Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, Inner Mongolia to the west; the name "Jilin" translates to "Auspicious Forest" in Chinese, originates from girin ula, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river". The Manchu people once inhabited the area of Jilin, thus making Jilin part of the historical region of Manchuria; the area had been contested, successively falling under the rule of the non-Han states of Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, the Mongol Yuan dynasty. With the adoption of Han culture and the Chinese languages by the Manchu people, the Manchu language is considered a critically endangered language. Koreans comprise about 4 % of the population; the majority of the province speaks Mandarin. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization.
This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale; the name "Jilin" – translates to "Auspicious Forest" – and originates from girin ula ᡤᡳᡵᡳᠨ ᡠᠯᠠ, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river". This would have been transcribed into jilin wula in Chinese shortened to "Jilin". In ancient times, Jilin was inhabited by the Xianbei, the Mohe and the Wùjí; the Korean kingdoms of Buyeo and Balhae ruled parts of this area. The region fell successively under the domination of the Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, the Mongol Yuan dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, much of the area was under the control of the General of Jilin, whose area of control extended to the Sea of Japan to encompass much of what is Russia's Primorsky Krai today. After the Primorsky Krai area was ceded to Russia in 1860, the Qing government began to open the area up to Han Chinese migrants, most of whom came from Shandong.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into a puppet state set up by Japan. Changchun, capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Soviet Army captured Jilin after Operation August Storm; the region, with the rest of northeastern China, was ceded to the Communists by the Soviet Union. Manchuria was the staging ground from which the communists conquered the rest of China in the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, Jilin province was smaller, encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s, Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of Inner Mongolia, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was reversed. In recent times Jilin has, with the rest of heavy industry-based Northeast China, been facing economic difficulties with privatization.
This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". Jilin lies in the central part of northeastern China, bordering Russia and North Korea in the east and southeast respectively. Jilin has a population of 27.3 million. Its capital is Changchun. Jilin is rich in natural mineral deposits with 136 types of minerals, of which 70 have been extracted. Jilin has an abundance of Traditional Chinese medicine resources, with 27,000 kinds of wild plants and 9,000 kinds of medicinal herbs; the province is rich in large reserves of oil, coal, iron mine, molybdenum, graphite, cement rock and silver. Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast and drops towards the northwest; the Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions and contains the highest peak of the province, Paektu Mountain at 2744 m. Other ranges include the Jilinhada Mountains, Zhang Guangcai Mountains, Longgang Mountains. Jilin is drained by the Yalu and Tumen rivers in the extreme southeast, by tributaries of the Liao River in the southwest, by the Songhua and Nen rivers in the north, both flowing into the Amur.
Jilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from -20 to -14°C. Rainfall averages at 350 to 1000 mm. Major cities in this province include Changchun, Jilin City, Baicheng, Yanji, Songyuan and Liaoyuan. Jilin consists of nine prefecture-level divisions: eight prefecture-level cities and one autonomous prefecture: The nine prefecture-level divisions of Jilin are subdivided into 60 county-level divisions; these administrative divisions are explained in greater detail at Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China. At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 27.17 million. The politics of Jilin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other
The Port of Giurgiulești is a port on the Danube River and the largest port in Moldova. It is a port on Prut River, it is Moldova's only port accessible to seagoing vessels, situated at km 133.8 of the River Danube in the South of Moldova. It operates an oil terminal as well as a passenger terminal; the building of an oil terminal started in 1996 and it was launched on October 26, 2006. Giurgiulești passenger port was opened on March 17, 2009, when the first sea passenger trip Giurgiulești-Istanbul-Giurgiulești was launched; the Grain Transhipment Terminal was opened on July 24, 2009. A container facility was added in 2012; as of 2015 a second grain terminal was under construction. The port has only 1,476 feet on the shore of the river with room remaining for one additional terminal. Volume shipped through the port in increased 65% in 2014; the port is managed by a Dutch firm, Danube Logistics, with the aid of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, has invested60 million in the project.
There are 460 employees, half from the village of Giurgiulești, half a mile inland. As of 2015 there were no facilities in Giurgiulești which catered to visiting crewmen, it has a status of free economic zone until 2030. The Port of Giurgiulești was built as result of a 2005 territorial exchange with Ukraine, where Moldova received a 600 m-long bank of the Danube River. Giurgiuleşti International Free Port homepage
Martin is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Keith County, Nebraska, in the United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 92. Martin Bay is one of the most popular recreation areas on Lake McConaughy. Martin is in north-central Keith County, on the northern side of Lake McConaughy just north of Kingsley Dam, the lake's outlet; the lake is an impoundment on the North Platte River. The community sits at the intersection of Nebraska Highways 61 and 92. Highway 61 leads south 12 miles to Ogallala, the Keith county seat, north 28 miles to Arthur, while Highway 92 leads west along the north side of Lake McConaughy 25 miles to Lewellen. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Martin CDP has an area of 0.36 square miles, all of it recorded as land. Martin had its start by the building of the Union Pacific Railroad through that territory