My Boss's Daughter
My Boss's Daughter is a 2003 romantic comedy film starring Ashton Kutcher, Tara Reid and Terence Stamp. Tom Stansfield is a researcher at a publishing company. Tom has a crush on his boss' daughter, controlled by her overprotective father, she reveals to Tom that her father is making her house-sit the same night as a party she wants to attend, but Tom convinces her to stand up to her father and attend the party anyway. Lisa asks him to come to their house that night, leading Tom to think that she has invited him to the party. A comedy of errors ensues, including the return of Lisa's older brother, Red, on the run from drug dealers. Red dumps drugs into the toilet, instead returns a bag of flour to the drug dealer. One of Tom's tasks is to guard O-J, which lives in an open cage; when the bird drinks from the toilet polluted with drugs, it flies away. Jack's ex-secretary Audrey goes to the house to try to earn her job back. After fighting with her boyfriend, she stays over at the house. Lisa returns home after finding out.
Tom hides from her everything that happened and she spends some time with her thinking he is homosexual. He clarifies to her that he's straight and she starts to like him. Audrey's friend thinks she asks Tom to feel her breasts. Lisa is disgusted by the situation. T. J. the drug dealer, finds out about the fake drugs and threatens to kill Tom if he doesn't return his money. T. J. tries to steal the money. However, Tom gives him sleeping pills mixed with alcohol; because they think T. J. is dead and her friends bury him. T. J. threatens to kill Lisa. With Red's help, Tom rescues Lisa and she falls in love with him, he goes to get her father, but on the way back the owl gets into the car making Tom lose control of the car and crash into the house. They find police officers in the house looking for T. J. who ends up getting arrested. Jack throws Tom out; the next day, Jack hears his son explaining to Lisa how she should stand up to their father and go back to Tom. Jack gives Tom a promotion. Ashton Kutcher as Tom Stansfield Tara Reid as Lisa Taylor Terence Stamp as Jack Taylor Sr. Molly Shannon as Audrey Bennett Andy Richter as Jack "Red" Taylor Jr. Michael Madsen as T.
J. Tyler Labine as Spike Jon Abrahams as Paul Patrick Crenshaw as Old Man Neighbor Angela Little as Sheryl David Koechner as Speed Carmen Electra as Tina Kenan Thompson as Hans Jeffrey Tambor as Ken Dave Foley as Henderson The movie was released by Dimension Films on August 22, 2003, opened at #10 at the U. S. Box office and grossed $4,855,798 on its opening weekend, it was released domestically in 2,206 theaters grossing $15,550,605 in the United States. The film was released in foreign theaters grossing further $2,640,400 with its highest grossing of $691,999 in Russia and its lowest in the Czech Republic totaling $18,191,005 worldwide. Based on 71 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an overall approval rating from critics of 8% with an average score of 2.4/10. Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, the film has received an average score of 16; the film received three Razzie Award nominations including Worst Actor, Worst Supporting Actress and Worst Screen Couple.
Official website My Boss's Daughter at AllMovie My Boss's Daughter on IMDb Yahoo Movies entry
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Shorewood High School (Wisconsin)
Shorewood High School is a comprehensive public high school located in the village of Shorewood, Wisconsin. It is part of the Shorewood School District; as of the 2010-11 school year, the school had an enrollment of 615 students and 34.5 classroom teachers on a full-time equivalent basis, giving a student to teacher ratio of 17.83. The school's original colors were blue and gold but were changed to red and grey in 1930. Among options for extra curricular activities for students are 23 sports and more than 40 co-curricular clubs and activities; the original building on the campus is the administration building. Constructed in 1925, it features a 40-foot diameter copper dome used a social studies classroom; the administration building houses the administrations, social studies and language classes. The campus features a 1,211 seat auditorium that resembles the RKO Theater, now known as Radio City Music Hall; the auditorium was renamed the Barb Gensler Theater for The Dramatic Arts in 2012 in honor of retired drama department director Barbara Gensler and her 47 years of service to the school.
In 1998 the Manual Arts Building which housed woods and drafting classes, was renovated and now houses the Community Fitness Center. John F. Nickoll Stadium in Shorewood is the home to the Shorewood High School football and girls soccer, and girls lacrosse teams, it had two stints as a home venue for the Milwaukee Panthers football team of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee from 1956–67 and again in 1972. The stadium has occasionally served as a home for Milwaukee's club football team since 2003; the Shorewood Drama Department produces a minimum of three shows annually. It was the first high school in its area to perform the musical "A Chorus Line" in 1986, the first in the nation to perform "Rent" in 2006. In 2006, they performed "Urinetown the Musical"; the high school has been mentioned in The New York Times, along with three other schools, for its outstanding theater and its ability to "spend more money on a drama production than on their director's annual salary." In May 2013, they performed "Spring Awakening", sparking both criticism and praise from community members.
