Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxembourg was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396 he led the Crusade of Nicopolis, which attempted to liberate Bulgaria and save the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople from Ottoman rule. Afterwards, he founded the Order of the Dragon to fight the Turks, he was regarded as educated, spoke several languages and was an outgoing person who took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the period of Sigismund's life. Born in Nuremberg, Sigismund was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, of his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania, the granddaughter of King Casimir III of Poland and the great-granddaughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas.
He was named after Saint Sigismund of the favourite saint of Sigismund's father. From Sigismund's childhood he was nicknamed the "ginger fox" in the Crown of Bohemia, on account of his hair colour. King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland always had a good and close relationship with Emperor Charles IV, Sigismund was betrothed to Louis' eldest daughter, Mary, in 1374, when he was six years old. Upon his father's death in 1378, young Sigismund became Margrave of Brandenburg and was sent to the Hungarian court, where he soon learnt the Hungarian language and way of life, became devoted to his adopted country. King Louis appointed him his successor as King of Hungary. In 1381, the 13-year-old Sigismund was sent to Kraków by his eldest half-brother and guardian Wenceslaus, King of Germany and Bohemia, to learn Polish and to become acquainted with the land and its people. King Wenceslaus gave him Neumark to facilitate communication between Brandenburg and Poland; the disagreement between Polish landlords of Lesser Poland on one side and landlords of Greater Poland on the other, regarding the choice of the future King of Poland ended in choosing the Lithuanian side.
The support of the lords of Greater Poland was however not enough to give Prince Sigismund the Polish crown. Instead, the landlords of Lesser Poland gave it to Mary's younger sister Jadwiga I of Poland, who married Jogaila of Lithuania. On the death of her father in 1382, his betrothed, became queen of Hungary and Sigismund married her in 1385 in Zólyom; the next year, he was accepted as Mary's future co-ruler by the Treaty of Győr. However, Mary was captured, together with her mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia, who had acted as regent, in 1387 by the rebellious House of Horvat, Bishop Paul Horvat of Mačva, his brother John Horvat and younger brother Ladislav. Sigismund's mother-in-law was strangled. Having secured the support of the nobility, Sigismund was crowned King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár on 31 March 1387. Having raised money by pledging Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, he was engaged for the next nine years in a ceaseless struggle for the possession of this unstable throne.
The central power was weakened to such an extent that only Sigismund's alliance with the powerful Czillei-Garai League could ensure his position on the throne. It was not for selfless reasons that one of the leagues of barons helped him to power: Sigismund had to pay for the support of the lords by transferring a sizeable part of the royal properties.. The restoration of the authority of the central administration took decades of work; the bulk of the nation headed by the House of Garai was with him. Not until 1395 did Nicholas II Garay succeed in suppressing them. Mary died pregnant in 1395. To ease the pressure from Hungarian nobles, Sigismund tried to employ foreign advisors, not popular, he had to promise not to give land and nominations to other than Hungarian nobles. However, this was not applied to Stibor of Stiboricz, Sigismund's closest friend and advisor. On a number of occasions, Sigismund was imprisoned by nobles, but with help of the armies of Garai and Stibor of Stiboricz, he would regain power.
In 1396, Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope Boniface IX, was popular in Hungary; the nobles flocked in their thousands to the royal standard, were reinforced by volunteers from nearly every part of Europe. The most important contingent being that of the French led by John the Fearless, son of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. Sigismund set out with a flotilla of 70 galleys. After capturing Vidin, he camped with his Hungarian armies before the fortress of Nicopolis. Sultan Bayezid I raised the siege of Constantinople and, at the head of 140,000 men defeated the Christian forces in the Battle of Nicopolis fought between the 25 and 28 September 1396. Sigismund returned by sea and through the realm of Zeta, where he ordained a local Montenegrin lord Đurađ II with the islands of Hvar and Korčula for resis
Karl Philipp von Wrede
Karl Philipp Josef, Prince von Wrede was a Bavarian field marshal. He was an ally of Napoleonic France until he negotiated the Treaty of Ried with Austria in 1813. Thereafter Bavaria joined the coalition. Von Wrede was born at Heidelberg, the youngest of three children of Ferdinand Josef Wrede, created in 1791 1st Baron von Wrede, wife, married on 21 March 1746, Anna Katharina Jünger, by whom he had two more children: Baroness Luise von Wrede, married to Philipp, Baron von Horn, he was educated for the career of a civil official under the Electorate of the Palatinate government, but on the outbreak of the campaign of 1799 he raised a volunteer corps in the Palatinate and was made its colonel. This corps excited the mirth of the well-drilled Austrians with whom it served, but its colonel soon brought it into a good condition, it distinguished itself during Kray's retreat on Ulm. At the Battle of Hohenlinden Wrede commanded one of the Palatinate infantry brigades with credit, after the peace of Lunéville he was made lieutenant-general in the Bavarian Army, entering upon a period of reforms.
