In baseball, a double play is the act of making two outs during the same continuous play. The double play is defined in the Official Rules in the Definitions of Terms, for the official scorer in Rule 9.11. Double plays can occur any time there is less than two outs. During the 2016 Major League Baseball regular season, the average for double plays completed by each team during the course of a 162-game season was 145 — nearly one per game by each team; the simplest scenario for a double play is a runner on first base with less than two outs. In that context, five example double plays are: The batter hits a ground ball to a middle infielder, who throws the ball to the other middle infielder, who steps on second base to force out the runner coming from first, throws the ball to the first baseman in time to force out the batter; as both outs are made by force plays, this is referred to as a "force double play". This is the most common double play; the neighborhood play is a recurring source of controversy: Umpires sometimes call the first out though the infielder is not touching second base but "in the neighborhood". to the first baseman, who steps on first base to force out the batter, with the baserunner trying to advance from first base to second base, throws the ball to the shortstop who puts out the runner.
This is referred to as a "reverse force double play", although executing the first out removes the condition that forced the runner to take second base. The second out must be made with a tag; the batter hits the ball in the air a line drive to the first baseman, who catches it, steps on first base before the baserunner can return to first to tag up. This is an example of an unassisted double play. A deep fly ball to the right fielder, who catches it, meanwhile the baserunner tags up and attempts to advance, the outfielder throws the ball to the shortstop who tags the runner before he reaches second base; the batter strikes out. If the runner was trying to steal second base, it is a double play. Double plays can occur in many ways in addition to these examples, can involve many combinations of fielders. A double play can include an out resulting from a rare event, such as interference or an appeal play. Per standard baseball positions, the examples given above are recorded as: 4-6-3 or 6-4-3 3-6 3, unassisted 9-6 kc or ks, 2-6 or 2-4 cs Double plays that are initiated by a batter hitting a ground ball are recorded in baseball statistics as GIDP.
This statistic has been tracked since 1933 in the National League and since 1939 in the American League. This statistic does not include line-outs into double plays, for which there is no official statistic for a batter; the double play is a coup for the fielding team and debilitating to the batting team. The fielding team can select pitches to induce a double play — such as a sinker, more to be hit as a ground ball — and can position fielders to make a ground ball more to be turned into a double play; the batting team may take action — such as a hit and run play — to reduce the chance of grounding into a force double play. In baseball slang, making a double play is referred to as "turning two" or a "twin killing". Double plays are known as "the pitcher's best friend" because they disrupt offense more than any other play, except for the rare triple play. A force double play made on a ground ball hit to the third baseman, who throws to the second baseman, who throws to the first baseman, is referred to as an "around the horn" double play.
A "strike'em out, throw'em out" double play occurs when a base runner is caught stealing after the batter strikes out. The ability to "make the pivot" on a force double play – receiving a throw from the third base side quickly turning and throwing to first base – is a key skill for a second baseman; the most famous double play trio – although they never set any records – were Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers and Frank Chance, who played shortstop, second baseman and first baseman for the Chicago Cubs between 1902 and 1912. Their double play against the New York Giants in a 1910 game inspired Giants fan Franklin Pierce Adams to write the short poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon, otherwise known as Tinker to Evers to Chance, which immortalized the trio. All three players were part of the Cubs team that won the National League pennant in 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, the World Series in 1907 and 1908, turning 491 double plays on the way, they were elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946. The New York Yankees recorded a rare 4-1-5 double play against the San Francisco Giants on July 24, 2016, in the top of the 8th inning.
