Jim Bakker

James Orsen Bakker is an American televangelist and former Assemblies of God minister. With his former wife Tammy Faye he hosted the The PTL Club, an evangelical Christian television program from 1974 to 1989, he developed Heritage USA, a now-defunct Christian theme park in Fort Mill, South Carolina. A cover-up of hush money paid to a church secretary, Jessica Hahn, for an alleged rape led to his resignation from the ministry. Subsequent revelations of accounting fraud brought about his conviction on felony charges and divorce. Bakker remarried and returned to televangelism, founding the Morningside Church in Blue Eye, Missouri, he hosts The Jim Bakker Show, which focuses on the end time and the Second Coming of Christ while promoting emergency survival products. He has written several books, including I Was Wrong and Time Has Come: How to Prepare Now for Epic Events Ahead. James Orsen Bakker was born in Muskegon, the son of Raleigh Bakker and Furnia Lynette "Furn" Irwin. Bakker attended North Central University, where he met fellow student Tammy Faye LaValley in 1960.

He worked at a restaurant in the Young-Quinlan department store in Minneapolis. They married on April 1, 1961, left college to become evangelists; the Bakkers have two children: Jamie Charles "Jay" Bakker. They divorced on March 13, 1992. On September 4, 1998, Bakker married Lori Beth Graham, a former televangelist, just 50 days after they met. In 2002 they adopted five children. In 1966 the Bakkers began working at Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network, which had an audience in the low thousands at the time, they contributed to the network's growth, their success with a variety show format helped make The 700 Club a company staple. The Jim and Tammy Show, aimed at young children, was broadcast for several years from their Portsmouth, Virginia studio; the Bakkers hosted the first version of The 700 Club. In 1972 the Bakkers left Robertson's ministry and in 1973 joined with Paul and Jan Crouch to help co-found the Trinity Broadcasting Network. Jim and his wife moved to Charlotte, North Carolina.

In 1976 they first put The PTL Club on the air. From 1974 to 1987, the Bakkers hosted The PTL Club. Guests ranged from religious figures like Billy Graham and Oral Roberts to entertainers such as Mr. T and Mickey Rooney. Bakker founded the PTL Satellite Network in 1974, which aired The PTL Club and other religious television programs. Throughout the 1970s, Bakker built a headquarters for their ministry in the Carolinas called Heritage Village. Over time, the Bakkers expanded the ministry to include the Heritage USA amusement park in Fort Mill, South Carolina. Heritage USA became the third-most-successful theme park in the US at the time. Viewer contributions were estimated to exceed $1 million a week, with proceeds to expand the theme park and The PTL Club's mission. Bakker responded to inquiries about his use of mass media by saying: "I believe that if Jesus were alive today, he would be on TV"; the Bakkers had a lavish lifestyle. In an April 23, 1990 New Yorker article, Frances FitzGerald quoted Dave Barry: "They personified the most characteristic excesses of the 1980s—the greed, the love of glitz, the shamelessness—which in their case were so pure as to amount to a kind of innocence."

Two scandals brought down the ministry in 1987. Bakker was dismissed as an Assemblies of God minister on May 6, 1987. In 1990, the biographical TV movie, Fall from Grace starring Kevin Spacey and Bernadette Peters depicted his rise and fall within the religious televangelist arena. On January 18, 2019, ABC's 20/20 aired a two-hour special entitled, "Unfaithfully Yours", about the rise and downfall of the Bakkers. In 1979, Bakker and his PTL ministry came under investigation by the Federal Communications Commission for misusing funds raised on the air; the FCC report was finalized in 1982 and found that Bakker had raised $350,000 that he told viewers would go towards funding overseas missions but were used to pay for part of Heritage USA. The report found that Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker used PTL funds for personal expenses. FCC commissioners voted four to three to drop the investigation, after which they allowed Bakker to sell the only TV station that he owned, therefore bypassing future FCC oversight.