Wrede soon made himself popular, distinguished himself in opposing the Austrian invasions of 1805. In the War of the Fifth Coalition, he led the 2nd Bavarian Division in the VII Corps, he played an important part in the Battle of Abensberg on 20 April 1809. In the morning, he probed Joseph Radetzky's Austrian defense at Siegenburg. Unable to make headway, he crossed the Abens River. From Biburg, he attacked Frederick Bianchi's reinforced brigade; when the Austrians retreated, Wrede aggressively pursued them to Pfeffenhausen late that evening. He led the advance from Pfeffenhausen and was involved in the Battle of Landshut on 21 April, capturing 11 cannon. On 24 April, his division was defeated at the Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit when Johann von Hiller counterattacked in superior force. After occupying Salzburg on 29 April, Wrede moved southwest against the Tyrolean Rebellion, he pushed back Tyrolean irregulars at Lofer on 11 May and defeated Franz Fenner's mixed regulars and Tyroleans at Waidring the next day.
On 13 May, he played a major part in crushing the division of Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles in the Battle of Wörgl. After the French defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon I of France called Wrede's division to Vienna as a reinforcement. At first, Wrede's division stood in reserve in the Battle of Wagram. In the afternoon of 6 July, the Bavarians were sent into battle in support of Jacques MacDonald's celebrated attack. In a successful charge on the village of Sussenbrunn, Wrede was grazed by a bullet. Fearing the wound was fatal, he told MacDonald. I recommend to him my wife and children." Seeing that Wrede's injury was minor, the French general smiled and replied, "I think that you will be able to make this recommendation to him yourself." The embarrassed general continued to lead his troops. The Bavarians were for several years the active allies of Napoleon, Wrede led the Bavarian corps that fought in Russia in 1812. Just before the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, he negotiated the Treaty of Ried between Austria and Bavaria, by which Bavaria switched sides.
Wrede fought with the allies against Napoleon. After Leipzig, he tried to block the French escape at the Battle of Hanau on 31 October. Wrede positioned his troops poorly and Napoleon smashed one of his wings, inflicting 9,000 casualties. In 1814 he was created field marshal. Wrede represented Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna, he died in Ellingen. Von Wrede was no doubt the leading Bavarian soldier of his day, he married on 18 March 1795 Countess Sofie von Wiser, by whom he had eight children: Princess Amalie Auguste von Wrede, married in Hochaltingen on 31 August 1813 Johann Aloys III, Prince zu Oettingen-Oettingen and zu Oettingen-Spielberg, had issue Carl Theodor, 2nd Prince von Wrede, married firstly on 26 December 1824 Countess Amalie von Thürheim, had issue, married secondly on 13 January 1844 Amalie Löw: Princess Walburga Marie von Wrede, married on 6 November 1851 Sigismund, Count zu Boineburg Carl Friedrich, 3rd Prince von Wrede, married in Tutzing on 28 July 1856 Countess Helene von Vieregg, had issue: Princess Juliane Karoline Anna Maria von Wrede, married on 14 July 1880 Otto, Baron von Hallberg zu Broich Princess Leopoldine Gabriele Anna von Wrede and without issue Carl Philipp, 4th Prince von Wrede, married in Prague on 19 November 1889 Princess Maria Anna von Lobkowicz, had issue: Princess Maria Helene Leonhardine Alexia Ludovica von Wrede and without issue Princess Maria Sidonia Leopoldine Leonhardine Melchiora von Wrede, married at Schloss Sandsee on 5 July 1921 Hans, Ritter und Edler Herr von Rauscher auf Weeg (Munich, 7 Au
The Vysočina Region, is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and in the south-west of the historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Jihlava; the region is the location of two mountain ranges, Žďárské vrchy and Jihlavské vrchy, both part of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. The Vysočina Region is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the most in any region in the Czech Republic; the region is one of just three in the country. The Vysočina Region is divided into 5 districts: On a lower level, the region has 704 municipalities, second-most in the country behind the Central Bohemian Region. Jihlava Brtnice Bystřice nad Pernštejnem Chotěboř Golčův Jeníkov Habry Havlíčkův Brod Horní Cerekev Humpolec Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou Ledeč nad Sázavou Moravské Budějovice Náměšť nad Oslavou Nové Město na Moravě Pacov Pelhřimov Polná Přibyslav Světlá nad Sázavou Svratka Telč Třebíč Třešť Velká Bíteš Velké Meziříčí Žďár nad Sázavou Ždírec nad Doubravou As of 1 January 2012 the population of the Vysočina Region was 511,937 with 253,985 men and 257,952 women, accounting for 49.6% and 50.4% of the population respectively.
