies clues accordingly. Soon Dracula is indirectly shown to be stalking Lucy; as time passes she begins to suffer from episodes of sleepwalking and dementia, as witnessed by Mina. When Lucy begins to waste away suspiciously, Seward invites his old teacher, Abraham Van Helsing, who determines the true cause of Lucy's condition, he diagnoses her with acute blood-loss. Van Helsing prescribes numerous blood transfusions to which he, Seward and Arthur all contribute over time. Van Helsing prescribes garlic flowers to be placed throughout her room and weaves a necklace of withered garlic blossoms for her to wear; however she continues to waste away – appearing to lose blood every night. While both doctors are absent and her mother are attacked by a wolf and Mrs. Westenra, who has a heart condition, dies of fright. Van Helsing attempts to protect her with garlic but fate thwarts him each night, whether Lucy's mother removes the garlic from her room, or Lucy herself does so in her restless sleep.
The doctors have found two small puncture marks about her neck, which Dr. Seward is at a loss to understand. After Lucy dies, Van Helsing places a golden crucifix over her mouth, ostensibly to delay or prevent Lucy's vampiric conversion. Fate conspires against him again when Van Helsing finds the crucifix in the possession of one of the servants who stole it off Lucy's corpse. Following Lucy's death and burial, the newspapers report children being stalked in the night by a "bloofer lady". Van Helsing, knowing Lucy has become a vampire, confides in Seward, Lord Godalming, Morris; the suitors and Van Helsing track her down and, after a confrontation with her, stake her heart, behead her, fill her mouth with garlic. Around the same time, Jonathan Harker arrives from Budapest, where Mina marries him after his escape, he and Mina join the campaign against Dracula; the vampire hunters stay at Dr. Seward's residence, holding nightly meetings and providing reports based on each of their various tasks.
Mina discovers that each of their journals and letters collectively contain clues to which they can track him down. She tasks herself with collecting them, researching newspaper clippings, fitting the most relevant entries into chronological order and typing out copies to distribute to each of the party which t