The show was performed unedited from the original Broadway production, students were required to turn in a signed parent permission slip to audition for the musical. Founded in 1922, Shorewood Ripples is the student newspaper; the entire 1921-1922 SHS student body contributed to the first edition, a yearbook with a literary bent. In addition to covering stories at SHS, Ripples reports on stories in other Shorewood schools, the greater community. A staff of over 30 students bring ten or more issues per year to press. Most issues have 12 to 20 pages. With a circulation of between 800 and 1000, the publication reaches students and residents throughout the village of Shorewood. Ripples subscribes to the Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists, including the obligation to perform with intelligence, objectivity and fairness. 1924-25: Boys' tennis champion 1925-26: Boys' tennis champion + 1926-27: Boys' tennis champion 1928-29: Boys' tennis champion 1931-32: Boys' swimming & diving runner-up 1932-33: Boys' swimming & diving 1933-34: Boys' swimming & diving 1934-35: Boys' swimming & diving champion 1935-36: Boys' swimming & diving 1936-37: Boys' swimming & diving champion 1936-37: Boys' basketball Class B quarterfinal 1937-38: Boys' basketball quarterfinal 1937-38: Boys' swimming & diving 1938-39: Boys' swimming & diving champion 1938-39: Boys' basketball quarterfinal 1939-40: Boys' basketball quarterfinal 1939-40: Boys' swimming & diving 1940-41: Boys' swimming & diving 1940-41: Boys' basketball quarterfinal 1941-42: Boys' basketball champion 1941-42: Boys' swimming & diving 1942-43: Boys' swimming & diving 1948-49: Boys' swimming & diving 1954-55: Boys' basketball 1st round 1960-61: Boys' track & field Class B 1965-66: Boys' track & field Class B runner-up 1974-75: Girls' volleyball Class B 1975-76: Girls’ volleyball Class B 1980-81: Boys’ basketball Class B semi-finalist 1981-82: Girls’ tennis runner-up 1990-91: Girls’ volleyball Division 2 semi-finalist 1994-95: Girls’ Gymnastics Division 1* 1995-96: Girls’ Gymnastics Division 1* 1994-95: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 1995-96: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 1996-97: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 1996-97: Girls’ Gymnastics Division 1 runner-up* 1997-98: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 1997-98: Boys’ soccer Division 2 champion 2000-01: Boys’ cross country Division 2 champion 2000-01: Boys’ tennis Division 2 runner-up 2000-01: Boys’ volleyball quarterfinal 2001-02: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 champion 2001-02: Boys’ volleyball Semi-Final 2002-03: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 2003-04: Girls’ swimming & diving Division 2 2003-04: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions 2004-05: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions 2004-05: Boys’ soccer Division 2 runner-up 2005-06: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions 2005-06: Boys’ volleyball semi-final 2006-07: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions 2006-07: Boys’ tennis Division 2 Doubles 2007-08: Boys’ cross country Division 2 runner up 2009-10: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions 2010-11: Boys’ cross country Division 2 State Champions2012-2013: Girls' swimming & diving Division 2 - Co-Op team with Whitefish Bay High School+ - Tie With Milwaukee Washington 2015-2016 Girls Cross Country Division 2 Runner Up Shorewood's boys' cross country team won four straight WIAA Division 2 State Championships, making them the first Division 2 school to do so.
It won the state meet in 2000, 2009, 2010. It was state runner-up in 2007. Shorewood took home yet another state title in 2
Big Business (1988 film)
Big Business is a 1988 American comedy film starring Bette Midler and Lily Tomlin. The movie revolves around two sets of identical female twins mismatched at birth, with one of each pair ending in a wealthy urban family and the other in a poor rural family, it was produced by Touchstone Pictures, with the plot loosely based on The Comedy of Errors by William Shakespeare. The film co-stars Fred Ward, Edward Herrmann, Joe Grifasi, Seth Green, as well as siblings Michael Gross and Mary Gross. Directed by Jim Abrahams, critical reaction to the film as a whole was lukewarm. Midler received an American Comedy Award in the category Funniest Actress in a Motion Picture for her performance, in 1989. In 1948, wealthy businessman Hunt Shelton and his pregnant wife are lost in rural West Virginia when Mrs. Shelton goes into labor near the town of Jupiter Hollow. At the local hospital, they are turned away, because it is for employees of Hollowmade, the local furniture maker. Mr. Shelton purchases the company on the spot, Mrs. Shelton is admitted.