With three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the region is home to more of these than any other region of the Czech Republic. These are the historical centre of Telč, the Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou and the Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč; the Vysočina Region is intersected by the D1 motorway, which passes through Jihlava on the way between Prague and Brno. A total of 93 km of motorway is present in the region; the length of operated railway lines in the region is 622 km. In 2014 a plan was announced by which a high-speed train, capable of reaching speeds of 350 km/h would run through the region, involving a total of four stops within the territory. Construction is projected to begin in 2025. In the Vysočina Region there are two organisations providing further education, namely College of Polytechnics Jihlava and Westmoravian College Třebíč; the College of Polytechnics Jihlava is the only public college in the region, whereas Westmoravian College Třebíč is a private institution, established in 2003.
Kutná Hora is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. The town began in 1142 with the settlement of Sedlec Abbey, the first Cistercian monastery in Bohemia, Sedlec Monastery, brought from the Imperial immediate Cistercian Waldsassen Abbey. By 1260, German miners began to mine for silver in the mountain region, which they named Kuttenberg, and, part of the monastery property; the name of the mountain is said to have derived from the word mining. Under Abbot Heidenreich, the territory advanced due to the silver mines which gained importance during the economic boom of the 13th century; the earliest traces of silver have been found dating back to the 10th century, when Bohemia had been in the crossroads of long-distance trade for many centuries. Silver dinars have been discovered belonging to the period between 982–995 in the settlement of Malín, now a part of Kutná Hora. From the 13th to 16th centuries, the city competed with Prague economically and politically. Since 1995, the city center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In 1300, King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia issued. This was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines; the city developed with great rapidity, at the outbreak of the Hussite Wars in 1419 was the second most important city in Bohemia, after Prague, having become the favourite residence of several Bohemian kings. It was here that, on January 18, 1409, Wenceslaus IV signed the famous Decree of Kutná Hora, by which the Czech university nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other nations. In 1420, Emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites during the Hussite Wars, leading to the Battle of Kutná Hora. Kuttenberg was taken by Jan Žižka, after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites. Žižka nonetheless took the place, under Bohemian auspices it awoke to a new period of prosperity.
Along with the rest of Bohemia, Kuttenberg passed to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In 1546, the richest mine was flooded. In the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I the city lost all its privileges. Repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin. Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century. In this town, Prague groschen were minted between 1300–1547/48. Bohemia was a crownland of the Austrian Empire in 1806, in the Austrian monarchy after the compromise of 1867); until 1918, Kuttenberg was the capital of the district of the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. Together with the rest of Bohemia, the town became part of the newly founded Czechoslovakia after World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Kutná Hora was incorporated into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany in the period 1939–1945, but was restored to Czechoslovakia after World War II.
The town became part of the Czech Republic after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Jakob Jakobeus, Slovak writer Jan Erazim Vocel, archaeologist and cultural revivalist František Zelenka, graphic, stage set and costume designer Terry Guo, founder of Taiwanese company Foxconn - in 2002 he bought a Roztěž castle near Kutná Hora The centre of Kutná Hora and Sedlec Abbey with its famous ossuary are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the most important buildings in the town are the Gothic, five-naved St. Barbara's Church, begun in 1388, the Italian Court a royal residence and mint, built at the end of the 13th century; the Gothic Stone Haus, which since 1902 has served as a museum, contains one of the richest archives in the country. The Gothic St. James's Church, with its 86-metre tower, is another prominent building. Sedlec is the site of the Gothic Cathedral of the famous Ossuary. Church of St. Barbara Church of Our Lady Sedlec Ossuary Church of St. James Church of St. John Nepomuk Church of Ursuline Convent Jesuit College Italian Court Marian column Kutná Hora is twinned with: Bamenda, Cameroon Bingen am Rhein, Germany Eger, Hungary Fidenza, Italy Jinan, China Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine Kremnica, Slovakia Reims, France Ringsted, Denmark Stamford, United Kingdom Tarnowskie Góry, Poland Deer Park Žehušice – natural reserve with white deer, located 15 km to the east Municipal website Kutná Hora travel guide from Wikivoyage Photo Gallery of Kutná Hora and Travel Information
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style spread to other Italian cities; the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes and aedicula replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
The word "Renaissance" derived from the term "la rinascita", which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani The Lives of the Artists, 1550–60. Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols. London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance; the folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne. Erwin Panofsky and Renascences in Western Art, The Renaissance style was recognized by contemporaries in the term "all'antica", or "in the ancient manner". Italy of the 15th century, the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, it is in Florence that the new architectural style had its beginning, not evolving in the way that Gothic grew out of Romanesque, but consciously brought to being by particular architects who sought to revive the order of a past "Golden Age".
The scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about. Italian architects had always preferred forms that were defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery and Pisa Cathedral. Italy had never adopted the Gothic style of architecture. Apart from the Cathedral of Milan, few Italian churches show the emphasis on vertical, the clustered shafts, ornate tracery and complex ribbed vaulting that characterise Gothic in other parts of Europe; the presence in Rome, of ancient architectural remains showing the ordered Classical style provided an inspiration to artists at a time when philosophy was turning towards the Classical. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible; this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, through Milan, France.
In 1377, the return of the Pope from the Avignon Papacy and the re-establishment of the Papal court in Rome, brought wealth and importance to that city, as well as a renewal in the importance of the Pope in Italy, further strengthened by the Council of Constance in 1417. Successive Popes Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy. In the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East; the large towns of Northern Italy were prosperous through trade with the rest of Europe, Genoa providing a seaport for the goods of France and Spain. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, the industry on which its wealth was founded. By dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the lucrative business of money-lending; the Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming princes themselves as they did so, by reason of both wealth and influence.
Along the trade routes, thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. The return of the Pope Gregory XI from Avignon in September 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years; this commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the Baroque period. The construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peter's, one of Christendom's most significant churches, were part of this process. In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual; the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city und
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" units were poorly trained and had limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k.
Regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour; the last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107. The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, the nephew of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters and civil, took to writing pamphlets lamenting the state of the Army’s morale as well as fighting a fierce rearguard action against all forms of innovation…. Much of the Austrian failure in the First World War can be traced back to his long period of power…, his power was that of the bureaucrat, not the fighting soldier, his thirty years of command over the peacetime Habsburg Army made it a flabby instrument of war.
Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. The general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers Italy and Russia. By contrast, the main enemies Russia and Serbia had engaged in large scale warfare in the decade before the First World War. In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902; the most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there.
Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912; the ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics.
In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy 4.4% including Bosnia-Herzegovna), Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers. Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség.
In 1867 the military budget accounte