In baseball, a run is scored when a player advances around first and third base and returns safely to home plate, touching the bases in that order, before three outs are recorded and all obligations to reach base safely on batted balls are met or assured. A player may score by hitting a home run or by any combination of plays that puts him safely "on base" as a runner and subsequently brings him home; the object of the game is for a team to score more runs than its opponent. The Official Baseball Rules hold that if the third out of an inning is a force out of a runner advancing to any base even if another baserunner crosses home plate before that force out is made, his run does not count. However, if the third out is not a force out, but a tag out if that other baserunner crosses home plate before that tag out is made, his run will count. In baseball statistics, a player who advances around all the bases to score is credited with a run, sometimes referred to as a "run scored". While runs scored is considered an important individual batting statistic, it is regarded as less significant than runs batted in.
Both individual runs scored and runs batted in are context-dependent. A pitcher is assessed runs surrendered in his statistics, which differentiate between standard earned runs and unearned runs scored due to fielding errors, which do not count in his personal statistics. If a fielding error occurs which affects the number of runs scored in an inning, the Official Scorer – the official in-game statistician – in order to determine how many of the runs should be classified as earned, will reconstruct the inning as if the error had not occurred. For example, with two outs, suppose a runner reaches base because of a fielding error, the next batter hits a two-run home run, the following batter makes the third out, ending the inning. If the inning is reconstructed without the error, if that third batter, instead of reaching on an error, registered an out, the inning would have ended there without any runs scoring. Thus, the two runs that did score will be classified as unearned, will not count in the pitcher's personal statistics.
If a pitching substitution occurs while a runner is on base, that runner scores a run, the pitcher who allowed the player to get on base is charged with the run though he was no longer pitching when the run scored. Below are examples of an un-counted run and a run scored. With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a ground ball to the second baseman; the runner on third races home. The second baseman fields the ball and throws on to the first baseman in time to get the batter on the force out at first for the third out of the inning. If the runner on third had touched home plate before that force out was made at first, his run would not count. With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a fly ball over centerfielder's head, it bounces several times. The runner on third runs safely home and scores a run. Meanwhile, the batter safely reaches first tries to advance to second; the centerfielder, having retrieved the ball, throws the ball to the second baseman and the runner is tagged out as he slides into second.
Since the runner stepped on home plate before the batter was tagged out at second for the third out of the inning, his run will count. The career record for most runs scored by a major-league player is 2,295, held by Rickey Henderson; the season record for most runs scored is 198, set by Billy Hamilton of the Philadelphia Phillies in 1894. The so-called modern-day record is 177, achieved by Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees in 1921; the record for most seasons leading one of the major leagues in runs scored is 8, held by Babe Ruth. The record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored is 18, shared by the Yankees' Red Rolfe and the Cleveland Indians' Kenny Lofton; the record for most runs scored by a player in a single game is 7, set by Guy Hecker of the American Association's Louisville Colonels on August 15, 1886. The modern-day record of 6 is shared by fourteen players. Of the six modern-day players to score 6 runs in a game, the first to perform the feat was Mel Ott of the New York Giants on August 4, 1934.
The record for most runs scored by a major-league team during a single season is 1,212, set by the Boston Beaneaters in 1894. The modern-day record is 1,067, achieved by the New York Yankees in 1931; the team record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored is 308, set by the Yankees between August 3, 1931, August 2, 1933. The team record for most runs in its overall history is the Chicago Cubs with 94,138; the record for most runs scored by a team in a single game is 36, set by the Chicago Colts against the Louisville Colonels on June 29, 1897. The modern-day record of 30 was set on August 22, 2007, by the Texas Rangers against the Baltimore Orioles in the first game of a doubleheader at Oriole Park; the Rangers scored 5 runs in the fourth inning, 9 in the sixth, 10 in the eighth, 6 in the ninth. On August 25, 1922, the highest-scorin
Brooks Calbert Robinson Jr. is an American former professional baseball player. He played his entire 23-year major league career for the Baltimore Orioles, which still stands as the record for the longest career spent with a single team in major league history, he threw right-handed, though he was a natural left-hander. Nicknamed "The Human Vacuum Cleaner" or "Mr. Hoover", he is considered one of the greatest defensive third basemen in major league history, he won 16 consecutive Gold Glove Awards during his career, tied with pitcher Jim Kaat for the second-most all-time for any player at any position. Robinson was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1983. Robinson was born in Arkansas, to Brooks Calbert and Ethel Mae Robinson, his father worked for Colonial Bakery in Little Rock and became a captain with the Little Rock Fire Department. His mother worked for Sears Roebuck & Company and in the controller's office at the state capitol, his father played second base for a semi-pro team. Young Brooks Robinson Jr. delivered the Arkansas Gazette on his bicycle and operated the scoreboard and sold soft drinks at Lamar Porter Field.
After he graduated from Little Rock High School on May 27, 1955, where he was scouted for the Arkansas Razorbacks baseball program in Fayetteville, he played in South America in 1955 and in Cuba in 1957. In the offseason of 1956–1957, again in 1958, he attended two winter semesters at Little Rock University, majoring in business, he went into the army in 1959, joining the Arkansas National Guard right before he was to be drafted into the United States Army. Robinson was signed by the Orioles as an amateur free agent in 1955, he made his first appearance on September 17, 1955 at Memorial Stadium against the Washington Senators, batting 6th in the lineup. He went 2-for-4 with an RBI, singling in the 4th off Chuck Stobbs for his first hit while driving in a run on a single in the eighth inning in the 3-1 win. In 1964, Robinson had his best season offensively, hitting for a.318 batting average with 28 home runs and led the league with 118 runs batted in, winning the American League Most Valuable Player Award.
In the American League MVP voting, he received 18 of the 20 first-place votes, with Mickey Mantle finishing second. In 1966, he was voted the All-Star Game Most Valuable Player, finished second to teammate Frank Robinson in the American League Most Valuable Player Award voting, as the Orioles went on to win the 1966 World Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers. In the 1970 post-season, Robinson hit for a.583 batting average in the 1970 American League Championship Series against the Minnesota Twins. In the 1970 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds, Robinson had a.429 batting average with 2 home runs. His performance won him the World Series MVP Award presented by SPORT, as well as the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. After the 1970 World Series, Cincinnati Reds manager Sparky Anderson quipped, "I'm beginning to see Brooks in my sleep. If I dropped this paper plate, he'd pick it up on one hop and throw me out at first."In his playing career, Robinson was selected for the All-Star team in 15 consecutive years and played in four World Series.
He compiled a.267 career batting average with 2,848 hits, 268 home runs and 1357 runs batted in. Robinson led the American League in fielding percentage a record 11 times, at the time of his retirement, his.971 career fielding average was the highest for a third baseman. His totals of 2870 games played at third base, 2697 career putouts, 6205 career assists, 8902 career total chances and 618 double plays were records for third basemen at the time of his retirement. Robinson's 23 seasons with one team set a new major league record. Only Yastrzemski, Hank Aaron and Stan Musial played more games for one franchise. Robinson, a slow baserunner hit into four triple plays during his career, a major league record, he commented, "I wouldn't mind seeing someone erase my record of hitting into four triple plays." He is the first player to start two triple plays in one season, as he did in 1973. Robinson made his final batting appearance on August 5, 1977 at Anaheim Stadium, pinch hitting for Mark Belanger in the top of the eighth inning.
He lined out in his one appearance before being replaced by Kiko Garcia. Robinson made his last appearance in the majors eight days at Memorial Stadium against the Oakland Athletics, he entered as a pinch hitter for Al Bumbry. When the Orioles started their team Hall of Fame and Frank Robinson were the first two men inducted. Following his retirement as a player, Brooks began a successful career as a color commentator for the Orioles' television broadcasts. In 1982, local television WMAR's on-air news team in Baltimore, Maryland went on strike and picketed the WMAR headquarters for the two months approaching the baseball season; when Robinson refused to cross the picket line, WMAR management reopened the negotiations and the strike ended the next day. At the conclusion of his final season in 1977, his jersey number 5 was retired by the Orioles. Robinson was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1983, one of only 16 players to have been honored on the first ballot. Considered among the greatest all-time Orioles and the man considered the greatest Baltimore Colts football player, Johnny Unitas, had plaques in their honor in the lobby of Baltimore's Memorial Stadium.
When the Orioles playe
History of the Philadelphia Athletics
The Oakland Athletics, a current Major League Baseball franchise, originated in Philadelphia. This article details the history of the Philadelphia Athletics, from 1901 to 1954, when they moved to Kansas City. See also: Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame The Western League had been renamed the American League in 1900 by league president Bancroft Johnson, declared itself the second major league in 1901. Johnson eliminated some franchises in the West. Philadelphia had a new franchise created to compete with the National League's Philadelphia Phillies. Former catcher Connie Mack was recruited to manage the club. Mack in turn persuaded Phillies minority owner Ben Shibe as well as others to invest in the team, which would be called the Philadelphia Athletics. Mack himself bought a 25% interest, while the remaining 25% was sold to Philadelphia sportswriters Sam Jones and Frank Hough; the new league recruited many of its players from the existing National League, persuading them to "jump" to the American League in defiance of their National League contracts.
One of the players who jumped to the new league was second baseman Nap Lajoie of the crosstown Phillies. He won the A. L.'s first batting title with a.426 batting average, still a league record. The Athletics and the American League received a setback when, on April 21, 1902, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court invalidated Lajoie's contract with the Athletics, ordered him back to the Phillies; this order, was only enforceable in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Lajoie was sold to Cleveland, but was kept out of road games in Philadelphia until the National Agreement was signed between the two leagues in 1903. In the early years, the A's established themselves as one of the dominant teams in the new league, winning the A. L. pennant six times, winning the World Series in 1910, 1911, 1913. They won over 100 games in 1910 and 1911, 99 games in 1914; the team was known for its "$100,000 Infield", consisting of Stuffy McInnis, Eddie Collins, Jack Barry, Frank "Home Run" Baker as well as pitchers Eddie Plank and Chief Bender.
Rube Waddell was a major pitching star for the A's in the early 1900s. According to Lamont Buchanan in The World Series and Highlights of Baseball, the A's fans were fond of chanting, "If Eddie Plank doesn't make you lose / We have Waddell and Bender all ready to use!" Plank holds the franchise record for career victories, with 284. In 1909, the A's moved into Shibe Park; this remains the second and last time in franchise history where a new ballpark was built for the A's. In the decade, Mack bought the 25% of the team's stock owned by Jones and Hough to become a full partner with Shibe. Shibe ceded Mack full control over the baseball side while retaining control over the business side. In 1914, the Athletics lost the 1914 World Series to the "Miracle Braves" in a four-game sweep. Mack sold or released most of the team's star players soon after. In his book To Every Thing a Season, Bruce Kuklick points out that there were suspicions that the A's had thrown the Series, or at least "laid down" in protest of Mack's frugal ways.
Mack himself alluded to that rumor years but debunked it. He claimed that the team was torn by numerous internal factions, was distracted by the allure of a third major league, the Federal League; the Federal League had been formed to begin play in 1914. As the AL had done 13 years before, the new league raided existing AL and NL teams for players. Several of his best players, including Bender, had decided to jump before the World Series. Mack refused preferring to rebuild with younger players; the result was near-total collapse. The Athletics went from a 99–53 record and a pennant in 1914 to a record of 43–109 and last place in 1915, to 36–117 in 1916; the team would finish in last place every year through 1922 and would not contend again until 1925. Shibe died in 1922, his sons Tom and John took over the business side, leaving the baseball side to Mack. By this time Mack had cemented his famous image of the tall and well-dressed man waving his players into position with a scorecard. Unlike most managers, he chose to wear a high-collar shirt, ascot scarf, a straw boater hat instead of a uniform, a look that he never changed for the rest of his life decades after it went out of fashion.
This came at the price of Mack not being allowed on-field during games per league regulations. By the latter half of the 1920s, Mack had assembled one of the most feared batting orders in the history of baseball featuring three future Baseball Hall of Fame members. At its heart were Al Simmons, who batted.334 and hit 307 home runs over his major league career, Jimmie Foxx, who hit 30 or more home runs in 12 consecutive seasons and drove in more than 100 runs in 13 consecutive years, Mickey Cochrane, one of the best-hitting catchers in baseball history. A fourth future Hall of Fame member was pitcher Lefty Grove, who led the American League in strikeouts seven years in a row, had the league's lowest earned run average a record nine times. In 1927 and 1928, the Athletics finished second to the New York Yankees won pennants in 1929, 1930 and 1931, winning the World Series in 1929 and 1930. In each of the three years, the Athletics won over 100 games. While the 1927 New York Yankees, whose batting order was known as the Murderers' Row, are remembered as one of the best teams in baseball history, the Athlet
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
Frederick Tenney was an American professional baseball player whose career spanned 20 seasons, 17 of which were spent with the Major League Baseball Boston Beaneaters/Doves/Rustlers and the New York Giants. Described as "one of the best defensive first basemen of all time", Tenney is credited with originating the 3-6-3 double play and originating the style of playing off the first base foul line and deep, as modern first basemen do. Over his career, Tenney compiled a batting average of.294, 1,278 runs scored, 2,231 hits, 22 home runs, 688 runs batted in in 1,994 games played. Born in Georgetown, Tenney was one of the first players to enter the league after graduating college, where he served as a left-handed catcher for Brown University. Signing with the Beaneaters, Tenney spent the next 14 seasons with the team, including a three-year managerial stint from 1905–1907. In December 1907 Tenney was traded to the Giants as a part of an eight-man deal. After retiring from baseball, Tenney worked for the Equitable Life Insurance Society before his death in Boston on July 3, 1952.
Tenney was born in Georgetown, the third of five children to Charles William and Sarah Lambert Tenney. Charles Tenney attended Dummer Academy from 1850 to 1853, served for the 50th Massachusetts Regiment in the Civil War, where he nearly died due to "intense suffering". Growing up, Fred led his class in sketching, he started playing baseball around 1880. In 1892, Tenney played his first professional game for the Binghamton Bingos of the Eastern League, going 1 for 4 with a single, he played as Brown University's catcher for the 1894 seasons. In 1894, the team were selected as national champions by Harper's Weekly; the night of his senior dinner, Tenney received a telephone message from Frank Selee, the manager of the Beaneaters, asking him to play a game for the team at catcher, due to the injuries of other players. In his MLB debut on June 16, 1894, Tenney had to be removed from the game in the fifth inning due to a fractured finger on his throwing hand from a foul tip. After Tenney had his finger addressed, James Billings, an owner of the Beaneaters, offered him a contract worth US$300 a month from that day.
Tenney writing about the day, stated: I thought they were trying to have a little joke with me, I concluded that I could do a little kidding myself. So I thought. I screwed up my courage and asked Mr. Billings whether, if I signed the contract at once, I could get some advance money, he asked how much I wanted, I thought I would mention a big sum in order to call their bluff good and strong. So I said $150, he consulted with Mr. Conant, another Director, said that I could have the money all right, asked me how I would like to have it– cash or check. I replied that I would take half cash and half in check, he wrote out a check for $75, counted out $75 in cash, shoved the contract over to me to sign, laying the cash and check beside it, he returned to the team a month and finished the year batting.395 in 27 games. The following season, Tenney moved to the outfield due to an erratic throwing arm behind the plate, according to manager Selee. For the season, he hit.272 in 49 games, while playing minor league baseball for the New Bedford Whalers.