The Ratliffs, an impoverished couple, arrive moments with Mrs. Ratliff in labor. Both women give birth to twin girls, the elderly nurse attending the doctor confuses and mixes up the sets of twins. Mr. Ratliff overhears the Sheltons deciding to name their daughters Rose and Sadie, suggests the same names to his wife. Forty years the Shelton sisters are now co-chairwomen of Moramax in New York City, a conglomerate, the successor to their father's business interests. Sadie Shelton is focused on her career to the detriment of her family, while Rose Shelton wishes for a simpler life in the country; as part of her business plan, Sadie plans to sell Hollowmade, but must get stockholders' approval to proceed. In Jupiter Hollow, Rose Ratliff has risen to the position of forewoman at the Hollowmade Factory, is very career-driven. Meanwhile, Sadie Ratliff has always felt misplaced in rural life, wishes for a more sophisticated life in a big city. Rose discovers Moramax's plans to sell Hollowmade, makes plans to travel to New York City to stop the sale.
Wanting to see the city, Sadie agrees to join her sister. While Sadie Shelton makes plans for the shareholders' meeting, she learns from her employee Graham Sherbourne that "R. Ratliff" plans to come to New York with his sister to stop the sale. Sadie orders Sherbourne to locate "R. Ratliff". A series of mixups at JFK Airport leaves the Shelton sisters stranded while the prospective buyer of Hollowmade, Mr. Fabio Alberici, takes their limousine back to the Plaza Hotel with the Ratliff sisters; the Ratliffs are checked into the Sheltons' suite, the Sheltons take the suite next door, leading to a series of near-misses between the four sisters, the men who are pursuing them romantically. In the meantime and his assistant/boyfriend assume that a visitor from Jupiter Hollow, Rose Ratliff's beau Roone Dimmick, is "R. Ratliff." All sisters discover their mixup in the lobby bathroom. After Sadie Shelton acts like she will call off the Hollowmade sale, Rose Ratliff calls her out on the strip mining plans.
Rose Shelton realizes that Sadie has been lying to her, helps the Ratliffs trap her in the broom closet. Rose Ratliff sits outside the broom closet to keep Sadie Shelton trapped, while Rose Shelton and Sadie Ratliff attend the shareholders' meeting and stop the sale of Hollowmade. Both sets of twins leave the Plaza hotel with their newfound loves; the movie was written for Barbra Streisand and Goldie Hawn. The plot is a coincidental and playful combination of three recognizable stories: Aesop's The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse, Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper, Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors; the production company could not get the rights to film at the actual Plaza Hotel in New York City, so it had the hotel recreated on sound stages. To recoup construction costs, Disney built. Jim Abrahams said he staged one of the boardroom scenes based on an experience he had when a large agency used many employees to get him to sign with them. Critical reaction to the film as a whole was lukewarm.
The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports that 40% of critics gave the film a positive rating, based on 15 reviews, with an average score of 4.88/10. Sheila Benson from The Los Angeles Times called Big Business a "bright whirligig of a movie" and added: "As you watch its buoyant hilarity, the intricacies flow smoothly as honey off a spoon Like a sensational party the night before, "Big Business" may not bear the closest scrutiny in the cold light of day, but it gives an irresistible glow at the time, and when it gets on a roll, it's a movie with more wit to its lines and a more pungent array of them than much of the mishmash that has passed as Bette Midler's Greatest Movie Hits." Philadelphia Daily News writer Ben Yagoda felt. Lily Tomlin and Bette Midler are a double dose of hilarity. Call out the National Guard — Big Business is a laugh riot". In his review for The New York Times, Vincent Canby remarked that Big Business, "though it never quite delivers the boffo payoff, is a most cheerful breezy summer farce, played to the hilt by two splendidly comic performers Sometimes do have trouble in characterizing the two sets of twins, allowing them to blend in such a way that the comic edge becomes blurred.