The Giants had Mac Williamson on first base with one out, when Ramiro Peña hit a ground ball that got by Yankees' first baseman Mark Teixeira but was fielded on the edge of the outfield grass by Starlin Castro. Castro threw to pitcher Chad Green at first base to retire Peña. Meanwhile, Williamson had rounded second on his way to third, a throw from Green to third baseman Chase Headley resulted in Williamson being tagged out, ending the inning. A bizarre 8-6-2 double play occurred in a nationally televised game between the New York Yankees and Chicago White Sox on August 2, 1985, in the b
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual professional baseball game sanctioned by Major League Baseball contested between the All-Stars from the American League and National League selected by fans for starting fielders, by managers for pitchers, by managers and players for reserves. The game occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share an All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself; some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to and during this break in the regular season. No official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. Two All-Star Games were held each season from 1959 to 1962; the most recent All-Star Game was held on July 17, 2018, at Nationals Park, home of the National League's Washington Nationals.
The 2019 and 2020 All-Star Games are scheduled to be held in Cleveland and Los Angeles, respectively. A Major League Baseball All-Star is a professional baseball player, named to either the American League or National League All-Star Team. Major league All-Star namings began in July 1933. Fans have participated in the selection of the players who fill the AL and NL All-Star rosters. Between 1935 and 1946, each All-Star team's manager selected their entire teams. From 1959 through 1962, All-Stars played in two All-Star Games each season. On January 29, 1936, Babe Ruth became the first of the original thirty-six All-Stars to be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Hank Aaron holds the record for the most All-Star Game appearances. In 2017, each All-Star team had 32 players, with fans voting for the starting players, the players selecting the reserve players for each position and five starting pitchers and three relief pitchers; the final All-Star player vote still exists, but the MLB commissioner's office will now fill out the remaining roster spots instead of the managers.
The 90th Installment will be played in Progressive Field, home of the AL central's Cleveland Indians. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6, 1933, as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward sports editor for the Chicago Tribune. Intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one; the venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball. The criteria for the venue are subjective. Over time, this has resulted in certain cities being selected more at the expense of others due to timely circumstances: Cleveland Stadium and the original Yankee Stadium are tied for the most times a venue has hosted the All-Star game, both hosting four games. New York City has hosted more than any other city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums. At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, while the Los Angeles Dodgers have not hosted since 1980 and will do so in 2020. Among current major league teams, the Tampa Bay Rays have yet to host the All-Star game.
In the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis; this led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of those venues: The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, the Phillies in 1952; the venues traditionally alternate between the American National League every year. This tradition has been broken several times: The first time was in 1951, when the AL Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the annual game as part of the city's 250th birthday; the second was when the two-game format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the AL being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the NL San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the AL's original Yankee Stadium in its final season, it was broken when again the NL hosted the four straight games from 2015-2018. The AL will host its next game in 2019 in Cleveland.
The "home team" has traditionally been the league in which the host franchise plays its games, but the American League was designated the home team for the 2016 All Star Game, despite its being played in Petco Park, home of the National League's San Diego Padres. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the third straight year in which the game is hosted in a National League ballpark. Since 1934, the managers of the game are the managers of the previous year's league pennant winners and World Series clubs; the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager. This honor is given to the manager, not the team, so it is possible that the All-Star manager could no longer be
1979 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1979 throughout the world. World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates over Baltimore Orioles. National League Championship Series MVP: Willie Stargell All-Star Game, July 17 at the Kingdome: National League, 7–6. February 3 – The Minnesota Twins trade Rod Carew to the California Angels for Ken Landreaux, Dave Engle, Paul Hartzell and Brad Havens, his first season with the Angels, he helps his new team reach the post season for the first time, batting over.300 for the next five seasons, being selected for the next six American League All-Star teams. March 7 – The Special Veterans Committee selects Warren Giles and Hack Wilson for the Hall of Fame. April 7 – In the earliest no-hitter in major league history, the Houston Astros' Ken Forsch shuts down the Atlanta Braves 6–0, his brother, St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Bob Forsch, hurled a no-hitter the previous season against the Philadelphia Phillies — making them the first big league brothers to each toss a no-hitter.
