Bradley University is a private university in Peoria, Illinois. Founded in 1897, Bradley University enrolls 5,400 students who are pursuing degrees in more than 100 undergraduate programs and more than 30 graduate programs in five colleges; the university is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and 22 national accrediting agencies. The Bradley Polytechnic Institute was founded by philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley in 1897 in memory of her husband Tobias and their six children, all of whom died early and leaving Bradley a childless widow; the Bradleys had discussed establishing an orphanage in memory of their deceased children. After some study and travel to various institutions, Mrs. Bradley decided instead to found a school where young people could learn how to do practical things to prepare them for living in the modern world; as a first step toward her goal, in 1892 she purchased a controlling interest in Parsons Horological School in LaPorte, the first school for watchmakers in America, moved it to Peoria.
She specified in her will that the school should be expanded after her death to include a classical education as well as industrial arts and home economics: "...it being the first object of this Institution to furnish its students with the means of living an independent and useful life by the aid of a practical knowledge of the useful arts and sciences." In October 1896 Mrs. Bradley was introduced to Dr. William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago, he soon convinced her to establish the school during her lifetime. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was chartered on November 13, 1896. Mrs. Bradley provided 17.5 acres of land, $170,000 for buildings, a library, $30,000 per year for operating expenses. Contracts for Bradley Hall and Horology Hall were awarded in April and work moved ahead quickly. Fourteen faculty and 150 students began classes in Bradley Hall on October 4—with 500 workers still hammering away. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was formally dedicated on October 8, 1897.
Its first graduate, in June 1898, was Cora Unland. The institute was organized as a four-year academy as well as a two-year college. There was only one other high school in the city of Peoria at the time. By 1899 the institute had expanded to accommodate nearly 500 pupils, study fields included biology, food work, English, French, Greek, manual arts, drawing and physics. By 1920 the institute adopted a four-year collegial program. Enrollment continued to grow over the coming decades and the name Bradley University was adopted in 1946; the first music building on Bradley's Campus was built in 1930 and named after Jennie Meta Constance, murdered on August 28, 1928. In 1962 the building was renovated to become the music building of Bradley's Campus. Only $2,500 was spent renovating the building, most of the money was spent turning a kitchen into a classroom. In 2002 more renovations were made to Constance Hall to make it more spacious; the renovation included more office space. Bradley University was ranked 6th among Regional Midwest Universities in the 2017 edition of America's Best Colleges published by U.
S. News & World Report; the annual survey recognized Bradley as the 36th "best value" Midwestern school in the ranking of Great Schools at Great Prices. The Bradley University Department of Teacher Education and College of Education and Health Sciences is NCATE-approved. Additionally, Bradley University's Foster College of Business is one of less than 2% of business schools worldwide to achieve and maintain AACSB International accreditation for both business and accounting programs. Bradley University is organized into the following colleges and schools: College of Education and Health Sciences Caterpillar College of Engineering and Technology College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Foster College of Business Slane College of Communications and Fine Arts Turner School of Entrepreneurship and InnovationStudents without a declared major may be admitted to the Academic Exploration Program; the University is home to the Charley Steiner School of Sports Communication, the first such named school in the U.
S. Through the Graduate School, Bradley University offers Masters level graduate degrees in five of its colleges: business and fine arts and health sciences and liberal arts and sciences; each varies in completion time. The program of physical therapy offers a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree. Bradley University is among the first universities in the nation to have a school of entrepreneurship and the first established as a freestanding academic unit; the Turner School of Entrepreneurship and Innovation is named in honor of Bob and Carolyn Turner, long-time supporters of Bradley. The Turners established the Robert and Carolyn Turner Center for Entrepreneurship in 2002. Dr. Gerald Hills, the School's founding academic executive director, received the Karl Vesper Entrepreneurship Pioneer Award in 2012 and the Babson Lifetime Award in 2011. Hills served as the Turner Chair of Entrepreneurship until he retired in December 2014. Entrepreneur magazine and The Princeton Review ranked Bradley's undergraduate entrepreneurship program among the top 25 programs in the nation.
Bradley is headquarters for the national Collegiate Entrepreneurs' Organization, with CEO student chapters at 240 universities. As of the 2015-2016 school year, students who are enrolled full-time at Bradley University pay $31,110 for tuition. S
The Omaha Racers were an American minor league basketball team based in Omaha, Nebraska. The franchise played in the Continental Basketball Association from 1989 to 1997; the team's franchise liage started in 1982 as the Wisconsin Flyers. The franchise spent two seasons in Rochester, Minnesota before relocating to Omaha in 1989 to become the Racers; the team's home venue was Ak-Sar-Ben Arena. Throughout the entire history of the Racers, Mike Thibault served as the team's head coach and led Omaha to appearances in two CBA Finals; the team was victorious over the Grand Rapids Hoops during the 1993 CBA Finals. The Rochester Flyers would finish 20-34 in the 1987–88 season, failing to qualify for the CBA playoffs. In 1988–89 the Flyers finished last in the West with a 16-38 record. Despite averaging 2,600 fans per home game, the team moved to Omaha, Nebraska after the season. Before the start of the Racers inaugural season, the CBA ruled that the team's ownership was not financially solvent and franchise would need to be put up for sale.
Terren Peizer purchased the team on September 15, 1989 and announced he would keep the team in Omaha. Team president and general manager Mike Cole told Ray Waddell of Amusement Business, "We're happy with how it has worked out We pulled off something many people said we couldn't do." Under head coach Mike Thibault, the Racers went 29-27 in 1989–90 and made the CBA playoffs in the National Conference, where they lost to the San Jose Jammers in the first round. It was the first post-season appearance for the franchise since Detroit swept them in the 1984–1985 Western Division final. On February 4, 1990, Racers player Roland Gray set a franchise record for points scored in a game with 45 in a game against the San Jose Jammers; the 1990–91 Racers would have the best record in franchise history, but lost to the Quad City Thunder in the American Conference finals. Tim Legler was named the team's most valuable player following the season. Moving back to the National Conference in 1991–92, Omaha finished second in the Northern Division to the Rapid City Thrillers.
After defeating the Oklahoma City Cavalry in the second round of the playoffs, the Racers lost to the Thrillers in the conference finals, 3 games to 2. The 1992–93 Racers made it to the top, after finishing second in the Northern Division again to Rapid City. Omaha beat the Wichita Falls Texans in the first round slipped past Rapid City in a five-game conference final. In the CBA championship, Omaha defeated the Grand Rapids Hoops in six games. A 106-98 win on May 1, 1993 in Grand Rapids would be the high-water mark of the franchise. In spite of their success, the attendance dropped during the 1992–93 season, which promoted team officials to announce that if they failed to sell 3,500 season tickets before the start of the next season the Racers would relocate. Omaha averaged 3,062 attendees per game during the 1992–93 season, down from 3,875 per game the season before. Rapid City finished ahead of Omaha in the Northern Division for the third straight year in 1993–94. Omaha made it back to the CBA finals, after defeating the Tri-City Chinook in round one and Rapid City in the conference finals.
The Quad City Thunder defeated Omaha in five games to win the league title. Omaha moved to the Southern Division in finished second to Oklahoma City, they beat the Sioux Falls SkyForce in the first round, but fell to Oklahoma City in the second round. Thibault missed seven games as head coach, being replaced by Eric Chapman, as he coached the US in the 1995 Pan American Games in Argentina. Omaha moved back to the Northern Division of the National Conference in 1995–96, finished second again, this time to Sioux Falls; the Florida Beachdogs swept the Racers out of the playoffs in round one. With the CBA shrinking to 11 teams in 1996–97, Omaha was placed in the 5-team National Conference and finished in fourth place. In one of the biggest upsets in CBA playoff history, the Racers defeated Sioux Falls in five games, winning the clincher in South Dakota, 98-92. Oklahoma City brought them back down to earth, winning the conference finals, 3 games to 1. During their final season, Kevin Kugler served as the Racers play-by-play announcer.
With a record of 375-413, plus a 42-49 mark in the playoffs, one CBA title, the Wisconsin/Rochester/Omaha Racers franchise was declared inactive in the summer of 1997. At the time, there was some faint hope that the franchise may start up again in 1998–99; the two teams who had made the CBA finals in 1997, Oklahoma City and Florida folded. In 2013, on the 20th anniversary of Omaha's 1993 CBA Championship win, 30 former Racers players and executives gathered for a reunion event at Ralston Arena. 1993 CBA Champions 1993 & 1994 National Conference Champions 1990–91 All-CBA Team: Tim Legler 1990–91 All-CBA Defense Team: Willie Simmons 1990–91 All-CBA Rookie Team: Brian Howard 1992–93 All-CBA First Team: Tim Legler 1993 CBA Playoffs Most Valuable Player: Jim Thomas Corey Gaines led the CBA with 11.6 assists per game during the 1989–1990 season Sources History of the CBA Omaha Professional Basketball Shatel, Tom. "Shatel: Owner, fans had a blast in the heyday of the Racers". Omaha World Herald. Omaha, Nebraska.
Semi-pro Basketball Players: Omaha Racers via Long Haul Productions
The point guard called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must understand and accept their coach's game plan. While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, they must control the pace of the game. A point guard, like other player positions in basketball, specializes in certain skills. A point guard's primary job is to facilitate scoring opportunities for his/her team, or sometimes for themselves. Lee Rose has described a point guard as a coach on the floor, who can handle and distribute the ball to teammates; this involves setting up plays on the court, getting the ball to the teammate in the best position to score, controlling the tempo of the game.
A point guard should know when and how to instigate a fast break and when and how to initiate the more deliberate sets. Point guards are expected to be vocal floor leaders. A point guard needs always to have in mind the times on the shot clock and the game clock, the score, the numbers of remaining timeouts for both teams, etc. Among the taller players who have enjoyed success at the position is Ben Simmons, who at 6’ 10” won the 2018 National Basketball Association Rookie of the Year Award. Behind him is Magic Johnson, who at 6’ 9” won the National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award three times in his career. Other point guards who have been named NBA MVP include Russell Westbrook, Bob Cousy, Oscar Robertson, Allen Iverson, Derrick Rose and two-time winners Steve Nash and Stephen Curry. In the NBA, point guards are about 6' 4" or shorter, average about 6' 2" whereas in the WNBA, point guards are 5' 9" or shorter. Having above-average size is considered advantageous, although size is secondary to situational awareness, speed and ball handling skills.
Shorter players tend to be better dribblers since they are closer to the floor, thus have better control of the ball while dribbling. After an opponent scores, it is the point guard who brings the ball down court to begin an offensive play. Passing skills, ball handling, court vision are crucial. Speed is important. Point guards are valued more for their assist totals than for their scoring. Another major evaluation factor is assist-to-turnover ratio, which reflects the decision-making skills of the player. Still, a first-rate point guard should have a reasonably effective jump shot; the point guard is positioned on the perimeter of the play, so as to have the best view of the action. This is a necessity because of the point guard's many leadership obligations. Many times, the point guard is referred to by announcers as a "coach on the floor" or a "floor general". In the past, this was true, as several point guards such as Lenny Wilkens served their teams as player-coaches; this is not so common anymore, as most coaches are now specialized in coaching and are non-players.
Some point guards are still given a great deal of leeway in the offense. Point guards who are not given this much freedom, are still extensions of their coach on the floor and must display good leadership skills. Along with leadership and a general basketball acumen, ball-handling is a skill of great importance to a point guard. Speaking, the point guard is the player in possession of the ball for the most time during a game and is responsible for maintaining possession of the ball for his team in the face of any pressure from the opponents. Point guards must be able to maintain possession of the ball in crowded spaces and in traffic and be able to advance the ball quickly. A point guard that has enough ball-handling skill and quickness to be able to drive to the basket in a half-court set is very valuable and considered by some to be a must for a successful offense. After ball-handling and scoring are the most important areas of the game for a point guard; as the primary decision-maker for a team, a point guard's passing ability determines how well a point guard is able to put his decision into play.
It is one thing to be able to recognize the player, in a tactically advantageous position, but it is another thing to be able to deliver the ball to that player. For this reason, a point guard is but not always, more skilled and focused on passing than shooting. However, a good jump shot and the ability to score off a drive to the basket are still valuable skills. A point guard will use his ability to score in order to augment his effectiveness as a decision maker and play maker. In addition to the traditional role of the point guard, modern teams have found new ways to utilize the position. Notably, several modern point guards have used a successful style of post play, a tactic practiced by much larger centers and forwards. Working off of the fact that the opposing point guard is in all probability an undersized player with limited strength, several modern point guards have developed games close to the basket that include being able to utilize the drop step, spin move, fade away jump shot. In recent years, the sport's shift from a fundamental style of play to a more athletic, scoring-oriented game resulted in the proliferation of so-called combo guards at the po
Event Center Arena
The Event Center Arena known as the Event Center at SJSU, is a complex consisting of an indoor arena and a fitness club on the main campus of San Jose State University in downtown San Jose, California. The Event Center was built in 1989 for the purpose of supporting and providing entertainment as well as recreational opportunities for the student body and university community; the facility is home to the San Jose State Spartans men's and women's basketball teams, which both compete in the Mountain West Conference. Located in the heart of Silicon Valley, the Event Center at SJSU is the premier mid-sized venue in Northern California; the Event Center was designed to accommodate many different events, including musical concerts, sporting events and corporate parties. The facility has played host to numerous national entertainment acts such as Eric Clapton, George Lopez, Wiz Khalifa, Kelly Clarkson, Conan O'Brien and Pearl Jam, it hosts the fall and spring convocation ceremonies for both the College of Engineering and the College of Business at San José State University.
It played host to NXT on the Friday before Wrestlemania 31. Annually, the Event Center hosts the FIRST Robotics Competition Silicon Valley Regional; the San Jose State University Career Center uses the arena to host its fall and spring career fairs, which feature hundreds of potential employers for students of San José State University. The Event Center has a equipped gym including basketball and racquetball courts and a weight room for students. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas San Jose State University Event Center Official Site
The Charlotte Hornets are an American professional basketball team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Hornets compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the team is owned by retired NBA player Michael Jordan, who acquired controlling interest in the team in 2010. The Hornets play their home games at the Spectrum Center in Uptown Charlotte; the original Hornets franchise was established in 1988 as an expansion team, owned by George Shinn. In 2002, Shinn's franchise became the New Orleans Hornets. In 2004, the NBA established the Charlotte Bobcats, regarded as a new expansion team at the time. In 2013, the New Orleans' franchise announced it would rebrand itself the New Orleans Pelicans returning the Hornets name and official history to Charlotte; the Bobcats were renamed the Charlotte Hornets for the 2014–15 season. In 1985, the NBA was planning to expand by three teams by the 1988–1989 season modified to include a total of four expansion teams.
George Shinn, an entrepreneur from Kannapolis, wanted to bring an NBA team to the Charlotte area, he assembled a group of prominent local businessmen to head the prospective franchise. The Charlotte area had long been a hotbed for college basketball. Charlotte was one of the fastest-growing cities in the United States, was one of the three in-state regional homes to the American Basketball Association's Carolina Cougars from 1969 to 1974. Despite doubt from critics, Shinn's ace in the hole was the Charlotte Coliseum, a state-of-the-art arena that would seat 24,000 spectators – the largest basketball-specific arena to serve as a full-time home for an NBA team. On April 5, 1987, then-NBA Commissioner David Stern called Shinn to tell him his group had been awarded the 24th NBA franchise, to begin play in 1988. Franchises were granted to Miami, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Orlando; the new team was going to be called the Charlotte Spirit, but a name-the-team contest yielded "Hornets" as the winning choice.
The team received further attention when it chose teal as its primary color, setting off a sports fashion craze in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The team's uniforms, designed by international designer and North Carolina native Alexander Julian, featured a first for NBA uniforms—pin stripes. Similar designs by other teams followed. Shinn hired Carl Scheer as the team's first General Manager. Scheer preferred a roster of veteran players, hoping to put together a competitive team as soon as possible. Former college coach and veteran NBA assistant Dick Harter was hired as the team's first head coach. In 1988, the Hornets and the Miami Heat were part of the 1988 NBA Expansion Draft. Unlike many expansion franchises that invest in the future with a team composed of young players, Charlotte stocked its inaugural roster with several veterans in hopes of putting a competitive lineup on the court right away; the team had three draft picks at the 1988 NBA draft. The Hornets' first NBA game took place on November 4, 1988, at the Charlotte Coliseum, losing 133–93 to the Cleveland Cavaliers.
Four days the team notched its first-ever victory over the Los Angeles Clippers, 117–105. On December 23, 1988, the Hornets gave their fans something to cheer about, beating Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls 103–101 in Jordan's first return to North Carolina as a professional; the Hornets finished their inaugural season with a record of 20–62. Scheer left prior to the 1989–90 season. Despite initial concerns that the Coliseum was too big, the Hornets were a runaway hit, leading the NBA in attendance, a feat they would achieve seven more times in Charlotte; the Hornets would sell out 364 consecutive games. The Hornets' second season was a struggle from start to finish. Members of the team rebelled against Dick Harter's defense-oriented style, he was replaced mid-season by assistant Gene Littles following an 8–32 start. Despite the change, the team continued to struggle, finishing the season with a disappointing 19–63 record; the team showed improvement during the following season. They won eight of their first fifteen games, including a 120–105 victory over the Washington Bullets.
However, the team went cold. The Hornets, who hosted the 1991 NBA All-Star Game, finished with a 26–56 record. Despite the team's seven-game improvement over the previous season, Gene Littles was fired at the end of the season and replaced by general manager Allan Bristow. With the first pick in the 1991 NBA draft, the Hornets drafted power forward Larry Johnson from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Johnson had an impact season, finishing among the league leaders in points and rebounds, winning the 1992 NBA Rookie of the Year Award. Additionally, Guard Kendall Gill led the club in scoring; the team stayed in contention for a playoff spot until March, but finished the year with a 31–51 record. The Hornets were in the lottery again in 1992 and won the second overall pick in the draft, using it to select Georgetown center Alonzo Mourning. Charlotte now had two 20–10 threats in Johnson and Mourning, who with Kendall Gill, formed the league's top young trio; the team finished their fifth season at 44–38, their first-ever winning record and good enough for the first playoff berth in franchise history.
Finishing fifth in the Eastern Conference, the Hornets upset the Boston Celtics in the first round, with Mourning winning the series with a 20-footer in game four. However, the Hornets lacked the experience and depth to defeat the New York Knicks, falling in five games in the second round; the Horn
In basketball, a rebound, sometimes colloquially referred to as a board, is a statistic awarded to a player who retrieves the ball after a missed field goal or free throw. Rebounds are given to a player who tips in a missed shot on his team's offensive end. Rebounds in basketball are a routine part in the game, as most possessions change after a shot is made, or the rebound allows the defensive team to take possession. A rebound can be grabbed by either a defensive player. Rebounds are divided into two main categories: "offensive rebounds", in which the ball is recovered by the offensive side and does not change possession, "defensive rebounds", in which the defending team gains possession; the majority of rebounds are defensive because the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots. Offensive rebounds give the offensive team another opportunity to score whether right away or by resetting the offense. A block is not considered a rebound. A ball does not need to "rebound" off the rim or backboard for a rebound to be credited.
Rebounds are credited after any missed shot, including air balls. If a player takes a shot and misses and the ball bounces on the ground before someone picks it up the person who picks up the ball is credited for a rebound. Rebounds are credited to the first player that gains clear possession of the ball or to the player that deflects the ball into the basket for a score. A rebound is credited to a team when it gains possession of the ball after any missed shot, not cleared by a single player. A team rebound is never credited to any player, is considered to be a formality as according to the rules of basketball, every missed shot must be rebounded whether a single player controls the ball or not. Great rebounders tend to be strong; because height is so important, most rebounds are made by centers and power forwards, who are positioned closer to the basket. The lack of height can sometimes be compensated by the strength to box out taller players away from the ball to capture the rebound. For example, Charles Barkley once led the league in rebounding despite being much shorter than his counterparts.
Some shorter guards can be excellent rebounders as well such as point guard Jason Kidd who led the New Jersey Nets in rebounding for several years. Great rebounders must have a keen sense of timing and positioning. Great leaping ability is an important asset, but not necessary. Players such as Larry Bird and Moses Malone were excellent rebounders, but were never known for their leaping ability. Bird has stated. That's where I get mine"). Players position themselves in the best spot to get the rebound by "boxing out"—i.e. by positioning themselves between an opponent and the basket, maintaining body contact with the player he is guarding. The action can be called "blocking out". A team can be boxed out by several players using this technique to stop the other team from rebounding; because fighting for a rebound can be physical, rebounding is regarded as "grunt work" or a "hustle" play. Overly aggressive boxing out or preventing being boxed out can lead to personal fouls. Statistics of a player's "rebounds per game" or "rebounding average" measure a player's rebounding effectiveness by dividing the number of rebounds by the number of games played.
Rebound rates go beyond raw rebound totals by taking into account external factors, such as the number of shots taken in games and the percentage of those shots that are made. Rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1950–51 season. Both offensive and defensive rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season and ABA during the 1967–68 season. New camera technology has been able to shed much more light on where missed shots will land. Wilt Chamberlain – led the NBA in rebounds in 11 different seasons, has the most career rebounds in the regular season, the highest career average, the single season rebounding records in total and average, most rebounds in a regular season game and playoff game in the NBA, has the most career All-Star Game rebounds. Bill Russell – first player to average over 20 rebounds per game in the regular season, ranks second to Chamberlain in regular season total and average rebounds, averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in 10 of 13 seasons played, grabbed 51 rebounds in a single game, grabbed a record 32 rebounds in one half, grabbed 40 rebounds in the NBA Finals twice, is the all-time playoff leader in total and average rebounds.
Bob Pettit – averaged 20.3 rebounds per game in the 1960-61 season, his career average of 16.2 rebounds per game is third all-time, holds the top two performances for rebounds in an NBA All-Star Game with 26 and 27. Nate Thurmond – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, career average of 15.0 rpg, holds the all-time NBA record for rebounds in a single quarter with 18. He is the only player besides Bill Russell, Wilt Chamberlain and Jerry Lucas to record more than 40 rebounds in a single game. Jerry Lucas – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, had a career average of 15.6 rpg. Along with Russell and Thurmond is one of only four players to grab at least 40 rebounds in a single game. Moses Malone – led the NBA in rebounds per game in six d
Delta Upsilon known as DU, is a collegiate men's fraternity founded on November 4, 1834 at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. It is the all-male, college Greek-letter organization founded in North America, it is popularly and informally known as "DU" or "Delta U" and its members are called "DUs". Although found on the campuses of small New England private universities, Delta Upsilon has 76 chapters/colonies across the United States and Canada. A number of its buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2013, Business Insider named Delta Upsilon one of the "17 Fraternities with Top Wall Street Alumni". Notable members include president of the United States James A. Garfield, president of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, Canadian prime minister Lester B. Pearson, Linus Pauling, Joseph P. Kennedy, Lou Holtz, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Charles Evans Hughes, Les Aspin, others. Forty-two brothers of the fraternity have sat in the United States Congress, three in the Parliament of Canada, one in the Imperial House of Peers of Japan, six on the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.
Its members have received six Nobel Prizes, five Olympic gold medals, one Pulitzer Prize, four Medals of Honor, one Lenin Peace Prize, one Presidential Medal of Freedom, seven investitures into the Order of Canada, one investiture each into the Order of St Michael and St George, the Order of Merit, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Delta Upsilon was founded in 1834, when thirty freshman and junior students at Williams College met in the Freshman Recitation Room at the West College building to form what was called "the Social Fraternity"; the move was in response to the establishment of Kappa Alpha and Sigma Phi at the college and, unlike those fraternities, the Social Fraternity was avowedly anti-secret. Its founding came at the tail-end of the anti-Masonic hysteria that had swept the United States, though the idea that it was part of the popular backlash to Freemasonry has been rejected. Growth of the Social Fraternity was exponential. By 1838 two-thirds of all students at Williams belonged to the society which engaged in militant agitation against the other two fraternities.
One violent incident occurred in 1839 when Oudens assaulted the Kappa Alpha house, driving its occupants to the top of Consumption Hill. More refined conflict took the form of pamphlets and debate. An 1855 debate proposed by Kappa Alpha against the Oudens was called-off after the Social Fraternity appointed James Garfield, an Ouden well known for his rhetorical skills, to represent them. In November 1847 Williams' Social Fraternity met with similar societies, formed at Union College, Hamilton College, Amherst College and formed the "Anti-Secret Confederation". A second meeting of the Anti-Secret Confederation in 1852 saw fraternities from Wesleyan University, Case Western Reserve University, Colby College, the University of Vermont join. At the 1862 convention, the fraternity's mother chapter, declared the purposes of the fraternity had been corrupted and, over the objections of the other chapters, withdrew. Two years it dissolved itself. A chapter would be restored. However, Williams being the first chapter and, self-chartering, this would come in the form of a new chapter and not the revival of the original.
It was permanently erased when Williams College banned all fraternities in 1962. The March 1864 convention of the A. S. C. saw the organization formally change its name to Delta Upsilon, standardize insignia and ritual throughout all its member chapters, establish a centralized administrative structure. In 1879, Delta Upsilon formally disavowed its policy of anti-secrecy, instead adopting a program of what it described as "non-secrecy". According to Delta Upsilon, the reason for this change was because it had been victorious in its battle against secrecy, "the character of the secret societies so altered, that hostility toward them decreased"; this explanation has been more skeptically received by some, with one period observer caustically noting that Delta Upsilon "reveals little more of what it does than the latter ". Others commented that chapter meetings were closed to all but initiated members and the fraternity was now practicing selective pledging and initiation, in contrast to its earliest days at Williams.
Therefore, it was proffered, the description of the fraternity as a "private" society rather than a "non-secret" one might be more accurate. The Harvard Crimson, poetically attributed the official change of position as due to "the sheer exhaustion of those that heretofore have maintained a vigorous tilt at the windmill for exercise's sake, on finding that the windmill stands the attack much better than they". Writing in 2013, Benjamin Wurgraft of the New School for Social Research commented that Delta Upsilon's changes made it "nothing more than another fraternity—a rival for pledges rather than a force for unity". At the turn of the century the fraternity's growth plateaued due, in part, to opposition from a group of chapters to what was seen as the lessening of the fraternity's standards through colonization. In 1898, Delta Upsilon joined the recent trend of fraternity expansion into Canada by chartering a chapter at McGill University in Montreal. However, most expansion in this period came in the form of the annexation of established local fraternities.
Zeta Chi at Baker Univers