The FCC forwarded their report to the Justice Department, who declined to press charges, citing insufficient evidence. Bakker used the controversy to raise more funds from his audience, branding the investigation a "witch-hunt", asking viewers to "give the Devil a black eye". A confidential 1985 Internal Revenue Service report found that $1.3 million in ministry funds were used for the Bakkers' personal benefit from 1980 to 1983. The report recommended that PTL be stripped of its tax-exempt status but no action was taken until the Jessica Hahn scandal in 1987. Art Harris and Michael Isikoff wrote in The Washington Post that politics may have played a role in the three government agencies taking no action against PTL despite the evidence against them, as members of the Reagan administration were not eager to go after television ministers whose evangelical followers made up their base. A $279,000 payoff for the silence of Jessica Hahn, who alleged that Bakker and former PTL Club co-host John Wesley Fletcher drugged and raped her, was paid with PTL's funds t

John Suppe

John Suppe is an American geologist, Distinguished Professor of Geology at University of Houston and Princeton University. He received his B. A. from University of California, Riverside in 1965, his Ph. D. from Yale University in 1969. He joined the Princeton faculty in 1971, was the chairman of the Department of Geology from 1991 to 1993, he transferred to emeritus status, moved to Taiwan where he became a Distinguished Chair Research Professor at the National Taiwan University in 2007. Suppe's research specialties are structural geology and tectonics, he is best known for his work on "fault-related folding" theories with his two classical papers "Geometry and kinematics of fault-bend folding" and "Geometry and kinematics of fault-propagation folding". Additionally, Suppe is well known for his extensive work on the formation of mountain belts with examples from California and China. Suppe has been former visiting professor at the National Taiwan University, the California Institute of Technology, Barcelona University, Munich University.

Furthermore he was a NASA Guest Investigator for the analysis of the Venus images from the Magellan mission. Among his awards and honors, he received the Best Publication Award in Structural Geology and Tectonics from the Geological Society of America in 1986 and 1996, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation research prize in 2006, the Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal from the Yale Graduate School in 2007 and the Career Contribution Award in Structural Geology and Tectonics from the Geological Society of America in 2008. Suppe has been a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences since 1995. John Suppe is a Christian who has written on the relationship between science and religion in articles like Thoughts on the Epistemology of Christianity in Light of Science


Info-Türk is a Turco-European working group and foundation, founded in 1974 in Brussels with the aim to inform world opinion of the social, economic and political life of Turkey, to address issues relating to emigration from Turkey. As well its monthly Info-Türk bulletin, Info-Türk has published many books, files and cassettes in different languages in English, Dutch and Turkish. In 2006, on the occasion of Info-Türk's founders being awarded the Human Rights Association of Turkey's Ayse Zarakolu Freedom of Thought Prize, IFEX said that Info-Türk had "tackled many subjects considered taboo in Turkey, including anti-semitism and the question of the Armenian Genocide." It is the continuation of two preceding initiatives in Turkey led by its founders Doğan Özgüden and Inci Tugsavul. Ant Publications published in Istanbul a socialist review and more than fifty books from 1967 up to 1971. After the banning of Ant by the junta of the 1971 military coup, its editors organized in Europe; the founders were charged with over 50 opinion-related crimes for articles written or published in Ant, were stripped of their Turkish nationality in 1984.

Info-Türk launched its activities in April 1974 with the publication of a series of books and pamphlets. The publication of the monthly periodical Info-Türk started in November 1976; the Bulletin Info-Türk was published until January 1998 only on paper. From February 1998 until October 2001 in electronic edition. Since November 2001, Info-Türk has been published only in the electronic edition; the information given by Info-Türk for more than 30 years constitute a real chronology on the repression and the struggles for democracy in Turkey for more than a quarter of a century. In addition to its publications and information activities, Info-Türk has organized a series of social and cultural activities for immigrants in Belgium such as language courses and professional training, creative workshops and homework classes, takes part in many democratic initiatives in struggle against racism and xenophobia. All these activities and services are grouped together within an independent intercultural organization called Sun Workshops.

In 2003, the working group Info-Türk transformed into a private foundation. This foundation has the aim of preserving and developing the material and intellectual heritage that its founders created in order to contribute to the recognition of socio-political and cultural realities of Turkey and to the socio-cultural promotion of immigrants and refugees coming from Turkey to Europe; the foundation's principal activities: Classification and computerization of the written, printed or audio-visual documents, realized or acquired by its founders. In 2006 the Human Rights Association of Turkey awarded the 2006 Ayse Zarakolu Freedom of Thought Prize to Info-Türk co-founders Dogan Özgüden and Inci Tugsavul. Official website