April 19 – New York Yankees' closer Rich Gossage breaks his right thumb in a clubhouse fight with teammate Cliff Johnson. Gossage would miss two months, while 1978 American League Cy Young Award winner Ron Guidry voluntarily replaced him in the bullpen for a short time. May 9 – With the score tied 4-4 in the ninth inning, Jimmy Sexton on first base with no outs, the Houston Astros' Terry Puhl lays down a sacrifice bunt; the Cardinals attempt to get the lead runner on the play, second base umpire Dave Pallone calls Sexton safe, claiming that Garry Templeton never touched the bag. Cardinals manager Ken Boyer, First baseman Keith Hernandez and catcher Ted Simmons are ejected from the game. Players on the Cardinals bench begin throwing helmets onto the field in protest; as a result, Pallone orders the entire Cardinals bench into the clubhouse, allowing players only to come onto the field as needed. The Cardinals would get out of the inning without a run scoring, however would lose it in the sixteenth inning.
May 17 – Dave Kingman of the Chicago Cubs hits three home runs and Mike Schmidt of the Philadelphia Phillies hits two, the second of which proves to be the game winner in the tenth inning, as the Phillies beat the Cubs 23–22 at Wrigley Field. Bill Buckner had seven RBIs for Chicago; the game included a Major League record 11 home runs and 50 hits. May 25 – Starter Ross Baumgarten and reliever Randy Scarbery pitched the first combined one-hitter in Chicago White Sox history, defeating Nolan Ryan and the California Angels, 6–1, at Comiskey Park. May 28 – Texas Rangers first baseman Mike Jorgensen is hit in the head by a pitch from Boston Red Sox pitcher Andy Hassler. Dave Roberts comes into the game to pinch run for Jorgensen, Pat Putnam takes over as the Rangers' regular first baseman for the next month. Aside from a pinch-hit appearance on May 31, Jorgensen does not play again until July 1. After suffering headaches, it is discovered he has a small blood clot inside his head, which caused a seizure and could have resulted in his early demise.
June 8 – The Kansas City Royals use their fourth overall pick to draft Dan Marino. In the seventeenth round, they select Stanford's John Elway. Neither player would sign with the Royals, though they would go on to record-breaking careers in the National Football League. June 12 – The Detroit Tigers hire Sparky Anderson as their new manager. June 18 – Bob Lemon is fired as manager of the defending World Series champ New York Yankees after a sluggish 34-31 start. Billy Martin slated not to take over until the 1980 season, is brought back early by George Steinbrenner, drawing the ire of Reggie Jackson. June 24 – In a 5–1 loss to the Rangers, Rickey Henderson debuts for the Oakland Athletics, he doubles. July 12 – The Detroit Tigers win the first game of a scheduled doubleheader against the Chicago White Sox, 4–1, on Disco Demolition Night at Chicago's Comiskey Park. Thousands of young fans swarm onto the field between the games, damaging the field and causing mayhem throughout the stadium. The
Brian Jay Downing is an American former professional baseball player. He played for 20 seasons in Major League Baseball for the Chicago White Sox, California Angels and Texas Rangers, he began his major league career as a catcher switched to playing as an outfielder and designated hitter for the remainder of his career. Downing played at Magnolia High School in Anaheim and was cut from his high school team. Although he was on the "taxi squad" as a bullpen catcher, he failed to make the team at Cypress College, but he had an impressive showing at an "all comers" Chicago White Sox tryout, scout Bill Lentini signed him as an amateur free agent on August 19, 1969. His early career with the White Sox was not so promising. On the first pitch of his first inning in his first Major League game, he damaged his knee making a diving catch near third base, sliding down the dugout steps and landing on the 60-day DL, he hit.225 as.240 in his second year, with seven home runs in 138 games. On December 5, 1977, the White Sox traded Brian Downing, along with Dave Frost and Chris Knapp, to the California Angels for slugger Bobby Bonds and prospects Thad Bosley and Richard Dotson.
This trade allowed Downing to come home to Southern California and avoid the pressures of Chicago fans' expectations. It gave Downing's career new life. Although his 1978 numbers were uninspiring, in the offseason he committed to serious weight training and in 1979 changed his batting stance, hit an impressive.326. He made the AL All-Star team for the first and only time. A broken ankle in 1980 forced him to move from catcher to the outfield beginning in 1981 because his offense was so valuable. Although his range was not great for an outfielder, Downing's hard work and steady hands allowed him to play the entire 1982 and 1984 seasons without making an error, he set a pair of AL records with 244 errorless games by an OF, most chances in an errorless season. His continued weight training helped him hit 20+ home runs in six of the seven seasons from 1982 to 1988. In 1985 Downing played himself when Louise Jefferson sneaked into the Angels' locker-room looking for Reggie Jackson in an episode of The Jeffersons.
When he played his last game for the Angels after 13 seasons, he was their career leader in games, at bats, hits, total bases, home runs, RBI, extra base hits, HBP, sacrifice flies and bases on balls. On April 9, 2009, Downing was to be inducted into the Angels Hall of Fame along with former teammate Chuck Finley before the start of the game that day. However, due to the death of Angels rookie pitcher Nick Adenhart, the ceremony and game were postponed until August 27, 2009. Downing played his final two seasons with the Texas Rangers as a designated hitter, he retired at age 41, getting his last hit on the last day of the 1992 season – a single off Angels' pitcher Bert Blyleven. He finished his career with 275 HR, 1073 RBI and 1188 runs scored, he was an American League All-Star in 1979 when he hit.326 with 75 RBI and 81 runs scored. His best all-around season came in 1982 when he hit 28 HR, had 84 RBI, scored 109 runs and hit.281. Downing set single-season career highs with 95 RBI in 1986 and 29 HR, 110 runs scored and an AL leading 106 walks in 1987.
List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs batted in leaders Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Brian Downing on IMDb The Baseball Page
1991 Major League Baseball season
The 1991 Major League Baseball season saw the Minnesota Twins defeat the Atlanta Braves for the World Series title, in a series where every game was won by the home team. Baseball Hall of Fame Rod Carew Ferguson Jenkins Tony Lazzeri Gaylord Perry Bill Veeck There was quite a bit of parity in the American League, as 10 teams finished within 10 games of each other, only 3 teams had losing records; the standings in the American League West were quite notable because all the teams in that division finished with at least a.500 record. World Series: Minnesota Twins over Atlanta Braves, he was 32. January 7 – Pete Rose is released from Marion Federal Prison after serving a five-month sentence for tax evasion. January 8 – Rod Carew, Gaylord Perry and Ferguson Jenkins are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Baseball Writers' Association of America, with Carew becoming the 22nd player to be named in his first year of eligibility. February 4 – The 12 members of the board of directors of the Hall of Fame vote unanimously to bar Pete Rose from the ballot.
He will become eligible again only if the commissioner reinstates him by December 2005. February 26 – New York Yankees second baseman Tony Lazzeri and major league owner Bill Veeck are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. April – MLB requires that all teams wear American and Canadian flag decals on their batting helmets in honor of those who served in Operation Desert Storm. April 8 – Just hours before the first pitch of the baseball season, MLB averts an umpires strike by reaching agreement with the Major League Umpires' Association on a new four-year contract. April 18 – The new Comiskey Park opens across the street from where the original stood in Chicago. A sold-out stadium sees the Detroit Tigers defeat the Chicago White Sox, 16–0. April 21 – The Chicago Cubs score five runs in the top of the eleventh inning, but the Pittsburgh Pirates comeback with six runs in the bottom of the inning for the victory. April 23 – Nick Leyva is fired as manager of the Philadelphia Phillies, becoming the first manager fired in 1991.
May 1 – Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers records his seventh no-hitter, striking out Roberto Alomar for the final out in a 3–0 victory over the Toronto Blue Jays. May 1 – Rickey Henderson of the Oakland Athletics records his 939th stolen base, eclipsing Lou Brock's all-time record. May 21 – Don Zimmer is fired as manager of the Chicago Cubs and replaced by Jim Essian. Zimmer is the second manager fired during the 1991 season. May 22 – John Wathan is fired as manager of the Kansas City Royals and replaced by Hal McRae. Wathan is the third manager fired in less than one month. May 23 – By stealing second base off of pitcher Ron Darling and catcher Rick Cerone of the New York Mets, Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs becomes the third player in baseball history to record 300 home runs and 300 stolen bases; as of this date, the only other members of the 300–300 club are Bobby Bonds and Willie Mays. On the same day, Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Tommy Greene throws a no-hitter, the Baltimore Orioles fire Frank Robinson and replace him with Johnny Oates.
Robinson is the fourth manager fired on the season, the third fired in three days. June 3 – Buck Rodgers becomes the fifth managerial casualty of the season, the third in the National League East. Tom Runnels replaces Rodgers as the new Montreal Expos manager. June 10 – The National League votes to choose Miami and Denver, Colorado, to form baseball teams for the 1993 season, they beat out Orlando, Florida, St. Petersburg, Washington, D. C. and Buffalo, New York. The Miami franchise was awarded to Blockbuster Video CEO H. Wayne Huizenga, while the Denver franchise was awarded to Ohio beverage distributor John Antonucci and Phar-Mor CEO Michael I. Monus. June 16 – The Cincinnati Reds and Philadelphia Phillies wear 1957 uniforms in a Nostalgia Day game at Veterans Stadium. July 6 – The National League publicly announces its two expansion franchises for 1993: the Colorado Rockies and the Florida Marlins. July 6 – John McNamara, winner of the 1979 National League West division with the Cincinnati Reds and 1986 American League pennant with the Boston Red Sox, is fired as manager of the Cleveland Indians.
He is replaced by Mike Hargrove. The firing occurs just as the first half of the season ends. July 7 – Outside a restaurant in Arlington, American League umpire Steve Palermo is shot and paralyzed from the waist down after aiding a woman, being mugged; the assailant is sentenced to 75 years in prison. July 9 – Cal Ripken, Jr.'s three-run home run lifts the American League to a 4–2 win over the National League in the annual All-Star Game, held at the SkyDome in Toronto. Andre Dawson homers for the NL. Ripken Jr. who won the pre-game Home Run Derby, is named the game's MVP. July 13 – The Baltimore Orioles throw the second four-man no-hitter in baseball history, as Bob Milacki, Mike Flanagan, Mark Williamson, Gregg Olson combine for a 2–0 win against the Oakland Athletics. On September 28, 1975, four Oakland Athletics pitchers tossed a combined no-hitter against the California Angels. July 26 – Montreal Expos pitcher Mark Gardner throws a no-hitter through nine innings, but does not complete it when his team f
1988 Major League Baseball season
The 1988 Major League Baseball season ended with the underdog Los Angeles Dodgers shocking the Oakland Athletics, who had won 104 games during the regular season, in the World Series. The most memorable moment of the series came in Game 1, when injured Dodger Kirk Gibson hit a dramatic pinch-hit walk-off home run off Athletics closer Dennis Eckersley to win the game for Los Angeles; the Dodgers went on to win the Series in five games. One of the American League's best players in 1988 was Athletics outfielder José Canseco, who became the first player in history to hit 40 home runs and steal 40 bases in a single season, unanimously garnering league MVP honors; the A's surrounded him with a stellar supporting cast, led by fellow slugger Mark McGwire. Aided by strong pitching from Dave Stewart and Bob Welch and the lights-out Eckersley securing 45 saves, Oakland ran away with the American League West and swept the Boston Red Sox of Boggs and Clemens in the playoffs before falling to the Dodgers in the World Series.
Speaking of the Dodgers, nobody expected them to contend for the National League West title in 1988, let alone win the World Championship. However, the intensity and clutch hitting of Gibson and the solid pitching of Orel Hershiser spearheaded L. A. to a division championship by seven games over the Cincinnati Reds. In addition to his 23 victories, Hershiser led the National League with 267 innings pitched and 8 shutouts, set a record of 59 consecutive scoreless innings; these accomplishments, combined with his 2.26 ERA, earned him the National League Cy Young Award. However, it was in the post-season that Hershiser distinguished himself – he started Games 1 and 3 of the NLCS against the tough New York Mets, saved Game 4 in relief, threw a complete game shutout in Game 7, he hurled another complete game shutout in Game 2 of the World Series and again went the distance in the clinching Game 5. Hershiser was named MVP of both the NLCS and the World Series, capping off arguably one of the greatest seasons a starting pitcher has had.
Baseball Hall of Fame Willie Stargell Most Valuable Player José Canseco, Oakland Athletics, OF Kirk Gibson, Los Angeles Dodgers, OF Cy Young Award Frank Viola, Minnesota Twins Orel Hershiser, Los Angeles Dodgers Rookie of the Year Walt Weiss, Oakland Athletics, SS Chris Sabo, Cincinnati Reds, 3B Manager of the Year Award Tony La Russa, Oakland Athletics Tommy Lasorda, Los Angeles Dodgers Gold Glove Award Don Mattingly Harold Reynolds Gary Gaetti Tony Fernández Kirby Puckett Gary Pettis Devon White Bob Boone Mark Langston World Series: Los Angeles Dodgers over Oakland Athletics. Stargell becomes the 17th player to be elected in his first year of eligibility. Pitcher Jim Bunning garners 317 votes, falls four votes shy of the 321 needed for election in his 13th year on the ballot. March 1 – For the first time since 1956, the Special Veterans Committee does not elect anyone to the Hall of Fame. Phil Rizzuto, Leo Durocher, Joe Gordon and Gil Hodges are among the candidates passed over. April – The Baltimore Orioles begin the season with a Major League-record 21 consecutive losses.
Manager Cal Ripken, Sr. was a casualty of the streak, losing his job after the sixth consecutive loss. April 4 – George Bell becomes the first player to hit three home runs on Opening Day, as the Toronto Blue Jays defeat the Kansas City Royals 5-3. April 4 – The New York Mets hit six home runs in a 10-6 win over the Montreal Expos, setting a new record for the most home runs by one team on Opening Day. April 29 - The Baltimore Orioles beat the Chicago White Sox 9-0 to end a 21 game losing streak to start the season; the Orioles would finish the season with a record of 107 losses. June 3 - The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Cincinnati Reds 13-5, with their 22 hits all being singles. July 12 – After being maligned by the press as an unworthy All-Star starter, catcher Terry Steinbach hits a solo home run and a sacrifice fly to lead the American League to a 2–1 victory over the National League at Riverfront Stadium. Steinbach is named the MVP. September 17 – Jeff Reardon becomes the first pitcher to save 40 games in both leagues as the Minnesota Twins beat the Chicago White Sox 3–1.
Reardon, who saved 42 games for the Montréal Expos in 1985, pitches the ninth inning for his 40th save in 47 opportunities. September 19 – The Oakland Athletics clinch their first American League West title since 1981 with a 5–3 victory over the Minnesota Twins; the A's would finish the season with a franchise record. September 22 – The New York Mets lock up the National League East with a 3–1 win over the Philadelphia Phillies. September 26 – The Los Angeles Dodgers pull out a 3–2 victory in San Diego to secure their fourth National League West championship of the decade. September 30 – Despite a 4–2 loss in Cleveland, the Boston Red Sox triumph in a close five-team race for the American League East by virtue of Milwaukee's 7–1 loss to Oakland. October 9 – The Oakland Athletics complete a four-game sweep of the Boston Red Sox in the ALCS with a 4–1 victory at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. A's closer Dennis Eckersley, who saved all four Oakland wins, is na
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and