Local government areas of Nigeria
Nigeria has 774 local government areas. Each local government area is administered by a Local Government Council consisting of a chairman, the Chief Executive of the LGA, other elected members who are referred to as Councillors; each of the areas is further subdivided into wards with a minimum of ten and a maximum of fifteen for each area. The functions of Local Governments are detailed in the Nigerian Constitution and include: Economic recommendations to the State. Local Government Areas In Nigeria By State: A comprehensive list of all Local Government Areas in Nigeria and their respective States. Nigeria Congress On Line Nigeria Sustainable Urban Development and Good Governance in Nigeria Thomas Brinkhoff: NIGERIA: Administrative Division, in www.citypopulation.de
The Kanuri people are an African ethnic group living in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger and Cameroon. Those termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces. In contrast to neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, engaged in trade and salt processing. Kanuri peoples include several subgroups, identify by different names in some regions; the Kanuri language was the major language of the Bornu Empire and remains a major language in southeastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon, but in Chad it is limited to handfuls of speakers in urban centers. The largest population of Kanuri reside in the northeast corner of Nigeria, where the ceremonial Emirate of Bornu traces direct descent from the Kanem-Bornu empire, founded sometime before 1000 CE.
Some 3 million Kanuri speakers live in Nigeria, not including the some 200,000 speakers of the Manga or Mangari dialect. The Nga people in Bauchi State trace their origins to a Kanuri diaspora. In southeastern Niger, where they form the majority of the sedentary population, the Kanuri are called Bare Bari; the 400,000 Kanuri population in Niger includes the Manga or Mangari subgroup, numbering some 100,000 in the area east of Zinder, who regard themselves as distinct from the Bare Bari. Around 40,000 members of the Tumari subgroup, sometimes called Kanembu in Niger, are a distinct Kanuri subgroup living in the N'guigmi area, are distinct from the Chadian Kanembu people. In the Kaour escarpment oasis of eastern Niger, the Kanuri are further divided into the Bla Bla subgroup, numbering some 20,000, are the dominant ethnic group in the salt evaporation and trade industry of Bilma. Kanuri speak varieties of one of the Nilo-Saharan languages. Divisions include the Manga and Bilma dialects of Central Kanuri and the more distinct Kanembu language.
Inheriting the religious and cultural traditions of the Kanem-Bornu state, Kanuri peoples are predominantly Sunni Muslim. In Chad, Kanembu speakers differentiate themselves from the large Kanuri ethnicity; the Kanembu are centered in southern Kanem Prefecture. Although Kanuri was the major language of the Bornu Empire, in Chad, Kanuri speakers are limited to handfuls of speakers in urban centers. Kanuri remains a major language in northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. In the early 1980s, the Kanembu constituted the greatest part of the population of Lac Prefecture, but some Kanembu lived in the Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture. Once the core ethnic group of the Kanem-Borno Empire, whose territories at one time included northeastern Nigeria and southern Libya, the Kanembu retain ties beyond the borders of Chad. For example, close family and commercial ties bind them with the Kanuri of northeastern Nigeria. Within Chad, many Kanembu of Lac and Kanem prefectures identify with the Alifa of Mao, the governor of the region in precolonial times.
A pastoral people, the Kanuri were one of many Nilo-Saharan groups indigenous to the Central South Sahara, beginning their expansion in the area of Lake Chad in the late 7th century, absorbing both indigenous Nilo-Saharan and Chadic speakers. According to Kanuri tradition, son of Dhu Ifazan of Yemen, arrived in Kanem in the ninth century and united the population into the Sayfawa dynasty; this tradition however, is a product of Islamic influence, reflecting the association with their Arabian origins in the Islamic era. Evidence of indigenous state formation in the Lake Chad area dates back to circa 800 BCE at Zilum; the Kanuri became Muslims in the 11th century. Kanem became a centre of Muslim learning and the Kanuri soon controlled all the area surrounding Lake Chad and a powerful empire called Kanem Empire, which reached its height in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when they ruled much of Middle Africa. Following the downfall of the Bornu Empire and the Scramble for Africa in the 19th century, the Kanuri were divided under the rule of the British and German Empires.
Despite the loss of the Kanuri-led state, the Shehu of Bornu continues as the head of the Bornu Emirate. This traditional Kanuri/Kanembu state maintains a ceremonial rule of the Kanuri people, based in Maiduguri, Borno State, but acknowledged by the 4 million Kanuri in neighboring countries; the Shehu of Bornu draws his authority from a state founded before the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The current ruling line, the al-Kanemi dynasty, dates to the accession of Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi in the early 19th century, displacing the Sayfawa dynasty which had ruled from around 1300 CE; the 19th Shehu, Mustafa Ibn Umar El-Kanemi, died in February 2009, was succeeded by Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai El-Kanemi. In Nigeria, famous post-independence Kanuri leaders include the politicians Kashim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Imam, Zannah Bukar Dipcharima, Shettima Ali Monguno, Abba Habib,Muhammad Ngileruma, Baba Gana Kingibe, former GNPP leader Waziri Ibrahim, the former military ruler, Sani Abacha. In Niger, Kanuri political leaders include the former Prime Minister of Niger Mamane Oumarou, the former President of Niger, Mamadou Tandja.
A Nigeria specific small Kanuri nationalist movement emerged in 1950s, centred on Bornu. Some "Pan-Kanuri" nationalists claimed an area of 532,460 square kilometres for the territory of what they called "Greater Kanowra", including the modern-day Lac and Kanem Prefectures in Chad, Fa
In geology and crystalline basement are the rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, or more any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin. In the same way, the sediments or sedimentary rocks on top of the basement can be called a "cover" or "sedimentary cover". Basement rock is the thick foundation of ancient, oldest metamorphic and igneous rock that forms the crust of continents in the form of granite. Basement rock is contrasted to overlying sedimentary rocks which are laid down on top of the basement rocks after the continent was formed, such as sandstone and limestone; the sedimentary rocks which may be deposited on top of the basement form a thin veneer, but can be more than 3 miles thick. The basement rock of the crust can be 20 -- more; the basement rock can be visible at the surface. Basement rock is visible, for example, at the bottom of the Grand Canyon, consisting of 1.7-2 billion year old granite and schist. The Vishnu Schist is believed to be metamorphosed igneous rocks and shale, from basalt and clay laid from volcanic eruptions, the granite is the result of magma intrusions into the Vishnu Schist.
An extensive cross section of sedimentary rocks laid down on top of it through the ages is visible as well. The basement rocks of the continental crust tend to be much older than the oceanic crust; the oceanic crust can be from 0-250 million years in age, is thinner and composed of basaltic rocks. Continental crust is older because continental crust is light and thick enough so it is not subducted, while oceanic crust is periodically subducted and replaced at subduction and oceanic rifting areas; the basement rocks are highly metamorphosed and complex. They may consist of many different types of rock - intrusive igneous and metamorphic, they may contain fragments of oceanic crust that became wedged between plates when a terrane was accreted to the edge of the continent. Any of this material may be folded and metamorphosed. New igneous rock may freshly intrude into the crust from underneath, or may form underplating, where the new igneous rock forms a layer on the underside of the crust, it is said that the majority of continental crust on the planet is around 1-3 billion years old, it is theorised that there was at least one period of rapid expansion and accretion to the continents during the Precambrian.
Much of the basement rock may have been oceanic crust, but it was metamorphosed and converted into continental crust via a series of events. A typical pattern is, it is possible for oceanic crust to be subducted down into the Earth's mantle, at subduction fronts, where oceanic crust is being pushed down into the mantle by an overriding plate of oceanic or continental crust. When a plate of oceanic crust is subducted beneath an overriding plate of oceanic crust, as the underthrusting crust melts, it can cause upwelling of magma that can cause volcanism along the subduction front on the overriding plate; this produces an oceanic chain of volcanoes, like Japan. This volcanism causes metamorphism of rocks, intrusions of magma that produce rocks such as granite, thickens the crust by depositing additional layers of rock from volcanoes; this tends to make the crust thicker, as a result making it immune to subduction. Oceanic crust can be subducted; the subduction of the underthrusting oceanic crust can bring the volcano chain close to a continent, collide with it.
When the overriding plate collides with the continent, instead of being subducted, it is accreted to the edge of the continent and becomes a part of that continent. Thin strips or fragments of the underthrusting plate may remain attached to the edge of the continent causing those fragments of oceanic crust to be wedged and tilted between the converging plates. In this manner, continents can grow over time as new terranes are accreted to their edges, so continents can be composed of a complex quilt of terranes of varying ages; as such, the basement rock can become younger going closer to the edge of the continent. There are exceptions such as exotic terranes. Exotic terranes are pieces or fragments of other continents that have broken off their original parent continent and have become accreted to a different continent. Many continents can consist of several continental cratons - blocks of crust built around an initial original core of continents - that grew and expanded as additional newly created terranes were added to their edges.
For instance, Pangea consisted of most of the Earth's continents being accreted into one giant supercontinent. Most continents, such as Asia and Europe, include several continental cratons, as they were formed by the accretion of many smaller continents. In European geology, the basement refers to rocks older than the Variscan orogeny. On top of this older basement Permian evaporites and Mesozoic limestones were deposited; the evaporites formed a weak zone on which the harder limestone cover was able to move over the hard basement, making the distinction between basement and cover more pronounced. In Andean geology the basement refers to the Proterozoic and early Mesozoic rock units as the basement to the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic Andean sequences developed following the onset of subduction along the western margin of the South American Plate; when discussing the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of Mexico the basement include Proterozoic and Mesozoic age rocks for the Oaxaquia, the Mixteco and the Guerrero terranes re
Kazaure is an Emirate and a Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria. Its headquarters is in the ancient city of Kazaure; the valley, to become modern day Kazaure has a long history. It was said to have been first settled by a group of Hausa hunter clan under the leadership of a warrior called Kutumbi, it was around the year 1300 CE. According to Oral Tradition passed down through the centuries by Griots and his people were said to have migrated from the settlement of blacksmiths living on the Dala Hills-believed by historians to be the first inhabitants of the land now known as Kano; the legend of Kazaure's founding tells the story of how Kutumbi on one of his hunting expeditions found a valley surrounded by huge defensive plateaus and rich with rivers and small streams. He stayed in the area for quite some time until his family became worried over his long absence, contrary to his usual hunting habit, they followed his tracks for many days. After a long and arduous journey, they found Kutumbi in a beautiful valley.
One of the new arrivals looked upon the nature of the land and exclaimed to another "Wannan Wajen Kamar Zaure!". This expression "Kamar Zaure" was transformed over the centuries to Kazaure thus becoming the name of the settlement the Habe hunters founded at the site. Kutumbi's clan lived in the area for hundreds of years, they left archaeological evidence of their Hunter/Gatherer culture, they practiced small-scale agriculture. The longest surviving traces of their presence was their religion, their practice lives on today in the spiritual dances of Bori. It wasn't until the arrival of the Yarimawan Fulani however, that an administrative system was established in the area; the city of Kazaure has been the emirate’s headquarters since 1819. It was founded by Dan Tunku, a Fulani warrior, one of the 14 flag bearers for the Fulani jihad leader Usman dan Fodio. Dan Tunku arrived from the nearby town of Dambatta at a stockaded village that he named Kazaure and established an emirate, carved from the adjoining Kano and Daura emirates.
Dan Tunku, was the Fulani leader who, early in the jihad, had prevented a coalition between the forces of the Hausa Chiefs of Kano and Daura. For this feat he had received a flag from Shehu, he had helped to establish a Fulani régime in Daura, but thereafter he had not played a active part in the jihad and had made little contribution to the victory of the reformers in Kano. By the end of the war his position in northern Kano was ill-defined; as a flag-bearer he had the right of doing homage direct to Shehu, subsequently to Bello, but in spite of this it seems to have been recognized that he was to some extent under the tutelage of Kano. So long as the unworldly Sulaimanu was Emir of Kano this loose arrangement worked satisfactorily, but when the much more forceful Ibrahim Dabo succeeded him, it broke down. Ibrahim was refused, he thereupon conferred on one of his own vassals, Sarkin Bai of the Dambazawa fulani Clan, a fief embracing all of Northern Kano including the territories that Dan Tunku and his followers had acquired in the jihad.
This move led to open hostilities. The fighting, though intermittent, lasted about five years. At first Dan Tunku. had the best of it and raided right up to the walls of the city. However, Kano's weight began to tell and he was pressed back, he still continued to harry all the northern part of Kano Emirate. When Clapperton passed through the country in 1824 he found the Emir Ibrahim in his war-camp, preparing for the annual campaign, in many ruined and deserted villages he saw evidence of Dan Tunku's past ravages. In the same year Ibrahim Dabo made a determined attempt to bring Dan Tunku, to heel, he took an army up to the Kazaure hills and occupied the fortified camp where Dan Tunku had made his headquarters. Soon afterwards, Dan Tunku made a surprise counter-attack and drove the Kano forces out again; as the fighting had ended in stalemate both sides agreed that the dispute should be referred to the arbitration of the Sultan. When the case was brought to him, Bello judged in favour of Dan Tunku and reaffirmed Dan Tunku's independence of the Emir of Kano.
Kazaure was thereby recognized to be a separate Emirate and its boundaries were demarcated. This decision brought the hostilities to an end and after that Kano and Kazaure lived together as good neighbours, but the fact remained that in Sultan Bello's day, Fulani had begun fighting against Fulani. As the century advanced, this phenomenon was to become more common. During the reign of Emir Dambo, Dan Tunku’s son and successor, the emirate was enlarged. Dambo was the greatest prince that the emirate had, it was all due to his wise and strong leadership that the emirate was able to stay independent and strong, in a time when invasions were a frequent affair); the warrior king however, was killed in an encounter with the Damagarawa contingent led by their king Tanimu. It was in 1857. Dambo's death was a traumatic moment for the newly founded emirate, it took. But avenged it was, by his grand son Yarima Gagarau- the notorious prince that went on a rampage from the gates of Kazaure to the border towns of Damagaram Empire in modern-day Niger Republic.
Another clash worthy of reporting is the failed invasion by Damagaram's K
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe, numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but in, South Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million – are pastoralists, making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world; the majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans and nobility. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by their history and their culture. More than 90% of the Fula are Muslims; the Fulas are leaders in many West African countries. These include the president of Muhammadu Buhari, they are leaders in International Institutions such as the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Amina J. Mohammed. There are many names used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe.
Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages, is used in English, sometimes spelled Fulah or Fullah. Fula and Fulani are used in English, including within Africa; the French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, variously spelled: Peul and Peuhl. More the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, a plural noun has been Anglicised as Fulbe, gaining popularity in use. In Portuguese, the terms Fula or Futafula are used; the terms Fallata Fallatah or Fellata are of Kanuri origins, are the ethnonyms by which Fulani people are identified by in parts of Chad and in Sudan. The Fula people are distributed, across the Sahel from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea in West Africa; the countries where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Chad, South Sudan the Central African Republic, as far east as the Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt. With the exception of Guinea, where the Fula make up the largest ethnic group, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, Fulas are either a significant or a minority ethnic group in nearly all other countries they live in.
Alongside, many speak other languages of the countries they inhabit, making many Fulani bilingual or trilingual in nature. Such languages include French, Bambara and Arabic. Major concentrations of Fulani people exist in the Fouta Djallon highlands of central Guinea and south into the northernmost reaches of Sierra Leone; this is the area known as the Fombina meaning "The South" in Adamawa Fulfulde, because it represented the most southern and eastern reaches of Fulɓe hegemonic dominance in West Africa. In this area, Fulfulde is the local lingua franca, language of cross cultural communication. Further east of this area, Fulani communities become predominantly nomadic, exist at less organized social systems; these are the areas of the Chari-Baguirmi Region and its river systems, in Chad and the Central African Republic, the Ouaddaï highlands of Eastern Chad, the areas around Kordofan and the Blue Nile, Kassala regions of Sudan, as well as the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan. The Fulani on their way to or back from the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, settled in many parts of eastern Sudan, today representing a distinct community of over 2 million people referred to as the Fellata.
While their early settlements in West Africa were in the vicinity of the tri-border point of present-day Mali and Mauritania, they are now, after centuries of gradual migrations and conquests, spread throughout a wide band of West and Central Africa. The Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located in a longitudinal East-West band south of the Sahara, just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps. There are an estimated 20-25 million Fulani people. There are three different types of Fulani based on settlement patterns, viz: the Nomadic/Pastoral or Mbororo, The Semi-Nomadic and the Settled or "Town Fulani"; the pastoral Fulani move around with their cattle throughout the year. They do not stay around, for long stretches; the semi-nomadic Fulani can either be Fulɓe families who happen to settle down temporarily at particular times of the year, or Fulɓe families who do not "browse" around past their immediate surroundings, though they possess livestock, they do not wander away from a fixed or settled homestead not too far away, they are "In-betweeners".
Settled Fulani live in villages and cities permanently and have given u
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo