Billy Wayne Grammer was an American country music singer and accomplished guitar player. He recorded the million-selling "Gotta Travel On", which made it onto both the country and pop music charts in 1959. Grammer would become a regular performer on the Grand Ole Opry designing, marketing his namesake guitar after co-founding a guitar company, in Nashville, Tennessee. Grammer, the eldest of 13 children, was born in Illinois, his father was a musician. He served in the US Army during World War II, upon discharge worked as an apprentice toolmaker at the Washington Naval gun factory at Shop No. 20. Grammer married his high school girlfriend, Ruth Burzynski, in 1944. Shortly after the war ended, 18,000 of a 24,000-strong workforce were laid off, including Grammer; the couple returned to their home in Illinois. When Grammer and his wife were living in Washington D. C. he was hired by Connie B. Gay as a singer in support of Gay's WARL radio program: Town and Country Time; when Gay was preparing to replace the session guitarist, Grammer demonstrated his own guitar prowess, was re-contracted in a dual-role as both singer and lead guitarist.
After being signed by Monument Records in Nashville, Grammer scored a big hit with the million-selling single: "Gotta Travel On", written by David Lazar, Larry Ehrlich, Paul Clayton and Tom Six. The song peaked at No. 4 on the U. S. Pop Singles chart and No. 5 on the Hot Country Songs chart in 1959. That same year, he became a regular cast member on the Grand Ole Opry. Grammer named his band after his most notable hit as The Travel On Boys. "Gotta Travel On" was used as the opening song by Buddy Holly on his final tour in January and February 1959, which ended in tragedy. He recorded the first chart version of Bobby Bare's "Detroit City", entitled "I Wanna Go Home", it hit the Billboard country chart in early 1963. Grammer founded RG&G Company in 1965 with Clyde Reid and J. W. Gower. RG&G made the Grammer guitar from 1965 until 1968, when a fire consumed the factory in downtown Nashville; the company was sold to Ampeg, a new factory was erected down the street from the old one. The company was renamed Grammer Guitar, Inc..
GGI produced the Grammer guitar until 1970. His guitar was installed into the Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville on March 1, 1969. On May 15, 1972, Grammer and the Travel on Boys played at the rally in Laurel, Maryland where Alabama governor George Wallace was shot. Grammer and his band played the "Under the Double Eagle" march as Wallace mounted the stage to speak. After he spoke, Wallace mingled with the crowd, Arthur Bremer shot a concealed handgun at the presidential candidate; the outcome was Wallace's paralysis. "I've said all along, if they wanted to do something like this, they do it under these circumstances," Grammer said, after the incident. Grammer delivered the invocation for the Grand Ole Opry House opening on March 16, 1974. In 1990, he was inducted into the Illinois Country Music Hall of Fame, along with Tex Williams, Lulu Belle and Scotty, Patsy Montana. Grammer suffered from the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa and became blind. On February 27, 2009, he was honored by the Grand Ole Opry for his 50-year membership.
Grammer died on August 10, 2011, aged 85, at Benton Hospital, where he had been receiving treatment for a long-term illness, which included suffering a heart attack seven months earlier. Billy Grammer Interview - NAMM Oral History Library
Plainview is a city in and the county seat of Hale County, United States. The population was 22,194 at the 2010 census. Plainview is located on the Llano Estacado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.8 square miles, all land. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Plainview has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,336 people, 7,626 households, 5,666 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,621.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,471 housing units at an average density of 614.8/sq mi. The racial distribution within the city was 63.21% White, 5.87% African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 26.53% from other races, 2.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.83% of the population. There were 7,626 households of which 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families.
22.7% of all households were composed of single individuals, 11.2% were households of persons 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 2.82, the average family size is four. In the city, the population was 31.0% under the age of 18, 11.5% aged from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income per household was $31,551, the median income per family was $35,215. Males had a median income of $26,434 versus $19,888 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,791. About 15.0% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18, 14.8% of those aged 65 or over. In 2009, the Texas Department of State Health Services ordered the recall of all products produced by a processing facility near Plainview owned by Peanut Corporation of America.
Rodents and feathers in the plant had been found in the facilities products. The closure was not related to closures PCA plants due to salmonella concerns. A Cargill beef processing plant the largest employer in the city, closed in 2013 due to lack of incoming animals. A result of the 2010–2012 drought; the closure created challenges for the city, as an estimated 2,300 employees and their families relocated. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Region V office is located in Plainview; the current Region V headquarters opened in 1996 in a former Bank of America building. The city is served by the Plainview Independent School District, which enrolls 5,585 students as of 2018; the district attracts transfer students from surrounding school districts. Due to the PISD's size compared to surrounding districts, many of the district's schools provide extensive support for disabled students and students with special needs not available at other schools outside the district, in addition to more specialized courses.
The mascot for the Plainview High School is a grey English bulldog nicknamed "Big Red". Wayland Baptist University, a private four-year coeducational Baptist university, is based in the city. In 1908, when the school was founded, the campus was more than one mile from the city limit; the Museum of the Llano Estacado, which opened in 1976, is located on the university grounds. The museum is home to a permanent exhibit featuring artifacts from the Plainview Site, fossilized remains of a mammoth known as the Imperial Mammoth. An extension of South Plains College serves the residents of the city; the Plainview Herald the Plainview Daily Herald, is the city's only remaining newspaper. It was acquired from local owners by Hearst Communications in 1979, it is among the oldest newspapers in Texas still in publication. It became computer paginated in 1994, the same year it began publishing an online edition. Customers in the city are served by the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, which reports on news from Plainview.
Eight radio stations broadcast from Plainview, including KVOP, the oldest radio station in the city. KVOP's callsign meant "Voice of Plainview"; the city is within the Lubbock television market. Due to the terrain, television stations based in Amarillo can be received over-the-air, either directly or via repeaters north of the city. Prior to 1993 all stations broadcast from Lubbock and Amarillo markets were retransmitted by the local cable operator. After changes were made to must-cary rules by the FCC only stations from Lubbock are available to cable and digital satellite customers in the city; the Steve Martin film Leap of Faith was filmed around Plainview. Several residents were hired as extras for the film; until 2016, a water tower east of downtown bore the name and mascot of the fictional town in which the movie is based: Rustwater Bengals. An episode of Vice falsely portrayed the city as a ghost town in a documentary feature called "Deliver Us from Drought", despite 22,000 residents still living in the city at the time of filming.
The feature used locations in the city, many of, closed or abandoned for years, as examples of rural flight following a drought crisis. The Vice feature followed the template of a documentary short "Dry and Drier in West Texas", broadcast on Showtime. Both documentaries portrayed residents of the city as excessively religious. James H. Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics and other companies. Jimmy Dean, singer and entrepreneur, host of The Jimmy Dean Show. Bob Dorough
Roy Linwood Clark was an American singer and musician. He is best known for having hosted Hee Haw, a nationally televised country variety show, from 1969 to 1997. Clark was an important and influential figure in country music, both as a performer and in helping to popularize the genre. During the 1970s, Clark guest-hosted for Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show and enjoyed a 30-million viewership for Hee Haw. Clark was regarded and renowned as a guitarist, banjo player, fiddler, he was skilled in the traditions of many genres, including classical guitar, country music, Latin music and pop. He had hit songs as a pop vocalist, his instrumental skill had an enormous effect on generations of bluegrass and country musicians, he became a member of the Grand Ole Opry in 1987, and, in 2009, was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. He published his autobiography, My Life in Spite of Myself, in 1994. Clark was born April 1933, in Meherrin, Virginia, he was one of five children born to Lillian Clark.
His father was a tobacco farmer. He spent his childhood in Meherrin and New York City, his father having moved the family to take jobs during the Great Depression; when Clark was 11 years old, his family moved to a home on 1st Street SE in the Washington Highlands neighborhood of Washington, D. C. after his father found work at the Washington Navy Yard. Clark's father was a semi-professional musician who played banjo and guitar, his mother played piano; the first musical instrument Clark played was a four-string cigar box with a ukelele neck attached to it, which he picked up in elementary school. Hester Clark taught his son to play guitar when Roy was 14 years old, soon Clark was playing banjo and mandolin. "Guitar was my real love, though," Clark said. "I never copied anyone, but I was influenced by them. I just loved his swing style and tone." Clark found inspiration in other local D. C. musicians. "One of the things that influenced me growing up around Washington, D. C. in the'50s was. And I used to go in and just steal them blind.
I stole all their licks. It wasn't until years that I found out that a lot of them used to cringe when I'd come in and say,'Oh, no! Here comes that kid again.'" As for his banjo style, Clark said in 1985, "When I started playing, you didn't have many choices to follow, Earl Scruggs was both of them." Clark won the National Banjo Championship in 1947 and 1948, toured with a band when he was 15. Clark was shy, turned to humor as a way of easing his timidity. Country-western music was derided by Clark's schoolmates, leaving him isolated. Clowning around helped, he felt, helped him to fit in again. Clark used humor as a musician as well, it was not until the mid 1960s that he felt confident enough to perform in public without using humor in his act; the D. C. area had a number of country-western music venues at the time. Duet acts were in favor, for his public performance debut Clark teamed up with Carl Lukat. Lukat was the lead guitarist, Clark supported him on rhythm guitar. In 1949, at the age of 16, Clark made his television debut on WTTG, the DuMont Television Network affiliate in Washington, D.
C. At 17, he made his first appearance on the Grand Ole Opry for having won his second national banjo title. By this time, he had begun to play twelve-string guitar, he toured the country for the next 18 months playing backup guitar for David "Stringbean" Akeman, Annie Lou and Danny and Oscar, Hal and Velma Smith during the week, working county fairs and small town theaters. On weekends, these acts teamed up with country music superstars like Red Foley or Ernest Tubb and played large venues in big cities, he earned $150 a week. At the age of 23, Clark obtained his pilot's certificate and bought a 1953 Piper Tri-Pacer, which he flew for many years; this plane was raffled off on December 2012, to benefit the charity Wings of Hope. He owned other planes, including a Mitsubishi MU-2, Stearman PT-17 and Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond 1A business jet. After the tour, Clark returned to performing at local country-music venues, he recorded singles for 4 Star Records. Rising country music star Jimmy Dean asked Clark to join his band, the Texas Wildcats, in 1954.
Clark was the lead guitarist, made appearances on Dean's "Town and Country Time" program on WARL-AM and on WMAL-TV. Clark competed in 1956 on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, a variety show airing on CBS, it was his first network television appearance, he came in second. Dean, who valued punctuality among musicians in his band, fired Clark for habitual tardiness in 1957. Clark left D. C. and never lived there again. During his D. C. years, Clark said. Rather, he played when he liked and what made him feel good, never intended to begin a recording career or to perform on television. In the spring of 1959, Clark appeared on George Hamilton IV's short-lived television series in Washington, D. C. In 1960, Clark went out to Las Vegas, where he worked as a guitarist in a band led by former West Coast Western Swing bandleader-comedian Hank Penny. During the early 1960s, he was prominent in the backing band for Wanda Jackson—known as the Party Timers—during the latter part of her rockabilly period. During Jack Paar's temporary absence from The Tonight Show in early 1960, Jimmy Dean was asked to guest-host the program.
Dean asked Clark to appear on the last night of his guest-host stint
Mitchell William Miller was an American oboist, record producer and record industry executive. He was involved in all aspects of the industry as a conductor, artist and repertoire man. Miller was one of the most influential people in American popular music during the 1950s and early 1960s, both as the head of A&R at Columbia Records and as a best-selling recording artist with an NBC television series, Sing Along with Mitch. A graduate of the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester in the early 1930s, Miller began his musical career as an accomplished player of the oboe and English horn, making numerous regarded classical and popular recordings, but he is best remembered as a choral conductor on television and as a recordings executive. Miller was born to a Jewish family in Rochester, New York, on July 4, 1911, his mother was Hinda Rosenblum Miller, a former seamstress, his father, Abram Calmen Miller, a Russian-Jewish immigrant wrought-iron worker. He had four siblings, two of whom and Joseph, survived him.
Miller took up the oboe at first as a teenager, because it was the only instrument available when he went to audition for his junior high school orchestra. A talented oboist, at age fifteen he played with the Syracuse Symphony Orchestra and after graduating from East High School he attended the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, where he met and became a lifelong friend of his future boss Goddard Lieberson, who became President of the CBS music group in 1956. Along with other Eastman musicians he can be heard on the soundtrack of the 1933 Watson and Webber film Lot in Sodom. Alec Wilder was involved making the film. Miller graduated in 1932 with honors. After graduating from Eastman, Miller played with the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and moved to New York City, where he was a member of the Alec Wilder Octet, as well as performing with David Mannes, Andre Kostelanetz, Percy Faith, George Gershwin, Charlie Parker, under Frank Sinatra's baton for the 1946 recording of "The Music of Alec Wilder".
Miller played the prominent English horn part in the Largo movement of Dvořák's New World Symphony in a famous 1947 recording conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Miller gave the American premiere of Richard Strauss's Oboe Concerto in a 1948 radio broadcast. Strauss had assigned rights to the premiere to John de Lancie, who gave him the idea for the concerto while stationed near Strauss's villa in Garmisch. However, since meeting the composer, de Lancie had won a section oboist position with the Philadelphia Orchestra, as a junior player to the orchestra's principal oboist Marcel Tabuteau was unable to fulfill Strauss's wishes. De Lancie gave the rights for the premiere to Miller; as part of the CBS Symphony, Miller participated in the musical accompaniment on the infamous 1938 radio broadcast of Orson Welles's Mercury Theater on the Air production of The War of the Worlds. Miller contributed oboe and English horn solos on the Norman Granz-produced "Charlie Parker With Strings" sessions released in 1950 on the Mercury label and reissued on CD by Verve.
Miller was the only other soloist on the sessions other than Parker. Miller joined Mercury Records as a classical music producer and served as the head of Artists and Repertoire at Mercury in the late 1940s, joined Columbia Records in the same capacity in 1950; this was a pivotal position in a recording company, because the A&R executive decided which musicians and songs would be recorded and promoted by that particular record label. He defined the Columbia style through the early 1960s, signing and producing many important pop standards artists for Columbia, including Johnnie Ray, Percy Faith, Ray Conniff, Jimmy Boyd, Johnny Mathis, Tony Bennett, Guy Mitchell, in a fortuitous business move for all, enticed both Patti Page and Frankie Laine to join him at Columbia after their early successes at Mercury. After arriving at Columbia, he helped direct the careers of artists who were signed to the label, such as Doris Day, Dinah Shore and Jo Stafford. Miller discovered Aretha Franklin and signed her to the first major recording contract of her career.
When Ahmet Ertegun of Atlantic Records promised her artistic freedom to create records outside the pop mainstream in a more rhythm-and-blues-driven direction, she left Columbia after five years. Miller disapproved of rock'n' roll—one of his contemporaries described his denunciation of it as "The Gettysburg Address of Music"—and passed not only on Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly, who became stars on RCA and Coral but on The Beatles, creating a fortune in revenue for rival Capitol. Miller had offered Presley a contract, but balked at the amount Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, was asking. In defense of his anti-rock stance, he once told NME in January 1958: "Rock'n' roll is musical baby food: it is the worship of mediocrity, brought about by a passion for conformity." The one time that Miller was vetoed over his dislike for rock'n' roll was when Bill Paley ordered him to sign the inter-racial Mexican rock group Los Nómadas since they could record rock records in both English and Spanish.
Producer Bob Stanley had found the group during a series of early 1954 "Mexican civil rights concerts" in East Los Angeles. Their lead guitarist Bill Aken was the only Caucasian in the Latino band. Although Mitch had once referred to the group as just "four arrogant little bastards," Miller softened his position regarding them when Paley's estimate of their record sales in Mexico proved to be accurate, it was because of his recomme
Big Bad John
"Big Bad John" is a country song performed by Jimmy Dean, who wrote and composed in collaboration with Roy Acuff. It was released in September 1961 and by the beginning of November it went to number one on the Billboard Hot 100, it won Dean the 1962 Grammy Award for Best Country & Western Recording, was nominated for the Grammy Award for Song of the Year. The song and its sequels tell a story typical of American folklore, reminiscent of Paul Bunyan or John Henry. Big Bad John was the title of a 1990 television movie starring Dean; the song tells the story of a mysterious and quiet miner who earned the nickname Big John because of his height and muscular physique. He came from New Orleans, with "a crashin' blow from a huge right hand", he killed a man over a Cajun Queen. One day, a support timber cracked at the mine; the situation looked hopeless until John "grabbed a saggin' timber, gave out with a groan / and like a giant oak tree just stood there alone" "gave a mighty shove", opening a passage and allowing the 20 other miners to escape the mine.
Just as the other miners were about to re-enter the mine with the tools necessary to save him, the mine collapsed and John was believed to have died in the depths of the mine. The mine itself was never reopened, but a marble stand was placed in front of it, with the words "At the bottom of this mine lies one hell of a man – Big John." Its 1962 sequel, "The Cajun Queen", describes the arrival of "Queenie", Big John's Cajun Queen, who rescues John from the mine and marries him. They have "110 grandchildren"; the sequel's events are more exaggerated than the first, extending the story into the realm of tall tales. In June 1962, the story continued with the arrival of "Little Bitty Big John", the flip side to "Steel Men" on Columbia 4-42483, learning about his father's act of heroism. In October 1961, Dottie West recorded a sequel to the song called "My Big John"; this song was told from the point of view of the "Cajun Queen" that drove John away – her search for him discovering about his death. In the US, "Big Bad John" spent five weeks at number one on the pop chart, two weeks on the country chart, 10 weeks on the Easy Listening chart.
It was a number-two hit in the United Kingdom. The song received a Grammy nomination for Record of the Year, while Dean's performance of the song earned him a nomination for Best Male Solo Vocal Performance, Dean won Grammy Award for Best Country & Western Recording. Dean's LP Big Bad John and Other Fabulous Songs and Tales, where the song first appeared, reached number 23 in the pop charts; the song was the B-side of "I Won't Go Huntin' with You Jake", but it ended up becoming much more popular than the latter. The song ranks as one of the best country songs of the 1960s, all time. Columbia Records was considering dropping Dean before the release of this million-selling single, as he had not had a hit in years. Dean wrote the beginnings of the song on a flight from New York to Nashville because he realized he needed a fourth song for his recording session. Roy Acuff helped him polish it; the inspiration for the character of Big John was an actor, John Minto, that Dean met in a summer stock play, Destry Rides Again, 6'5".
Dean grew to like the rolling sound of the phrase. Country pianist Floyd Cramer, hired to play piano on the song, came up with the idea to use a hammer and a piece of steel instead; this became a distinctive characteristic of the recording. There are several known recordings of the song by Dean. Notably, there are two different versions of the inscription on the marble stand in front of the mine; the original, "At the bottom of this mine lies one hell of a man--Big John", was deemed too controversial, so in the version, most heard on the radio, one could hear "At the bottom of this mine lies a big, big man--Big John" instead. The refrain was used to end the Jimmy Dean song "PT-109", referring to John F. Kennedy. Political candidates have run ads that parody Big Bad John, retaining the music while substituting lyrics that support their particular political bids. In Texas Senator John Cornyn's 2008 parody, he presented himself as a maverick politician, seeking a return to the Senate to fight to set things right.
"You see I'm from Texas and we do things quick / And the way this place is run is about to make me sick", the ad states. Several ads were released by Democrats refuting some of the claims made in the song. In the same year, the Democratic National Committee parodied the song in an ad that targeted presidential candidate John McCain; the ad dubbed McCain "Exxon John", while highlighting $2 million in contributions by Exxon-Mobil to McCain's campaign, as well as the supposed role of Big Oil lobbyists in his campaign. The song is used in the closing credits of the UK politics show This Week, whenever the show has discussed the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow, it is used to humorous effect due to Bercow's short stature and perceived weak control in Parliament. Country Yossi, an Orthodox Jewish composer and singer, parodied "Big Bad John" as "Big Bad Moish" on one of his children's albums. Cleveland DJ, Phil McLean, had a minor hit about a cowardly character, "Small Sad Sam", released in December 1961.
A French language translation of the song was made in Quebec Canada and named "G
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force was formed after the dissolution of the IJN; the Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet, it was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War. The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōgun of the Edo period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854.
This led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization; the navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being destroyed in World War II. Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became active in plundering the coast of China. Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.
In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy. Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu commissioned about 350 Red seal ships armed and incorporating some Western technologies for Southeast Asian trade. For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy of seclusion forbade contacts with the outside world and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained, with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese through Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea through intermediaries with Tsushima; the study of Western sciences, called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of Dejima in Nagasaki led to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution which allowed Japan to remain aware of naval sciences, such as cartography and mechanical sciences.
Seclusion, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions the nation possessed. Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to enter Japanese ports. A notable exception was during the Napoleonic wars. Frictions with foreign ships, started from the beginning of the 19th century; the Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving HMS Phaeton in 1808, other subsequent incidents in the following decades, led the shogunate to enact an Edict to Repel Foreign Vessels. Western ships, which were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling and the trade with China, began to challenge the seclusion policy; the Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the Opium War led the shogunate to repeal the law to execute foreigners, instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water. The shogunate began to strengthen the nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions, western knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at Dejima to reinforce Japan's capability to repel the foreigners.
Numerous attempts to open Japan ended in failure, in part to Japanese resistance, until the early 1850s. During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion, the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of Japan to international trade and interaction; this was soon followed by treaties with other powers. As soon as Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, began using it for training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki. Samurai such as the future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki were sent by the shogunate to study in the Netherlands for several years. In 1859 the