Yet the film moves at such a clip, with such uncommon zest, that it's good fun when the invention wears thin." Roger Ebert, writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, gave the film two out of four stars. He
Jerry G. Zucker is an American film producer and writer known for his role in directing comedy spoof films such as Airplane! and Top Secret!, the Best Picture-nominated supernatural drama film Ghost. Jerry Zucker and his older brother, David Zucker, collaborated on several films. Zucker was born to a Jewish family in Milwaukee, the son of Charlotte A. and Burton C. Zucker, a real estate developer, he graduated from Shorewood High School. Zucker's early career work started with brother David Zucker; the trio performed in Madison, Wisconsin as a sketch and comedy troupe called "Kentucky Fried Theater". From there the three went on and together co-directed Airplane! in 1980 and went on to do Top Secret! in 1984, Ruthless People in 1986. In 1990, he lent his directorial skills to the dramatic genre with Ghost, nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture. Recent directorial efforts of Zucker's include the 2001 film Rat Race. Zucker's films have been ranked among the greatest comedies of all time: Airplane! was ranked at the top of Entertainment Weekly's list of best comedy films and AFI listed it as #10.
Like his brother David Zucker, Jerry cast his mother and his sister, Susan Breslau, in small roles in his films. Along with Jim Abrahams, the Zuckers constitute the "ZAZ" team of directors. Second unit director in Rock'n' Roll High School. Jerry Zucker on IMDb
Shorewood is a village in Milwaukee County, United States. The population was 13,162 at the 2010 census. Howell Raines of The New York Times said in 1979 that "his maple-studded town on Lake Michigan dotes on its reputation as Milwaukee's most liberal suburb." Shorewood seceded from the Town of Milwaukee in 1900 and was known as East Milwaukee until changing to its present name in 1917. Shorewood is located at 43°05′31″N 87°53′11″W. Nestled between the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan, Shorewood is bordered by the City of Milwaukee to the south and west and Whitefish Bay to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.59 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 13,162 people, 6,381 households, 3,109 families residing in the village; the population density was 8,278.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,750 housing units at an average density of 4,245.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 88.1% White, 2.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.6% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 6,381 households of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 51.3% were non-families. 39.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the village was 37.2 years. 19.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. The Village of Shorewood is a suburb within Milwaukee County, it is governmentally recognized being a part of the greater City of Milwaukee but still has a village system. Therefore, it still contributes to Milwaukee census statistics; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,763 people, 6,539 households, 3,328 families residing in the village.
The population density was 8,599.5 people per the highest in the state of Wisconsin. There were 6,696 housing units at an average density of 4,183.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.43% White, 2.41% African American, 0.23% Native American, 3.19% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 1.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.51% of the population. There were 6,539 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.1% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.87. In the village, the population was spread out with 21.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females, there were 85.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $47,224, the median income for a family was $67,589. Males had a median income of $47,616 versus $34,294 for females; the per capita income for the village was $32,950. About 3.8% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. The Shorewood School District maintains four public schools: Shorewood High School – serving grades 9 through 12 Shorewood Intermediate School – serving grades 7 and 8 Atwater Elementary School – serving 4K through grade 6 Lake Bluff Elementary School – serving 4K through grade 6The Archdiocese of Milwaukee maintains one Catholic school in Shorewood, St. Robert School, which serves kindergarten through grade 8. Benjamin Church House — The one-story Greek Revival house was built in 1844 for his family by Benjamin F. Church, a pioneer builder from New York, on N.
Fourth Street in the Kilbourntown settlement. In 1938, after significant preservation efforts, the house was moved from its original site to its present location in Estabrook Park in Shorewood; the house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Hubbard Park — The wooded, terraced park spanning 5 acres along the east bank of the Milwaukee River has a colorful history. In its earlier years, the site used for Indian hunting grounds, a resort, a series of amusement parks, fishing shanties, to name a few, it is home to the Hubbard Park Lodge, constructed as a WPA project in 1936. It is home to Hubbard Park Lodge Restaurant. Shorewood High School campus — The school’s 19-acre campus, built between 1924 and 1938, includes separate buildings for administration, physical education and science, industrial arts, theater arts; the auditorium was modeled after the RKO Theater in New York City. Shorewood Village Hall — Originally built as a four-room schoolhouse in 1908, the building was purchased in 1916 by the Village of East Milwaukee for use as a village hall.
It was extensively remodeled in 1937 with WPA funds, again in 1985. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. WITI TV Tower — Built in 1962, it was once one of the tallest free-standing lattice towers in the world, rising 1,078 feet. Hayek Pharmacy — Located at 4001 N
A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom