Procter & Gamble
The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, founded in 1837 by English American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, personal care and hygiene products. Before the sale of Pringles to the Kellogg Company, its product portfolio included foods and beverages. In 2014, P&G recorded $83.1 billion in sales. On August 1, 2014, P&G announced it was streamlining the company and selling off around 100 brands from its product portfolio in order to focus on the remaining 65 brands, which produced 95% of the company's profits. A. G. Lafley—the company's chairman, CEO until October 31, 2015—said the future P&G would be "a much simpler, much less complex company of leading brands that's easier to manage and operate". David Taylor is the current CEO of Procter & Gamble. Candlemaker William Procter, born in England, soapmaker James Gamble, born in Ireland, both emigrated from the United Kingdom.
They settled in Cincinnati and met when they married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, called a meeting in which he persuaded his new sons-in-law to become business partners. On October 31, 1837, as a result of the suggestion, Procter & Gamble was created. In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products. In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floats in water; the company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he assumed that they would be less to go on strike.
The company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities. The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats; as radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs. As a result, these shows became known as "soap operas"; the company moved into other countries, both in terms of manufacturing and product sales, becoming an international corporation with its 1930 acquisition of the Thomas Hedley Co. based in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. After this acquisition, Procter & Gamble had their UK Headquarters at'Hedley House' in Newcastle upon Tyne, until quite recently. Numerous new products and brand names were introduced over time, Procter & Gamble began branching out into new areas; the company introduced Tide laundry detergent in 1946 and Prell shampoo in 1947.
In 1955, Procter & Gamble began selling the first toothpaste to contain fluoride, known as Crest. Branching out once again in 1957, the company purchased Charmin paper mills and began manufacturing toilet paper and other tissue paper products. Once again focusing on laundry, Procter & Gamble began making Downy fabric softener in 1960 and Bounce fabric softener sheets in 1972. One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company's disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders. Prior to this point, disposable diapers were not popular, although Johnson & Johnson had developed a product called Chux. Babies always wore cloth diapers, which were labor-intensive to wash. Pampers provided a convenient alternative, albeit at the environmental cost of more waste requiring landfilling. Amid the recent concerns parents have voiced on the ingredients in diapers, Pampers launch Pampers Pure collection in 2018, a "natural" diaper alternative.
Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and increased profits. These acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Richardson-Vicks, Shulton's Old Spice, Max Factor, the Iams Company, Pantene, among others. In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Known by its brand name'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks. In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place; this added brands such as Gillette razors, Duracell and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands.
P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight, Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line to Johnson & Johnson. The deodorant brands Right Guard and Dri, Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation; the compa
The Big Showdown
The Big Showdown is an American game show that aired on the ABC television network from December 23, 1974 to July 4, 1975. Jim Peck hosted Dan Daniel served as announcer; the series was recorded at ABC's New York studio TV15 on West 58 Street, packaged by Don Lipp’s Daphne Productions and Ron Greenberg, with assistance by MCA Television. Three contestants competed. Before the round began, Peck announced a target score or "payoff point," and selected a dollar value for it by pressing a buzzer on his podium to stop a randomizer, he read a one-point toss-up question. The first contestant to buzz-in and answer it chose from one of six available categories, each with a different point value from 1 to 6 as represented by faces of a die. A correct answer to a question awarded the points for the chosen category and allowed the contestant to select the next one. If a contestant missed a question, he/she was locked out for the remainder of that question, without any score penalty, the opponents were given a chance to answer.
The payoff point had to be reached and contestants were not allowed to select or answer any question that would put them over that total, being automatically locked out in the latter case. The first contestant whose score reached the payoff point won the money associated with it. A new dollar value and payoff point were set, the latter raised by several points above the previous one, Peck asked a one-point toss-up to award control of the board. A toss-up was asked whenever all players missed a question. A new set of categories was introduced. Four or more payoff points were played during this round, depending on the speed with which the game progressed. A 90-second speed round was played to end the Big Showdown, with each payoff point worth $100 after the one in play was reached. Once time ran out, the contestant with the lowest score was eliminated but kept any money accumulated during the game. In the event of a tie for second place or a three-way tie, Peck asked questions from the one-point category until the tie was broken.
Players who buzzed in with a correct answer moved to the Final Showdown, but were eliminated for responding incorrectly. The two remaining contestants competed to reach a payoff point of seven. Three categories were played, again represented by faces on a die, point values were 1, 2, 3 respectively; the scores were reset to zero, the contestant, in the lead at the end of the first round chose the first category. As before, no contestant could choose or answer a question that would put him/her above the payoff point; the first contestant to reach seven points won the game and an additional $250. The champion now had a chance to win up to $10,000 by rolling pairs of oversized six-sided dice, whose sixes had been replaced by the words "Show" and "Down". Model Heather Cunningham joined the show at this point to assist the contestant by providing the dice to him/her; the contestant rolled the dice once at the outset, on a long table with a well and a trap door at the far end. If "Show-Down" came up on this roll, the contestant won the round ended immediately.
If not, the total of the numbers shown on the dice became the payoff point. The contestant had 30 seconds to roll the dice as many times as possible, with Cunningham giving him/her a fresh pair for each roll and Peck removing completed rolls from the well by pushing the dice into the trap door; each time the payoff point was rolled, the contestant won $250 and a five-second bonus to be used after the clock ran out. If "Show-Down" came up, the round ended and the contestant won an additional $5,000. If the contestant did not roll "Show-Down" before time ran out, but had rolled the payoff point at least once, he/she used the earned bonus time to continue rolling. However, the payoff point was taken out of play. Champions remained on the show until they either rolled "Show-Down" or were defeated in the main game; the series is believed to have been wiped due to network practices of the era. An audio clip of the opening to one episode exists, as well as audio of the complete series finale. Two episodes exist on videotape: the 1974 pilot and an episode from 1975 where Jim Peck falls while making his entrance down the stairs.
The Big Showdown on IMDb
Drum Corps International
Drum Corps International is a governing body for junior drum and bugle corps based in Indianapolis, Indiana. DCI is responsible for developing and enforcing rules of competition, providing standardized adjudication at sanctioned competitions throughout the United States and Canada; the competitive season traditionally begins in late-June and ends with the annual World Championship the second week of August. The next World Championships is scheduled for August 8 – August 10, 2019 at the Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana. Open Class championships will be hosted at Indiana Wesleyan University in Marion, Indiana on August 5 – August 6, 2019. DCI is not affiliated with the named Drum Corps Associates, a governing body for all-age or senior drum and bugle corps. However, the two organizations have engaged in strategic partnerships. In 1971, at the urging of then-director of The Cavaliers, Don Warren, Troopers director, Jim Jones, the directors from Blue Stars, Madison Scouts, Santa Clara Vanguard, partnered with each other to form what was called the "Midwest Combine".
The Combine corps would market themselves to show promoters as a package. This partnership was in reaction to perceived inflexibility of the American Legion and VFW, who were, at the time, the primary sponsors of competing drum corps, who were responsible for hosting the two high-prestige national championships. Another source of contention was low-to-nonexistent appearance fees paid for to corps. Only corps who placed high at either of the national championships were paid any fees. Local show sponsors and promoters were less generous, many compensating the winners of each competition and no others. A group similar to the Combine had formed a year prior among corps based in the Northeast known as the "Alliance", or the United Organization of Junior Corps; the Alliance members were: 27th Lancers, Garfield Cadets, Boston Crusaders, Blessed Sacrament Golden Knights, Blue Rock. Despite acrimony from the veterans associations, the Combine and the Alliance remained intact for the 1970 and 1971 competitive seasons.
Following the 1971 VFW National Championships, the Alliance and Combine corps agreed to meet at the next American Legion Uniformed Group Rules Congress to discuss forming a new, governing body. Invited to the meeting were the Anaheim Kingsmen, Argonne Rebels, De La Salle Oaklands. Drum Corps International was founded by the thirteen corps on October 21, 1971; the inaugural DCI World Championship was hosted at Warhawks Stadium on the campus of University of Wisconsin–Whitewater. In attendance were 39 corps from fifteen states and one Canadian province; the Anaheim Kingsmen was crowned the first World Champions on August 18, 1972. The Combine evolved into Drum Corps Midwest, the Alliance into Drum Corps East. Both offered a regional circuit of competitions and regional championships prior to the "national tour" of DCI-sanctioned competitions. DCI expanded the "national" tour so it began earlier in season, participation declined in non-DCI circuits in DCM. DCI is a 501 organization governed by a board of directors, with an executive director responsible for day-to-day operations.
The board of directors is composed of three representatives who are directors of member corps, three at-large members who are not affiliated with any corps. The current chair of the board of directors is Kathy Black, the current Executive Director is Dan Acheson. Drum Corps Associates, a governing body for all-age or senior drum corps, DCI are not affiliated, however the two organizations are strategic partners. Of note, DCI describes all-age corps as providing value to the drum corps activity, permits all age corps to compete at sanctioned competitions; as the self-styled "Marching Music's Major League", DCI's mission is to create an environment for participating corps "to engage in education, competition and the promotion of individual growth." The organization emphasizes positive life-transforming experiences for all participants. To become a DCI member, or to maintain membership, a corps must pass an evaluation by the board of directors; the evaluation requires corps to submit data on their financial health, fund raising capacity and income, participants and explanations of their administrative structure.