In 1896, Tenney again played outfield. In 1897, Tenney moved to first base to replace the aging Tom Tucker. According to Alfred Henry Spink, within two weeks of the move it was evident that Tenney had become "one of the finest first sackers that the game seen." On June 14, 1897, in a game against the Cincinnati Reds, Tenney turned the first 3-6-3 double play in MLB history. Offensively, Tenney led MLB in plate appearances and tied Duff Cooley, Gene DeMontreville, George Van Haltren for the lead in at bats as the Boston club became National League champions with a 93–39 record. Boston again won the NL in 1898. In 1899 he collected 209 hits, fifth most in MLB, recorded 17 triples, good for fourth best in MLB. In 1900 Tenney, at age 28, batted.279 over 112 games played. He began a streak of seven consecutive seasons where he led the NL in assists in 1901, he was suspended for ten games for fighting Pittsburgh Pirates manager Fred Clarke in May 1902, finished the 1902 season with the second most sacrifice hits in the majors, to go along with a.315 average.
Throughout the 1901–1902 seasons, Tenney received contract offers worth up to $7,000 from St. Louis and Detroit. For the season, he hit.313, with 41 RBIs and three home runs, as he led his team in walks and had the best on-base percentage mark on the squad. In 1904, Tenney again led his team in walks and on-base percentage, as he tied for the team lead in runs with Ed Abbaticchio, he did not receive additional pay. In 1905, Tenney tried to sign William Clarence Matthews, an African-American middle infielder from Harvard University, to a contract. Tenney retracted his offer due to pressure from MLB players. Defensively, he led the
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Herman Long (baseball)
Herman C. Long was an American shortstop in Major League Baseball who played for the Kansas City Cowboys, Boston Beaneaters, New York Highlanders, Detroit Tigers, Philadelphia Phillies. Long was known for his great fielding range as a shortstop, but he holds the MLB record for career errors. Born in 1866, Long was a native of Chicago, his parents are thought to have been German immigrants. Little else is known about Long's life up until he began playing minor league baseball in 1887 for a team in Arkansas City, Kansas, he played in Kansas City in 1888. After that season, the Kansas City team merged with the major league team in the same city. Long played for the Kansas City Cowboys, Boston Beaneaters, New York Highlanders, Detroit Tigers, Philadelphia Phillies. Between 1904 and 1906, Long was a player-manager in minor league baseball. Long holds the major league record for most errors in a career. Only three other players have made more than 1,000 errors in their careers: Bill Dahlen, Deacon White, Germany Smith.
Long's total includes a record 1,070 errors committed while playing shortstop. Despite the errors, Long fielded better than the league average for a shortstop during his career, he was considered an excellent fielder by his contemporaries; the seeming contradiction between a high error rate and exceptional fielding skill is attributable to the fact that Long had a greater fielding range than most shortstops. He could get to balls batted to his right that other fielders would not have reached. There was another major factor which contributed to Long's large total of career errors: the comparative abundance of errors during gameplay, in 19th century professional baseball. In a typical game played in the 1800s, each team committed about ten errors. Of the three other players charged with over 1,000 lifetime errors, Deacon White is in Baseball's Hall of Fame, Bill Dahlen is perennially considered for enshrinement by MLB's Veteran's Committee. Tim Murnane, a former player-turned-baseball writer, wrote in 1894, "Long is the most brilliant ball player on the field at the present time."
In 1903, pitcher Kid Nichols said of Long, "Herman Long is the greatest shortstop of them all. You can speak of your Jennings, write of your Glasscocks all you want, but this man Long at his best had them beat by a city block. Jennings was a brilliant ball player, without doubt one of the leading players of the age, but this talk of his being better than Herman Long is all rot." In August 1909, The New York Times reported that Long was sick. Several months earlier, he had moved to Denver, because he was suffering from a lung condition, he died of tuberculosis the next month in Denver. List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs batted in leaders List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders List of Major League Baseball players to hit for the cycle List of Major League Baseball annual home run leaders List of Major League Baseball annual runs scored leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Herman Long at Find a Grave