All corps are required to be 501 organizations. Once approved by the board, a new corps must achieve certain competitive requirements, such as attending World Championships; the corps must be approved by a majority of other members at a meeting following World Championships the annual rules congress in the year. All-age corps are ineligible for membership, but they may be qualify as a "touring" corps during a competitive season. International corps, or corps based outside the United States and Canada, are ineligible for membership. However, an international corps that adopts DCI's regulations instrumentation and participant age limits, may qualify as a touring corps in either Open or World Class. DCI limits the age of participants to "21 years of age and younger." A participant, 22 years before June 1 would be unable to compete. Some European and Asian drum corps associations have no age limit. Corps from those associations are allowed to compete at sanctioned competitions, at World Championships in International Class.
Corps are allowed to set their own age limit to be younger than 21 years, such as Shadow, from Oregon, Wisconsin. Shadow limits its participants to high school students. Individual drum corps derive a large part of their revenues from marketing their product memorabilia and souvenir sales. DCI derives
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions. The belief underpinning the use of the polygraph is that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers. There are, however, no specific physiological reactions associated with lying, making it difficult to identify factors that separate liars from truth tellers. Polygraph examiners prefer to use their own individual scoring method, as opposed to computerized techniques, as they may more defend their own evaluations; the polygraph was invented in 1921 by John Augustus Larson, a medical student at the University of California, Berkeley and a police officer of the Berkeley Police Department in Berkeley, California. Further work on the device was done by Leonarde Keeler.
As Larson's protege, Keeler updated the device by making it portable and added the galvanic skin response to it in 1939. His device was purchased by the FBI, served as the prototype of the modern polygraph. In some countries, polygraphs are used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment. US law enforcement and federal government agencies such as the FBI, NSA and the CIA and many police departments such as the LAPD and the Virginia State Police use polygraph examinations to interrogate suspects and screen new employees. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is referred to as a psychophysiological detection of deception examination; the control question test known as the probable lie test, was developed to overcome or mitigate the problems with the relevant-irrelevant testing method. Although the relevant questions in the probable lie test are used to obtain a reaction from liars, the physiological reactions that "distinguish" liars may occur in innocent individuals who fear a false detection or feel passionately that they did not commit the crime.
Therefore, although a physiological reaction may be occurring, the reasoning behind the response may be different. Further examination of the probable lie test has indicated that it is biased against innocent subjects; those who are unable to think of a lie related to the relevant question will automatically fail the test. Polygraph examiners, or polygraphers, are regulated in some jurisdictions; the American Polygraph Association sets standards for courses of training of polygraph operators, though it does not certify individual examiners. The examiner begins polygraph test sessions with a pre-test interview to gain some preliminary information which will be used to develop diagnostic questions; the tester will explain how the polygraph is supposed to work, emphasizing that it can detect lies and that it is important to answer truthfully. A "stim test" is conducted: the subject is asked to deliberately lie and the tester reports that he was able to detect this lie. Guilty subjects are to become more anxious when they are reminded of the test's validity.
However, there are risks of innocent subjects being or more anxious than the guilty. The actual test starts; some of the questions asked are "irrelevant", others are "diagnostic" questions, the remainder are the "relevant questions" that the tester is interested in. The different types of questions alternate; the test is passed if the physiological responses to the diagnostic questions are larger than those during the relevant questions. Criticisms have been given regarding the validity of the administration of the Control Question Technique; the CQT may be vulnerable to being conducted in an interrogation-like fashion. This kind of interrogation style would elicit a nervous response from innocent and guilty suspects alike. There are several other ways of administering the questions. An alternative is the Guilty Knowledge Test, or the Concealed Information Test, used in Japan; the administration of this test is given to prevent potential errors that may arise from the questioning style. The test is conducted by a tester with no knowledge of the crime or circumstances in question.
The administrator tests the participant on their knowledge of the crime that would not be known to an innocent person. For example: "Was the crime committed with a.45 or a 9 mm?" The questions are in multiple choice and the participant is rated on how they react to the correct answer. If they react to the guilty information proponents of the test believe that it is that they know facts relevant to the case; this administration is considered more valid by supporters of the test because it contains many safeguards to avoid the risk of the administrator influencing the results. Although there is some debate in the scientific community regarding the efficacy of polygraphs, assessments of polygraphy by scientific and government bodies suggest that polygraphs are inaccurate, may be defeated by countermeasures, are an imperfect or invalid means of assessing truthfulness. Despite claims of 90% validity by polygraph advocates, the National Research Council has found no evidence of effectiveness. In particular, studies have indicated that the relevant–irrelevant questioning technique is not ideal, as many innocent subjects exert a heightened physiological reaction to the crime-relevant questions.
In 1991, two thirds of the scientific community who have the requisite background to evaluate polygraph procedures considered polygraphy to be pseudoscience. In 2002, a review by the National Research Council found that, in populations "untrai
William Lawrence Francis Cullen was an American radio and television personality whose career spanned five decades. His biggest claim to fame was as a game show host. Aside from his hosting duties, he appeared as a panelist/celebrity guest on many other game shows, including regular appearances on I've Got a Secret and To Tell the Truth. Cullen was born in Pittsburgh, the only child of William and Lillian Cullen, his father was a Ford dealer in Pittsburgh. He survived a childhood bout with polio that left him with significant physical limitations for the rest of his life. Cullen was a pre-med student at the University of Pittsburgh, but had to withdraw because of financial problems. After he achieved some success in radio, he returned to the university and earned a bachelor's degree. Cullen's broadcasting career began in 1939 in Pittsburgh at WWSW radio, where he worked as a disc jockey and play-by-play announcer or color commentator for Pittsburgh Steelers and Pittsburgh Hornets games. In 1943, Cullen left WWSW to work at rival station KDKA before leaving Pittsburgh a year to try his luck in New York.
A week after arriving in New York, he was hired as a staff announcer at CBS. To supplement his then-meager income, he became a freelance joke writer for some of the top radio stars of the day, including Arthur Godfrey, Danny Kaye, Jack Benny, his first venture into game shows was in 1945, when he was hired as announcer for a radio quiz called Give And Take. Between 1946 and 1953, he worked as announcer for various other local and network shows, including the radio version of Mark Goodson and Bill Todman's first game show, Winner Take All, hosted by Ward Wilson. After a brief stint at WNEW in 1951, he hosted a popular morning show at WRCA radio from 1955 to 1961, his last regular radio job was as one of the hosts of NBC Radio's Monitor from 1971–73. Cullen was a pilot for the United States Army Air Corps in World War II. Cullen served in the Civil Air Patrol as an instructor and patrol pilot in his native Pennsylvania during World War II, was interested in mechanics. Cullen's first television game show was the TV version of Winner Take All,:1183 which premiered on CBS in 1952.
In 1953, Cullen had The Bill Cullen Show, a weekly morning variety program on CBS. He hosted Bank on the Stars in 1954. From 1954 to 1955, he hosted NBC's Place the Face, a program in which celebrities identified people from their past. From 1956 to 1966, he hosted the initial daytime and primetime versions of The Price Is Right,:853 another Goodson-Todman production, he was a panelist on I've Got a Secret:518 from 1952 to 1967, To Tell the Truth:1089 from 1969 to 1978, where he guest hosted on occasion. After relocating to Southern California, Cullen guest hosted Password Plus for four weeks in April 1980 while original host Allen Ludden was being treated for stomach cancer. Cullen was in the running to host the 1972 revival of The Price Is Right, but the physical demands of the new format were deemed too strenuous for him; when CBS picked up the daytime version, Bob Barker was selected to host the daytime version while Dennis James, hosted the syndicated nighttime version. Barker remained the show's daytime host until his retirement in 2007.
Occasional references to Cullen have been made by current The Price Is Right host Drew Carey. Other game shows. In a 1984 TV Guide article, Cullen commented on the ease with which he seemed to land his hosting jobs: "This is how it happens every time," says Cullen. A known packager comes up with the idea for a new show; the network do a run-through. They do; the network likes it, they say, we'll give you a pilot. The network says, Who are we going to get to host it? Packager: Who do you have in mind? Network: Let's go with someone new. Packager: Great idea. Who? Network: Don't you know anybody? Packager: No. There's so-and-so, but we tried him in a run-through and he didn't work out... How about you? You know someone? Network: No. Now, the sets are constructed, the game is worked out, the staff is hired, it's two weeks before the show is to go on, they are ready to shoot the pilot. Network: Well, have you thought of anybody yet? Packager: No. Network: Let's go with Bill Cullen. That's exactly how NBC picked the host of Hot Potato.
Cullen appeared as a celebrity guest on many other game shows, including I've Got a Secret, What's My Line?, To Tell the Truth, The Cross-Wits, Password Plus,:816 Match Game, Break the Bank, Shoot for the Stars, all of the pre-$100,000 versions of Pyramid. Cullen hosted a number of pilots for his close friend, quiz producer Bob Stewart, who created The Price Is Right and Password for Goodson-Todman and Pyramid for his own company. Cullen thus became the only person to host each of these formats on a full- or part-time basis, he appeared as a panelist on game shows hosted by his favorite understudy, Bob Eubank